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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426660/exhaustive-search-of-linear-information-encoding-protein-peptide-recognition
#1
Abdellali Kelil, Benjamin Dubreuil, Emmanuel D Levy, Stephen W Michnick
High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426535/frailty-in-hiv-infected-people-a-new-risk-factor-for-bone-mineral-density-loss
#2
Sylvie Bregigeon, Anne Galinier, Olivia Zaegel-Faucher, Carla E Cano, Véronique Obry, Hélène Laroche, Sophie Trijau, Armelle Saout, Isabelle Poizot-Martin
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and frailty in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit where nearly 1,000 patients are monitored. METHODS: Subjects undergoing bone densitometry were proposed an evaluation of frailty using criteria of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Frailty markers (FM) were weight-loss, self-reported exhaustion, physical activity, grip strength, chair stands, and slow gait...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425847/form-ul-ation-of-adipocytes-by-lipids
#3
Kfir Lapid, Jonathan M Graff
Lipids have the potential to serve as bio-markers, which allow us to analyze and to identify cells under various experimental settings, and to serve as a clinical diagnostic tool. For example, diagnosis according to specific lipids that are associated with diabetes and obesity. The rapid development of mass-spectrometry techniques enables identification and profiling of multiple types of lipid species. Together, lipid profiling and data interpretation forge the new field of lipidomics. Lipidomics can be used to characterize physiologic and pathophysiological processes in adipocytes, since lipid metabolism is at the core of adipocyte physiology and energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424673/genome-scale-reconstruction-of-the-metabolic-network-in-oenococcus-oeni-to-assess-wine-malolactic-fermentation
#4
Sebastián N Mendoza, Pablo M Cañón, Ángela Contreras, Magdalena Ribbeck, Eduardo Agosín
Oenococcus oeni is the main responsible agent for malolactic fermentation in wine, an unpredictable and erratic process in winemaking. To address this, we have constructed and exhaustively curated the first genome-scale metabolic model of Oenococcus oeni, comprising 660 reactions, 536 metabolites and 454 genes. In silico experiments revealed that nutritional requirements are predicted with an accuracy of 93%, while 14 amino acids were found to be essential for the growth of this bacterial species. When the model was applied to determine the non-growth associated maintenance, results showed that O...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423678/influence-of-ipilimumab-on-expanded-tumour-derived-t-cells-from-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#5
Jon Bjoern, Rikke Lyngaa, Rikke Andersen, Lisbet Hölmich Rosenkrantz, Sine Reker Hadrup, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane
INTRODUCTION: Tumour infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) based adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a promising treatment for patients with advanced melanoma. Retrospective studies suggested an association between previous treatment with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies and long term survival after subsequent ACT. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies can induce favourable changes to be detected in TILs. RESULTS: Expanded T cells from Ipilimumab treated patients had a higher proportion of cells expressing CD27, intracellular CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421069/engineering-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-racing-in-solid-tumors-don-t-forget-the-fuel
#6
REVIEW
Melita Irving, Romain Vuillefroy de Silly, Kirsten Scholten, Nahzli Dilek, George Coukos
T-cells play a critical role in tumor immunity. Indeed, the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is a predictor of favorable patient prognosis for many indications and is a requirement for responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting programmed cell death 1. For tumors lacking immune infiltrate, or for which antigen processing and/or presentation has been downregulated, a promising immunotherapeutic approach is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. CARs are hybrid receptors that link the tumor antigen specificity and affinity of an antibody-derived single-chain variable fragment with signaling endodomains associated with T-cell activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#7
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419006/plasma-interferon-gamma-inducible-protein-10-ip10-level-associates-with-abnormal-memory-b-cells-phenotypes-in-perinatal-hiv-infection
#8
German A Contreras, James R Murphy, Gloria P Heresi
We demonstrate for perinatally HIV infected children and adolescents receiving cART and in good clinical status with respect to HIV disease that high concentrations of IP10 associate with increased exhausted memory B cells.
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414740/cryopreserved-human-aortic-root-allografts-arterial-wall-structural-changes-occurring-during-thawing
#9
Robert Novotny, Dasa Slizova, Jaroslav Hlubocky, Otakar Krs, Jaroslav Spatenka, Jan Burkert, Radovan Fiala, Petr Mitas, Pavel Mericka, Miroslav Spacek, Zuzana Hlubocka, Jaroslav Lindner
BACKGROUND: The aim of our experimental work was to assess morphological changes of arterial wall that arise during different thawing protocols of a cryopreserved human aortic root allograft (CHARA) arterial wall. METHODS: The experiment was performed on CHARAs. Two thawing protocols were tested: 1, CHARAs were thawed at a room temperature at +23°C; 2, CHARAs were placed directly into a water bath at +37°C. MICROSCOPIC SAMPLES PREPARATION: After fixation, all samples were washed in distilled water for 5 min, and dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (70, 85, 95, and 100%) for 5 min at each level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414300/pd-l1-serves-as-a-double-agent-in-separating-gvl-from-gvhd
#10
Todd V Brennan, Yiping Yang
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) represents a potentially curative treatment for a variety of hematologic malignancies due to the well-recognized graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma (GVL) effect that is mediated by donor-derived alloreactive T cells. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is mediated by the same T cells and remains a significant clinical problem associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In this issue of the JCI, Ni and colleagues used several murine models of GVHD to evaluate the effect of CD4+ T cell depletion on GVL versus GVHD and revealed that depletion of CD4+ T cells leads to the upregulation of PD-L1 by recipient tissues and donor CD8+ T cells...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414296/pd-l1-interacts-with-cd80-to-regulate-graft-versus-leukemia-activity-of-donor-cd8-t-cells
#11
Xiong Ni, Qingxiao Song, Kaniel Cassady, Ruishu Deng, Hua Jin, Mingfeng Zhang, Haidong Dong, Stephen Forman, Paul J Martin, Yuan-Zhong Chen, Jianmin Wang, Defu Zeng
Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interacts with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and the immunostimulatory molecule CD80 and functions as a checkpoint to regulate immune responses. The interaction of PD-L1 with CD80 alone has been shown to exacerbate the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whereas costimulation of CD80 and PD-1 ameliorates GVHD. Here we have demonstrated that temporary depletion of donor CD4+ T cells early after hematopoietic cell transplantation effectively prevents GVHD while preserving strong graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects in allogeneic and xenogeneic murine GVHD models...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412649/proinflammatory-effects-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-from-moderate-blend-concentrations-of-1st-and-2nd-generation-biodiesel-in-beas-2b-bronchial-epithelial-cells-the-fuelhealth-project
#12
Tonje S Skuland, Magne Refsnes, Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Marcin Kruszewski, Remigiusz Mruk, Oddvar Myhre, Anna Lankoff, Johan Øvrevik
Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO2-emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412362/probing-the-acidic-residue-within-the-integrin-binding-site-of-laminin-511-that-interacts-with-the-metal-ion-dependent-adhesion-site-of-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-integrin
#13
Yukimasa Taniguchi, Shaoliang Li, Mamoru Takizawa, Eriko Oonishi, Junko Toga, Emiko Yagi, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi
Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins of basement membranes that interact with integrins in a divalent cation-dependent manner. Laminin-511 consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, of which three laminin globular domains of the α5 chain (α5/LG1-3) and a Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of chain γ1 (γ1-Glu1607) are required for binding to integrins. However, it remains unsettled whether the Glu residue in the γ1 tail is involved in integrin binding by coordinating the metal ion in the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of β1 integrin (β1-MIDAS), or by stabilizing the conformation of α5/LG1-3...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411887/from-christian-de-duve-to-yoshinori-ohsumi-more%C3%A2-to-autophagy-than-just-dining-at-home
#14
REVIEW
Margaret M Harnett, Miguel A Pineda, Perle Latré de Laté, Russell J Eason, Sébastien Besteiro, William Harnett, Gordon Langsley
Christian de Duve first coined the expression "autophagy" during his seminal work on the discovery of lysosomes, which led to him being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974. The term was adopted to distinguish degradation of intracellular components from the uptake and degradation of extracellular substances that he called "heterophagy". Studies until the 1990s were largely observational/morphological-based until in 1993 Yoshinori Oshumi described a genetic screen in yeast undergoing nitrogen deprivation that led to the isolation of autophagy-defective mutants now better known as ATG (AuTophaGy-related) genes...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409332/a-new-mouse-model-of-frailty-the-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-knockout-mouse
#15
Sathyaseelan S Deepa, Shylesh Bhaskaran, Sara Espinoza, Susan V Brooks, Anne McArdle, Malcolm J Jackson, Holly Van Remmen, Arlan Richardson
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that is an important public health problem for the older adults living in the USA. Although several methods have been developed to measure frailty in humans, we have very little understanding of its etiology. Because the molecular basis of frailty is poorly understood, mouse models would be of great value in determining which pathways contribute to the development of frailty. More importantly, mouse models would be critical in testing potential therapies to treat and possibly prevent frailty...
April 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408783/prokaryotic-expression-of-the-extracellular-domain-of-porcine-programmed-death-1-pd-1-and-its-ligand-pd-l1-and-identification-of-the-binding-with-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-vitro
#16
Yan-Ping Zhu, Feng Yue, Yong He, Peng Li, Yuan Yang, Yu-Ting Han, Yan-Fang Zhang, Guo-Peng Sun, Dong-Guang Guo, Mei Yin, Xuan-Nian Wang
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family, has 2 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Our previous studies showed that the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is up-regulated during viral infection in pigs. Extensive studies have shown that blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathways by anti-PD-L1 antibody or soluble PD-1 restores exhausted T-cells in humans and mice. In the present study the extracellular domains of PD-1 and PD-L1 were used to evaluate the binding of PD-1 and PD-L1 with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408179/5-year-expression-and-neutrophil-defect-repair-after-gene-therapy-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#17
Christian Mueller, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M Gruntman, Florie Borel, Emer P Reeves, Roberto Calcedo, Farshid N Rouhani, Anthony Yachnis, Margaret Humphries, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Louis Messina, Jeffrey D Chulay, Bruce Trapnell, James M Wilson, Noel G McElvaney, Terence R Flotte
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a monogenic disorder resulting in emphysema due principally to the unopposed effects of neutrophil elastase. We previously reported achieving plasma wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations at 2.5%-3.8% of the purported therapeutic level at 1 year after a single intramuscular administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 alpha-1 antitrypsin vector in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. We analyzed blood and muscle for alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and immune cell response...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405520/the-immune-molecular-landscape-of-the-b7-and-tnfr-immunoregulatory-ligand-receptor-families-in-head-and-neck-cancer-a-comprehensive-overview-and-the-immunotherapeutic-implications
#18
Yu-Pei Chen, Jian Zhang, Ya-Qin Wang, Na Liu, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Ying Sun, Jun Ma
The B7 family and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily play a vital role in the T-cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways, regulating T-cell activation, tolerance, and exhaustion; therapeutic modulation of these pathways is translated into effective new cancer treatments. Better understanding of the immune molecular landscapes of the B7 and TNFR families would guide head and neck immuno-oncology clinical research. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling of 10 B7 and 6 TNFR family members in head and neck cancer...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405501/pdl1-expression-is-a-poor-prognosis-factor-in-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#19
François Bertucci, Pascal Finetti, Delphine Perrot, Agnès Leroux, Françoise Collin, Axel Le Cesne, Jean-Michel Coindre, Jean-Yves Blay, Daniel Birnbaum, Emilie Mamessier
Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group of rare, heterogeneous, and aggressive tumors, with high metastatic risk and relatively few efficient systemic therapies. In the quest for new treatments, the immune system represents an attractive therapeutic target. Recently, PD1/PDL1 inhibitors showed very promising results in patients with solid tumors. PDL1 expression has been rarely studied in STS, in small series only, by using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and with non-concordant prognostic implications. Here, we have analyzed PDL1 mRNA expression in 758 clinical STS samples retrospectively profiled using DNA microarrays and RNAseq, and searched for correlations with clinicopathological variables including metastasis-free survival (MFS) after surgery...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401068/modulation-of-tim-3-expression-by-antigen-dependent-and-independent-factors-on-t-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#20
Jie Dong, Xiao-Fei Yang, Lin-Xu Wang, Xin Wei, An-Hui Wang, Chun-Qiu Hao, Huan-Jun Shen, Chang-Xing Huang, Ye Zhang, Jian-Qi Lian
T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) was up-regulated on viral specific T cells and contributed to T cells exhaustion during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, modulation of Tim-3 expression was still not fully elucidated. To evaluate the potential viral and inflammatory factors involved in the inductor of Tim-3 expression on T cells, 76 patients with chronic HBV infection (including 40 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 36 asymptomatic HBV carriers [AsC]) and 40 of normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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