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Knowledge gaps

Antigona Ulndreaj, Apostolia Tzekou, Andrea J Mothe, Ahad Siddiqui, Rachel Dragas, Charles Tator, Emina Torlakovic, Michael Fehlings
The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level-dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system (CNS), but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Judy Mullan, Kathryn M Weston, Andrew Bonney, Pippa Burns, John Mullan, Rima Rudd
OBJECTIVE: To investigate consumers' knowledge about commonly purchased over-the-counter (OTC) products containing ibuprofen. METHODS: Customers buying two popular OTC ibuprofen-containing products (Nurofen(™) or Nurofen Plus(™) ) were asked to complete a short survey assessing their knowledge about the products. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 262 respondents, most of whom were older than 50 years of age; female; well-educated; with adequate functional health literacy...
October 24, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Wayne L Miller, Allan S Jaffe
The proliferation of cardiac-related biomarkers and advocacy for their use has often come without adequate discussion of limitations in the interpretation of values and their best use in heart failure (HF) patients to provide a balanced assessment of how cardiac biomarkers are advocated for use in HF and areas where we would argue there are no gaps in knowledge. We include suggestions to address these issues. We have focused on peer-reviewed publications over the period 2000 to present. Most studies have used samples at one or at most two points in time to define risk...
March 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Markus Kauer, Valentina Belova-Magri, Carlos Cairós, Hans-Jürgen Schreier, Robert Mettin
Despite the increasing use of high frequency ultrasound in heterogeneous reactions, knowledge about the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles at the irradiated solid surface is still lacking. This gap hinders controllable surface sonoreactions. Here we present an optimization study of the cavitation bubble distribution at a solid sample using sonoluminescence and sonochemiluminescence imaging. The experiments were performed at three ultrasound frequencies, namely 580, 860 and 1142kHz. We found that position and orientation of the sample to the transducer, as well as its material properties influence the distribution of active cavitation bubbles at the sample surface in the reactor...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Lara Ambrosio Leal Dutra, Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is responsible for outbreaks in Brazil and has immense potential as an emerging virus. VACV can be found naturally circulating in India, Pakistan and South America, where it causes infections characterised by exanthematic lesions in buffaloes, cattle and humans. The transmission cycle of Brazilian VACV has still not been fully characterised; one of the most important gaps in knowledge being the role of wild animals. Capybaras, which are restricted to the Americas, are the world's largest rodents and have peculiar characteristics that make them possible candidates for being part of a natural VACV reservoir...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Virology
Esmeralda Castillo-Rodriguez, Raul Fernandez-Prado, Catalina Martin-Cleary, Maria Soledad Pizarro-Sánchez, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Ana Belen Sanz, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Ortiz
The current categorization of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is based on biomarkers of the glomerular function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) and injury (urinary albumin creatinine ratio, UACR) and provides information on the risk of death and of progression of kidney disease. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the risk stratification of elderly patients with eGFR 45-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and of younger patients with higher eGFR but physiological albuminuria. In this regard, most of the kidney cell mass is composed of tubules...
October 22, 2016: Nephron
Judy Craft, Martin Christensen, Shannon Bakon, Lisa Wirihana
BACKGROUND: Nursing students' ability to learn, integrate and apply bioscience knowledge to their clinical practice remains a concern. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the implementation, influence, and student perspective of a team-teaching workshop to integrate bioscience theory with clinical nursing practice. DESIGN: The team-teaching workshop was offered prior to commencement of the university semester as a refresher course at an Australian university...
October 18, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Chia-Feng Liu, William E Samsa, Guang Zhou, Véronique Lefebvre
A milestone in the evolutionary emergence of vertebrates was the invention of cartilage, a tissue that has key roles in modeling, protecting and complementing the bony skeleton. Cartilage is elaborated and maintained by chondrocytes. These cells derive from multipotent skeletal progenitors and they perform highly specialized functions as they proceed through sequential lineage commitment and differentiation steps. They form cartilage primordia, the primary skeleton of the embryo. They then transform these primordia either into cartilage growth plates, temporary drivers of skeletal elongation and endochondral ossification, or into permanent tissues, namely articular cartilage...
October 19, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
M C Fontaine
The harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, is one of the best studied cetacean species owing to its common distribution along the coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. In European waters, strandings are common and bycatch mortalities in commercial fisheries reach alarming numbers. Lethal interactions resulting from human activities together with ongoing environmental changes raise serious concerns about population viability throughout the species' range. These concerns foster the need to fill critical gaps in knowledge of harbour porpoise biology, including population structure, feeding ecology, habitat preference and evolutionary history, that are critical information for planning effective management and conservation efforts...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Trishal Boodhna, David P Crabb
BACKGROUND: Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF). Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Franziska Hopfner, Dietrich Haubenberger, Wendy R Galpern, Katrina Gwinn, Ashlee Van't Veer, Samantha White, Kailash Bhatia, Charles H Adler, David Eidelberg, William Ondo, Glenn T Stebbins, Caroline M Tanner, Rick C Helmich, Fred A Lenz, Roy V Sillitoe, David Vaillancourt, Jerrold L Vitek, Elan D Louis, Holly A Shill, Matthew P Frosch, Tatiana Foroud, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer, Andrew Singleton, Claudia M Testa, Mark Hallett, Rodger Elble, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a common cause of significant disability, but its etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Research has been hampered by the variable definition of ET and by non-standardized research approaches. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA) invited experts in ET and related fields to discuss current knowledge, controversies, and gaps in our understanding of ET and to develop recommendations for future research. Discussion focused on phenomenology and phenotypes, therapies and clinical trials, pathophysiology, pathology, and genetics...
October 4, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Camilla T Damsgaard, Lotte Lauritzen, Hanne Hauger, Stine Vuholm, Marie N Teisen, Christian Ritz, Max Hansen, Janni Niclasen, Christian Mølgaard
BACKGROUND: Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in healthy children...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Mohammed Al-Temimi, Michael Kidon, Samir Johna
CONTEXT: Reports evaluating faculty knowledge of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in community hospitals without a dedicated residency program are uncommon. OBJECTIVE: Faculty evaluation regarding knowledge of ACGME core competencies before a residency program is started. DESIGN: Physicians at the Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (N = 480) were surveyed for their knowledge of ACGME core competencies before starting new residency programs...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Vivian M Nguyen, Nathan Young, Steven J Cooke
Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. In conservation and natural resource management, however, we are lagging behind. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean that we urgently need to be using the best knowledge possible in forming decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. While the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KMb) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies...
October 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Basem M Alraddadi, Hanadi S Al-Salmi, Kara Jacobs-Slifka, Rachel B Slayton, Concepcion F Estivariz, Andrew I Geller, Hanan H Al-Turkistani, Sanaa S Al-Rehily, Haleema A Alserehi, Ghassan Y Wali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Esam I Azhar, Lia Haynes, David L Swerdlow, John A Jernigan, Tariq A Madani
Healthcare settings can amplify transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but knowledge gaps about the epidemiology of transmission remain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among healthcare personnel in hospital units that treated MERS-CoV patients. Participants were interviewed about exposures to MERS-CoV patients, use of personal protective equipment, and signs and symptoms of illness after exposure. Infection status was determined by the presence of antibodies against MERS-CoV...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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