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Michelle Bedenbaugh, Rick McCosh, Justin Lopez, John Connors, Robert L Goodman, Stan Hileman
<br> Background: Neuronal intermediates that communicate estrogen and progesterone feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are essential for modulating reproductive cyclicity. Individually, kisspeptin and nitric oxide (NO) influence GnRH secretion. However, it is possible these two neuronal intermediates interact with one another to affect reproductive cyclicity. METHODS: We investigated the neuroanatomical relationship of one isoform of the enzyme that synthesizes NO, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to kisspeptin and GnRH in adult female rhesus monkeys and sheep using dual-label immunofluorescence...
June 21, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Elodie Haraux, Pierre Tourneux, Christelle Kouakam, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, Bernard Boudailliez, Andre Leke, Celine Klein, Karen Chardon
Although endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including pesticides) are thought to increase the risk of hypospadias, no compounds have been formally identified in this context. Human studies may now be possible via the assessment of meconium as a marker of chronic prenatal exposure. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not prenatal exposure to pesticides (as detected in meconium) constitutes a risk factor for isolated hypospadias. In a case-control study performed between 2011 and 2014 in northern France, male newborns with isolated hypospadias (n = 25) were matched at birth with controls (n = 58)...
June 18, 2018: Environment International
Zhiyong Yan, Shusheng Che, Yingbin Jiao, JianPeng Wang, Xingze Li, Chao Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are present in up to 0.5% of the general population. While CCMs have been considered congenital lesions, numerous reports have observed de novo formations in patients with the familial form of CCM and in patients after cranial radiotherapy. Outside of these circumstances, there is scant evidence as to the potential etiologies of CCM. We present a 48-year-old woman with a medical history of endometrial hyperplasia concomitant endometrial polyps demonstrating a large de novo CCM, which grew to a large size in a period of 20 months...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
J Kwiatek-Majkusiak, M Geremek, D Koziorowski, R Tomasiuk, S Szlufik, A Friedman
Hepcidin is an essential hormone responsible for the systemic metabolism of iron and simultaneously belongs to the family of the protein mediators of the acute inflammatory response, primarily induced in response to interleukin 6. It can therefore be regarded as a link between the oxidative stress processes, where iron plays an important role, and the processes of neuroinflammation - both considered to be responsible for the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. We assessed the serum level of pro-hepcidin in patients with Parkinson's disease treated only pharmacologically and those treated additionally with deep brain stimulation (DBS) as compared to the control group...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Bahadir Batar, Isil Bavunoğlu, Yalcin Hacioglu, Mahir Cengiz, Tuba Mutlu, Serap Yavuzer, Hakan Yavuzer, Dilek Cuhadar Ercelebi, Duygu Erhan, Selin Unal, Aydin Tunckale, Mehmet Guven
TMPRSS6 gene mutations can result in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and cause an increased iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, levels. TMPRSS6 encodes a serine protease, matriptase-2, which functions as negative regulatory protein of hepcidin transcription. Thus, TMPRSS6 variations might be risk factors for IDA. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of rs855791, rs4820268, rs5756506, rs2235324, rs2413450, rs2111833, rs228919, and rs733655 SNPs in TMPRSS6 gene with IDA susceptibility and iron-related clinical parameters...
June 18, 2018: Gene
Hao Chen, Xiaopeng Zhang, Xudong Jia, Zhaoping Liu
Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis is generally recognized superior to generate a point of departure (PoD) to conduct risk assessment on environmental toxicants, comparing with the traditionally employed no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) methods. However, only a few studies compared the two on producing PoD of thyroid toxicity caused by environmental chemicals. Here, we presented BMD analyses on several thyroid toxicity endpoints caused by a model chemical - propylthiouracil (PTU)...
June 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Emmanuelle Noirrit-Esclassan, Marion Dupuis, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Anne Briaux, Cendrine Cabou, Cedric Garcia, Olivier Lairez, Jean-Michel Foidart, Bernard Payrastre, Jean-François Arnal
Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver, and the physiological role of this hormone is unknown. Interestingly, E4 was recently evaluated in preclinical and phase II-III clinical studies in combination with a progestin, with the advantage to not increase the circulating level of coagulation factors, at variance to oral estradiol or ethinylestradiol. Here, we evaluated the effect of E4 on hemostasis and thrombosis in mouse. Following chronic E4 treatment, mice exhibited a prolonged tail-bleeding time and were protected from arterial and also venous thrombosis in vivo...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Todd K Parsons, Rachel N Pratt, Li Tang, Yue Wu
Steroid hormones play important roles in normal physiological functions and diseases. Sex steroids hormones are important in the biology and treatment of sex hormone-related cancer such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cells may take up steroids using multiple mechanisms. The conventionally accepted hypothesis that steroids cross cell membrane through passive diffusion has not been tested rigorously. Experimental data suggested that cells may take up sex steroid using an active uptake mechanism. 3 H-testosterone uptake by prostate cancer cells showed typical transporter-mediated uptake kinetic...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Dariusz Jakubas, Monika Kulpińska-Chamera, Olivier Chastel
Changes in corticosterone (CORT) and prolactin (PRL) levels are thought to provide complementary information on parental decisions in birds in the context of stressful situations. However, these endocrine mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated, appearing to vary among avian species without any clear pattern. Here, we examined CORT and PRL stress responses in a small Arctic seabird, the little auk (Alle alle). We analysed the levels of these hormones (baseline, and stress response, i.e. the change in the baseline in response to stress) with respect to the breeding phase (mid incubation and mid chick rearing) and the sex of the birds...
June 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Ross DeAngelis, Logan Dodd, Amanda Snyder, Justin S Rhodes
Fathering behavior is critical for offspring survival in many species across diverse taxa, but our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating paternal care is limited in part because of the few primarily paternal species among the common animal models. However, many teleosts display primarily paternal care, and among the teleosts, anemonefish species are particularly well suited for isolating molecular mechanisms of fathering as they perform parental care in isolation of many other typically competing behaviors such as territorial defense and nest building...
June 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Amarnath Challapalli, Steve M Edwards, Paul Abel, Stephen A Mangar
Background & purpose: The impact of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) occurring in prostate cancer (PC) patients whilst on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been extensively researched. This longitudinal study sought to assess the VMS and identify any predictive factors. Material & methods: Data from 250 PC patients on ADT were prospectively evaluated between January 10 and August 13 using a physician-directed questionnaire, to assess the impact of VMS. Parameters including height, weight, body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI), duration/type of ADT, co-morbidities and ethnicity were recorded...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Satoshi Kaneko, Xue Li
Men are much more likely than women to develop bladder cancer (BCa), but the underlying cause of this gender disparity remains poorly defined. Using sex-reversed mice, we show that the sex chromosome complement is an independent cause and, moreover, amplifies the biasing effects of sex hormones. We also show that the X-linked lysine demethylase 6A ( KDM6A ) is a sexually dimorphic gene. Wild-type but not catalytically dead KDM6A confers sustained tumor suppressor activity in vitro. Knockout of mouse Kdm6a reduces expression of Cdkn1a and Perp , canonical gene targets of the tumor suppressor p53 ...
June 2018: Science Advances
Xiaoying S Zhong, John H Winston, Xiuju Luo, Kevin T Kline, Syed Z Nayeem, Yingzi Cong, Tor C Savidge, Roderick H Dashwood, Don W Powell, Qingjie Li
Background & Aims: Early life adversity is considered a risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. We hypothesized that early life colonic inflammation causes susceptibility to aggravated overexpression of interleukin (IL)1β. Methods: We developed a 2-hit rat model in which neonatal inflammation (NI) and adult inflammation (AI) were induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Results: Aggravated immune responses were observed in NI + AI rats, including a sustained up-regulation of IL1β and other cytokines...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Qutuba G Karwi, Golam M Uddin, Kim L Ho, Gary D Lopaschuk
To maintain its high energy demand the heart is equipped with a highly complex and efficient enzymatic machinery that orchestrates ATP production using multiple energy substrates, namely fatty acids, carbohydrates (glucose and lactate), ketones and amino acids. The contribution of these individual substrates to ATP production can dramatically change, depending on such variables as substrate availability, hormonal status and energy demand. This "metabolic flexibility" is a remarkable virtue of the heart, which allows utilization of different energy substrates at different rates to maintain contractile function...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Iyad Khourdaji, Jacqueline Zillioux, Kevin Eisenfrats, Daniel Foley, Ryan Smith
The continued and rapid expansion of the Earth's population mandates the need for safe and effective measures of contraception. While a plethora of options exist for women, methods of contraception for the male partner are limited to condoms and vasectomy. The sequela of this discrepancy has led to the family planning burden falling disproportionately on the female partner. For the past several decades, extensive research has been undertaken exploring the feasibility of hormonal male contraception. This proposed method of contraception has focused on suppressing spermatogenesis by exploiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Hakhyun Ka, Heewon Seo, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han
The establishment of pregnancy is a complex process that requires a well-coordinated interaction between the implanting conceptus and the maternal uterus. In pigs, the conceptus undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes at the time of implantation and introduces various factors, including estrogens and cytokines, interleukin-1β2 (IL1B2), interferon-γ (IFNG), and IFN-δ (IFND), into the uterine lumen. In response to ovarian steroid hormones and conceptus-derived factors, the uterine endometrium becomes receptive to the implanting conceptus by changing its expression of cell adhesion molecules, secretory activity, and immune response...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Giulia Cossu, Julien Dimitriou, Jean-Philippe Brouland, Roy Thomas Daniel, Mahmoud Messerer
Pituicytomas are a rare form of indolent neoplasms, which typically present with visual disturbance and hypopituitarism. Complete resection by a trans-sphenoidal approach is the optimal treatment. Only 80 cases have been described thus far in the current literature and the present case is the first to describe the development of pituitary apoplexy in the context of a pituicytoma. A 77-year-old man presented with fatigue and clinical signs of hypogonadism and a sellar lesion was diagnosed at cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Miaomiao Zhao, Songpo Wang, Qi Li, Qing Ji, Piaoting Guo, Xiaowei Liu
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a well-known lncRNA associated with numerous diseases, particularly cancer, has received increased attention. The expression of MALAT1 was determined to be upregulated in numerous types of tumors and MALAT1 exhibited effects on tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The abnormal expression of MALAT1 was identified in almost in every organ of the digestive system. MALAT1 performed an important role in the pathological alterations of organs that are associated with sex hormones and several reproductive system cancers...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Somaia M Abdelmegeed, Sulma Mohammed
Animal models for examining human breast cancer (HBC) carcinogenesis have been extensively studied and proposed. With the recent advent of immunotherapy, significant attention has been focused on the dog as a model for human cancer. Dogs develop mammary tumors and other cancer types spontaneously with an intact immune system, which exhibit a number of clinical and molecular similarities to HBC. In addition to the spontaneous tumor presentation, the clinical similarities between human and canine mammary tumors (CMT) include the age at onset, hormonal etiology and course of the diseases...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Séphora Louyse Silva Aquino, Aline Tuane Oliveira da Cunha, Hermilla Torres Pereira, Erika Paula Silva Freitas, Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh, Josivan Gomes Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha Lima, Karine Cavalcanti Maurício Sena-Evangelista, Lucia Fátima Campos Pedrosa
Background: The risk of metabolic syndrome can be influenced by inadequate vitamin D levels, and exposure to sunlight is the main external source of vitamin D. The present study assessed the influence of environmental, biological, and nutritional factors in relation to seasonal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 180 individuals with metabolic syndrome aged between 18 and 80 years...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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