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anticoagulant locking solution

Marcus V S João Luiz, Cristoforo Scavone, Carmen Tzanno
Introduction Poor blood flow rate (PF) is highly prevalent among CKD 5D patients with long-term central venous catheters. Heparin catheter lock solutions are commonly used to maintain catheter patency, however the incidence of PF remains high. The purpose of the CLOCK Trial was to evaluate two catheter lock solutions on reduction of PF incidence. Methods Seventy-five CKD 5D patients on high-efficiency hemodialysis at the Integrated Centre of Nephrology (Guarulhos, Brazil) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a lock solution combining minocycline 3 mg/mL with the anticoagulant/chelation agent EDTA 30 mg/mL (M-EDTA) or heparin 1000 IU/mL (H) or trisodium citrate 30% (TSC) vs...
September 26, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Damien Balestrino, Mercédès Quintana, Nicolas Charbonnel, Christiane Forestier, Claire Lartigue, Bertrand Souweine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interdialytic lock solutions should maintain catheter patency and prevent catheter infections. We aimed to determine in which conditions injectable anticoagulant agents (IAAs) combined with ethanol are compatible and to assess the antibiofilm activity of the selected combination and its effects on dialysis catheters (DC). METHODS: The solubility and compatibility of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), heparinoids and fondaparinux (50 to 2,500 U/mL) in 30 to 70% ethanol were determined by visual observation...
2016: PloS One
Ying Wang, Jessica N Ivany, Vlado Perkovic, Martin P Gallagher, Mark Woodward, Meg J Jardine
BACKGROUND: Catheter malfunction, including thrombosis, is associated with reduced dialysis adequacy, as well as an increased risk of catheter-related bacteraemia and mortality. The role of anticoagulants in the prevention of catheter malfunction remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to compare the prophylactic effect of different anticoagulant agents, preparations, doses and administration on the incidence of central venous haemodialysis catheter-related malfunction and sepsis in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)...
April 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laure Calvet, Michèle Piot, Claire Lartigue, Bertrand Souweine, Brigitte Tardy-Poncet
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is the most widely used interdialytic lock solution but has no anti-infectious properties. Ethanol at a content ≥40 %v/v eradicates experimental biofilm but has no anticoagulant properties. In contrast to UFH, enoxaparin (Enox) can be combined with 40 % ethanol without precipitation. Enoxaparin 400 UI/mL-40 % ethanol (Enox/Eth) has antibiofilm properties and therefore has promise as an alternative lock solution. This study assessed the anticoagulant properties of Enox/Eth...
2015: SpringerPlus
Kejian Huang, Minping Lu, Zhe Zhou, Cuiwu Lin, Ning Yang, Xiaofeng Liu, Dingji Zhu, Ping Liang, Wentao Qiao, Hongsen Li, Lu Li, Xiaoqing Huang
A new and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-LIT/MS) with on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE). The samples were treated with acetonitrile, followed by dilution, centrifugation, and filtration. The resulting solution was injected into the LC system directly and processed by on-line SPE column for enrichment and purification...
July 2015: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Jinrui Liu, Chang'an Wang, Hongfei Zhao, Jinghua Zhang, Jie Ma, Yuanyuan Hou, Hongbin Zou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Jinrui Liu, Chang'an Wang, Hongfei Zhao, Jinghua Zhang, Jie Ma, Yuanyuan Hou, Hongbin Zou
Locking of central venous catheters with heparin is an accepted practice to maintain catheter patency between dialysis sessions. However, this practice may cause other adverse reactions. Although many studies suggest benefits of other catheter lock solutions over heparin on these grounds, no consensus has been reached for clinical practice. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared antimicrobial-containing or citrate-alone catheter lock solutions with heparin alone in patients undergoing hemodialysis with central venous catheters...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Rui Wang, Ming-Guang Zhang, Ou Luo, Liu He, Jia-Xin Li, Yun-Jing Tang, Yan-Li Luo, Min Zhou, Li Tang, Zong-Xia Zhang, Hao Wu, Xin-Zu Chen
A prospective randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of heparin saline (HS) to those of normal saline (NS) as flushing and locking solutions for peripheral venous catheter (PVC) in decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC) patients.Patients with DLC at our institution between April 2012 and March 2013 were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the NS group received preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride as the flushing and locking solution, while the HS group received HS (50 U/mL)...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Muhammad Kanaa, Mark J Wright, Habib Akbani, Paul Laboi, Sunil Bhandari, Jonathan A T Sandoe
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) cause morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cathasept (tetra-sodium EDTA) solution has antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter prospective randomized controlled study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 117 maintenance HD patients with confirmed uncolonized tunneled HD catheters from 4 HD centers. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive Cathasept 4% locks (Cathasept group) or stayed with heparin 5,000 U/mL locks (heparin group), filled thrice weekly according to catheter lumen volume until the catheter was removed or for a maximum of 8 months...
December 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Godelieve Alice Goossens
Flushing and locking of intravenous catheters are thought to be essential in the prevention of occlusion. The clinical sign of an occlusion is catheter malfunction and flushing is strongly recommended to ensure a well-functioning catheter. Therefore fluid dynamics, flushing techniques, and sufficient flushing volumes are important matters in adequate flushing in all catheter types. If a catheter is not in use, it is locked. For years, it has been thought that the catheter has to be filled with an anticoagulant to prevent catheter occlusion...
2015: Nursing Research and Practice
Rémi Bruyère, Agnès Soudry-Faure, Gilles Capellier, Christine Binquet, Abdelouaid Nadji, Stephane Torner, Gilles Blasco, Maria Yannaraki, Saber Davide Barbar, Jean-Pierre Quenot
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is estimated at 10 to 20% in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and often requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). ICU mortality in AKI patients can exceed 50%. Venous catheters are the preferred vascular access method for AKI patients requiring RRT, but carry a risk of catheter thrombosis or infection. Catheter lock solutions are commonly used to prevent such complications. Heparin and citrate locks are both widely used for tunneled, long-term catheters, but few studies have compared citrate versus heparin for patients with short-term, non-tunneled catheters...
2014: Trials
Kevin Chapla, Bharvi P Oza-Gajera, Alexander S Yevzlin, Jung-Im Shin, Brad C Astor, Micah R Chan
PURPOSE: Tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs) continue to be utilized at an alarming rate despite having a higher rate of complications when compared to fistulas and grafts. One of the primary complications of TDCs involves catheter dysfunction resulting in reduced blood flow and poor dialysis adequacy, often requiring catheter removal in addition to thrombolytic therapy. Our objective was to compare the use of locking solutions containing heparin versus all other locking solutions for primary prevention of TDC dysfunction...
March 2015: Journal of Vascular Access
Bindu A Passero, Paula Zappone, Herma E Lee, Cindy Novak, Erica L Maceira, Martha Naber
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of medical literature regarding the efficacy of lock solutions in preventing catheter thrombosis. Traditionally, heparin has been used as the anticoagulant of choice for catheter locking, but it has many adverse effects associated with its use. Sodium citrate 4% is an attractive alternative to heparin. METHODS: Our plasmapheresis unit converted to locking all central venous catheters with sodium citrate 4% in place of heparin 100 units/mL in May 2010...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial lock solutions are used for prevention and management of catheter-related bloodstream infections. ML8-X10 (a prototype oil-in-water micro-emulsion based on a novel free fatty acid), vancomycin/heparin and taurolidine/citrate/heparin (Taurolock™-Hep500) lock solutions were tested against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: MICs were tested in neutral broth (pH ~7) and acidified broth (pH 5)...
December 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Carol L Moore, Anatole Besarab, Marie Ajluni, Vivek Soi, Edward L Peterson, Laura E Johnson, Marcus J Zervos, Elizabeth Adams, Jerry Yee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection is the second leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. Catheter-related bloodstream infection and infection-related mortality have not improved in this population over the past two decades. This study evaluated the impact of a prophylactic antibiotic lock solution on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study compared the effectiveness of two catheter locking solutions (gentamicin/citrate versus heparin) in 555 hemodialysis patients dialyzing with a tunneled cuffed catheter between 2008 and 2011...
July 2014: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
R S Boersma, K S Jie, A C Voogd, K Hamulyak, A Verbon, H C Schouten
PURPOSE AND METHODS: Central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis and infections are frequently occurring complications in patients with hematological malignancies. At present, heparin is most often used as a locking solution. Trisodium citrate (TSC) had been shown to be a very effective antimicrobial catheter locking in hemodialysis patients. We performed a prospective randomized phase III multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of TSC as a locking solution compared to heparin in preventing CVC-related thrombosis and infections in patients with hematological malignancies...
January 2015: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
E C Murray, C Deighan, C Geddes, P C Thomson
BACKGROUND: Infection is second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in the haemodialysis (HD) population. AIM: : To assess the effect of introducing catheter lock solution taurolidine-citrate-heparin to all tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs) on staphylococcal bloodstream infection rates in patients on chronic HD. DESIGN: Observational, prospective analysis of the incidence rates of staphylococcal bacteraemic events in National Health Service (NHS) Greater Glasgow & Clyde and NHS Forth Valley between April 2011 and June 2013, with taurolidine-citrate-heparin catheter lock solution introduced July 2012...
December 2014: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Néstor Fontseré, Celia Cardozo, Javier Donate, Alex Soriano, Mercedes Muros, Mercedes Pons, Josep Mensa, Josep M Campistol, Juan F Navarro-González, Francisco Maduell
Mortality and morbidity are significantly higher among patients with dialysis catheters, which has been associated with chronic activation of the immune system. We hypothesized that bacteria colonizing the catheter lumen trigger an inflammatory response. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory profile of hemodialysis patients before and after locking catheters with an antimicrobial lock solution. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured in serum, and levels of mRNA gene expression of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
July 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Maurizio Gallieni, Irene Brenna, Francesca Brunini, Nicoletta Mezzina, Sabina Pasho, Antonino Giordano
The choice of both short-term (nontunneled) and long-term (tunneled) central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis is a difficult one, due to the large number of available catheters, with very different characteristics and cost.CVC-related complications (in particular infections, thrombosis and inefficient dialysis) can determine ominous consequences and death, with extremely elevated costs due to prolonged hospitalization and expensive procedures. Thus, the correct balance between cost and quality of CVC is required when deciding which kind of CVC should be adopted...
2014: Journal of Vascular Access
Alberto Dal Molin, Elias Allara, Doriana Montani, Simona Milani, Cristina Frassati, Simonetta Cossu, Simone Tonella, Dania Brioschi, Laura Rasero
PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of heparin flushing in the lock of central venous catheters. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of heparin versus normal saline or other solution in the flushing of central catheter among adult patients. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts in order to identify relevant publications...
July 2014: Journal of Vascular Access
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