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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546567/thymic-homing-of-activated-cd4-t-cells-induces-degeneration-of-the-thymic-epithelium-through-excessive-rank-signaling
#1
Chen Yin, Xiao-Yan Pei, Hui Shen, Ya-Nan Gao, Xiu-Yuan Sun, Wei Wang, Qing Ge, Yu Zhang
Activated T cells have been shown to be able to recirculate into the thymus from the periphery. The present study was aimed to elucidate the functional consequences of thymic homing of activated T cells upon developing thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TEC). In the presence of activated T cells, especially CD4(+) T cells, T cell development was found to be inhibited in thymic organ cultures with markedly reduced cellularity. Thymic transplantation demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was most likely due to a defective microenvironment...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545567/cancer-immunotherapy-by-targeting-immune-checkpoints-mechanism-of-t-cell-dysfunction-in-cancer-immunity-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Hwei-Fang Tsai, Ping-Ning Hsu
Immune checkpoints or coinhibitory receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed death (PD)-1, play important roles in regulating T cell responses, and they were proven to be effective targets in treating cancer. In chronic viral infections and cancer, T cells are chronically exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This is often associated with deterioration of T cell function with constitutive activation of immune checkpoints, a state called 'exhaustion', which is commonly associated with inefficient control of tumors and persistent viral infections...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544524/increase-of-cells-expressing-pd-1-and-pd-l1-and-enhancement-of-ifn-%C3%AE-production-via-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-in-bovine-mycoplasmosis
#3
Shinya Goto, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Masateru Koiwa, Motoshi Tajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
INTRODUCTION: Bovine mycoplasma, chiefly Mycoplasma bovis, is a pathogen that causes pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, and otitis media in cattle. This pathogen exerts immunosuppressive effects, such as the inhibition of interferon production. However, the mechanisms involved in bovine mycoplasmosis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway in immunosuppression in bovine mycoplasmosis...
May 24, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542490/repeated-bouts-of-exhaustive-exercise-increase-circulating-cell-free-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-without-development-of-tolerance-in-healthy-men
#4
Robert Stawski, Konrad Walczak, Piotr Kosielski, Pawel Meissner, Tomasz Budlewski, Gianluca Padula, Dariusz Nowak
OBJECTIVE: Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men. METHODS: Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542357/the-nrf2-transcription-factor-plays-a-dual-role-in-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#5
C Gonzalez-Donquiles, J Alonso-Molero, T Fernandez-Villa, L Vilorio-Marqués, A J Molina, V Martín
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and is influenced by the interplay of various factors, including a very strong genetic component. For instance, incorrect mitochondrial biogenesis is correlated with increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Thus, it is important to understand the consequences of changes in both the expression and the correct function of the transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, namely NRF2. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to characterise the relationship between NRF2 and colorectal cancer by compiling data from an exhaustive literature search...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542147/restricting-the-induction-of-ngf-in-ovarian-stroma-engenders-selective-follicular-activation-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#6
Yuanlin He, Xiaoxu Peng, Tinghe Wu, Weijie Yang, Wenwen Liu, Jing Zhang, Yiping Su, Feifei Kong, Xiaowei Dou, Jing Li
In mammalian ovaries, primordial follicles remain in a quiescent state until activation by the surrounding microenvironment. Ovarian intervention, for example, ovarian cystectomy, ovarian wedge resection or laser drilling therapies for polycystic ovarian syndrome, has long been reported to change follicular development by an unknown mechanism(s). Herein, we established a murine model with partial ovarian resection of one ovary unilaterally, with the contralateral ovary undamaged. We found the injury accelerated follicular activation and development through the mTORC1 signaling pathway...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536100/depletion-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-with-a-csf-1r-kinase-inhibitor-enhances-antitumor-immunity-and-survival-induced-by-dc-immunotherapy
#7
Floris Dammeijer, Lysanne A Lievense, Margaretha E H Kaijen-Lambers, Menno van Nimwegen, Koen Bezemer, Joost P Hegmans, Thorbald van Hall, Rudi W Hendriks, Joachim G Aerts
New immunotherapeutic strategies are needed to induce effective anti-tumor immunity in all cancer patients. Malignant mesothelioma is characterized by a poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) is prominent in mesothelioma and is linked to immune suppression, angiogenesis and tumor aggressiveness. Therefore, TAM depletion could potentially reactivate anti-tumor immunity. We show that M-CSFR-inhibition using the CSF-1R kinase inhibitor PLX3397 (pexidartinib) effectively reduced numbers of TAMs, circulating nonclassical monocytes, as well as amount of neo-angiogenesis and ascites in mesothelioma mouse models, but did not improve survival...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530712/the-microrna-mir-31-inhibits-cd8-t-cell-function-in-chronic-viral-infection
#8
Howell F Moffett, Adam N R Cartwright, Hye-Jung Kim, Jernej Godec, Jason Pyrdol, Tarmo Äijö, Gustavo J Martinez, Anjana Rao, Jun Lu, Todd R Golub, Harvey Cantor, Arlene H Sharpe, Carl D Novina, Kai W Wucherpfennig
During infection, antigen-specific T cells undergo tightly regulated developmental transitions controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We found that the microRNA miR-31 was strongly induced by activation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) in a pathway involving calcium and activation of the transcription factor NFAT. During chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, miR-31-deficent mice recovered from clinical disease, while wild-type mice continued to show signs of disease...
May 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529635/synthesis-of-5-18-f-fluoro-%C3%AE-methyl-tryptophan-new-trp-based-pet-agents
#9
Benjamin C Giglio, Haiyang Fei, Mengzhe Wang, Hui Wang, Liu He, Huijuan Feng, Zhanhong Wu, Hongjian Lu, Zibo Li
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) plays a special role in the biology of various cancer types, because it breaks down the essential amino acid tryptophan for immune cell activation. Upregulation of IDO1 significantly correlates with the number of various T cell types in tumor tissues in melanoma and other cancers, suggesting that IDO expression is linked with effective and ineffective ('exhausted') immune response in cancer. Based on the reported IDO inhibitors (α-Methylated and indole-N-methylated tryptophan (Trp)), here we report the synthesis of potential IDO1 imaging agents through direct introduction of (18)F into the tryptophan aromatic ring...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#10
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#11
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522830/inhibition-of-endocytic-lipid-antigen-presentation-by-common-lipophilic-environmental-pollutants
#12
Manju Sharma, Xiang Zhang, Shuangmin Zhang, Liang Niu, Shuk-Mei Ho, Aimin Chen, Shouxiong Huang
Environmental pollutants as non-heritable factors are now recognized as triggers for multiple human inflammatory diseases involving T cells. We postulated that lipid antigen presentation mediated by cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) proteins for T cell activation is susceptible to lipophilic environmental pollutants. To test this notion, we determined whether the common lipophilic pollutants benzo[a]pyrene and diesel exhaust particles impact on the activation of lipid-specific T cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of CD1a and CD1d proteins, and the activation of CD1a- and CD1d-restricted T cells were sensitively inhibited by benzo[a]pyrene even at the low concentrations detectable in exposed human populations...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521021/satellite-cell-mediated-breast-muscle-regeneration-decreases-with-broiler-size
#13
M R Daughtry, E Berio, Z Shen, E J R Suess, N Shah, A E Geiger, E R Berguson, R A Dalloul, M E Persia, H Shi, D E Gerrard
Satellite cells (SCs) reside between the sarcolemma and basal lamina of muscle fibers and are the primary contributor of DNA for post-hatch muscle growth and repair. Alterations in SC content or properties by intrinsic and extrinsic factors can have detrimental effects on muscle health and function, and ultimately meat quality. We hypothesized that disrupted SC homeostasis may account in part for the increased breast myopathies observed in growing broilers. To test this hypothesis, we selected broilers with different body weights at comparable ages and studied SC characteristics in vitro and in vivo...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514308/emotional-exhaustion-induced-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-a-young-lady-a-care-compliant-case-report
#14
Yin-Ling Chen, Yong-Chao Qiao, Xin-Nan Song, Wei Ling, Hai-Lu Zhao, Xiao-Xi Zhang
RATIONALE: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) refers to an autoimmune disorder characterized with detectable islets antibodies in the early diagnosis and increased autoimmune beta-cell failure progression. Notably, this kind of diabetes seems to be confused with other phenotypic diabetes. PATIENT CONCERNS: A young woman suffered an emotional exhaustion-induced LADA, showing asthenia, polydipsia, polyuria, and visible weight loss. The patient emotionally ended a 14-year romantic relationship, leading to the emotional flooding...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511400/a-case-report-of-a-giant-cholesteatoma
#15
Neelam Sood, Binit Kumar Khandelia, Gitanjali Bugnait
Cholesteatoma is a well demarcated, non-neoplastic, temporal bone cystic lesion with extensive keratinisation. Keratoma and epidermoid cyst are other possibly more accurate names suggested to describe the same. It can be classified as congenital or acquired. Its management is often complicated by its tendency to recidivism/recurrence. Long standing cholesteatomas can be a precursor for squamous cell carcinoma. We hereby present a case of giant cholesteatoma in a 45-year-old female with radiological involvement of the left temporal region, periauricular region and infratemporal fossa with lytic destruction of left middle ear ossicles, mastoid and squamous part of temporal bone with intracranial extension...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509821/minimum-information-for-studies-evaluating-biologics-in-orthopaedics-mibo-platelet-rich-plasma-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Iain R Murray, Andrew G Geeslin, Ewan B Goudie, Frank A Petrigliano, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive approach to the evaluation of biologic therapies for musculoskeletal conditions is required to guide appropriate future use. Clinical studies evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are limited by inadequate reporting of scientific details critical to outcome. We developed minimum reporting requirements for clinical studies evaluating PRP and MSCs using Delphi consensus methods. METHODS: The need for consensus on the minimum reporting requirements for studies evaluating biologics was identified at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Research Society (AAOS/ORS) Biologic Treatments for Orthopaedic Injuries Symposium in 2015 and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank in 2015...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507545/clinical-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-rtel1-deficiency
#17
Carsten Speckmann, Sushree Sangita Sahoo, Marta Rizzi, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Axel Karow, Nina Kathrin Serwas, Marc Hoemberg, Natalja Damatova, Detlev Schindler, Jean-Baptiste Vannier, Simon J Boulton, Ulrich Pannicke, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, J J Verdu-Amoros, Holger Hauch, Wilhelm Woessmann, Gabriele Escherich, Eckart Laack, Liliana Rindle, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ekkehart Lausch, Christine Jandrasits, Brigitte Strahm, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan R Ehl, Charlotte Niemeyer, Kaan Boztug, Marcin W Wlodarski
Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507081/reversion-of-anergy-signatures-in-clonal-cd21low-b-cells-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-after-clearance-of-hcv-viremia
#18
Martina Del Padre, Laura Todi, Milica Mitrevski, Ramona Marrapodi, Stefania Colantuono, Massimo Fiorilli, Milvia Casato, Marcella Visentini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) by driving clonal expansion of IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells. These cells display both the features of anergy induced by continual engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR), such as high expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) and reduced lifespan, and of virus-specific exhaustion such as CD21(low) phenotype and defective response to ligation of BCR and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Usually MC regresses after eradication of HCV with interferon, whose immunomodulatory activity might contribute to this effect...
May 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506372/hepatic-progenitor-cells-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Matthias Van Haele, Tania Roskams
Liver regeneration is a fascinating and complex process with many medical implications. An important component of this regenerative process is the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC). These appealing cells are able to participate in the renewal of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes when the normal homeostatic regeneration is exhausted. Moreover, the HPC niche is of vital importance toward the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of the HPC. This niche provides a rich microenvironment for the regulation of the HPC, thanks to the intercellular secretion of molecules...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503304/clinico-pathologic-presentation-of-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-egyptian-patients-a-multidisciplinary-study
#20
Dalia Abd El-Kareem, Yosri M Akl, Gina A Nakhla, Ali A Elhindawi, Mahmoud A Eltorky
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a common diffuse parenchymal lung disease in Egypt which can be difficult to recognize due to the dynamic symptoms & associated environmental factors. METHODS: Forty-three Egyptian patients were enrolled in this study, presenting with dyspnea and cough, predominant ground-glass opacity (GGO) in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) where lung biopsy was needed to establish the diagnosis. RESULTS: The age range was 15 to 60 years...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
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