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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548917/family-experiences-of-the-transition-to-palliative-care-in-aged-residential-care-arc-a-qualitative-study
#1
Rosemary Frey, Susan Foster, Michal Boyd, Jackie Robinson, Merryn Gott
PURPOSE: To address a gap in the literature by exploring bereaved families' perceptions of the transition to palliative care for their relative in long-term care. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of twenty-six family members who were most involved in the care of residents who had died within the last 12 months. Interviews explored care, perceptions of staff palliative care knowledge, communication with staff, care planning and decision-making...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548896/implementation-of-asthma-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-primary-care-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-knowledge-to-action-cycle
#2
Myriam E Gagné, Louis-Philippe Boulet
OBJECTIVE: Based on the Knowledge-to-Action Cycle, we assessed the self-reported implementation and perception of asthma clinical practice guideline (CPG) recommendations in primary care physicians (PCPs), along with the barriers and facilitators to CPG use in primary care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Using the extended Asthma Physicians' Practice Assessment Questionnaire(©), PCPs self-reported the following: their knowledge of 15 key asthma CPG recommendations, the perceived usefulness of each of these recommendations, their motivation to apply these recommendations, and their agreement with the content of these recommendations...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548682/arthrotomy-based-pre-clinical-models-of-particle-induced-osteolysis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Meghan M Moran, Brittany M Wilson, Ryan D Ross, Amarjit S Virdi, D Rick Sumner
We completed a systematic literature review of in vivo animal models that use arthrotomy-based methods to study particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The purpose of the review was to characterize the models developed to date, to determine the questions addressed, to assess scientific rigor and transparency and to identify gaps in knowledge. We probed three literature databases (Medline, Embase and Scopus) and found 77 manuscripts that fit the search parameters. In the most recent 10 years, researchers mainly used rat and mouse models, whereas in the previous 20 years large animal, canine and rabbit models were more common...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#4
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547923/pediatric-heart-disease-simulation-curriculum-educating-the-pediatrician
#5
Tyler H Harris, Mark Adler, Sharon M Unti, Mary E McBride
BACKGROUND: Training guidelines state that pediatricians should be able to diagnose, manage, and triage patients with heart disease. Acutely ill cardiac patients present infrequently and with high acuity, yet residents receive less exposure to acute cardiac conditions than previous generations. Trainees must learn to manage these situations despite this gap. Simulation has been used successfully to train learners to provide acute care. We hypothesized that a simulation-based cardiac curriculum would improve residents' ability to manage cardiac patients...
May 26, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545784/pro-and-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-sulfonylureas-mechanistic-and-clinical-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Xu Han, David S Siscovick, James H Flory, Rajat Deo
Sulfonylureas are the most commonly used second-line drug class for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While the cardiovascular safety of sulfonylureas has been examined in several trials and nonrandomized studies, little is known of their specific effects on sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and related serious arrhythmic outcomes. This knowledge gap is striking, because persons with DM are at increased risk of SCA. In this review, we explore the influence of sulfonylureas on the risk of serious arrhythmias, with specific foci on ischemic preconditioning, cardiac excitability, and serious hypoglycemia as putative mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545623/genetic-determinants-of-hereditary-bradyarrhythmias-a-contemporary-review-of-a-diverse-group-of-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Saman Rezazadeh, Henry J Duff
Bradyarrhythmia is a common clinical presentation. Although the majority of cases are acquired, genetic screening of families with bradyarrhythmia has led to the discovery of a growing number of causative hereditary mutations. These mutations can interfere with any of the steps required for the occurrence of each cardiac cycle, including generation of an action potential in the sinoatrial node, successful exit of the action potential from the node, propagation of the action potential throughout the atria until the depolarization waves reach the atrioventricular node, and finally transmission of the action potential to the ventricles through the His-Purkinje system...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545535/electronic-audit-and-feedback-intervention-with-action-implementation-toolbox-to-improve-pain-management-in-intensive-care-protocol-for-a-laboratory-experiment-and-cluster-randomised-trial
#8
Wouter T Gude, Marie-José Roos-Blom, Sabine N van der Veer, Evert de Jonge, Niels Peek, Dave A Dongelmans, Nicolette F de Keizer
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is often used as a strategy to improve quality of care, however, its effects are variable and often marginal. In order to learn how to design and deliver effective feedback, we need to understand their mechanisms of action. This theory-informed study will investigate how electronic audit and feedback affects improvement intentions (i.e. information-intention gap), and whether an action implementation toolbox with suggested actions and materials helps translating those intentions into action (i...
May 25, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545502/improving-care-for-people-with-heart-failure-in-uganda-serial-in-depth-interviews-with-patients-and-their-health-care-professionals
#9
Elizabeth Namukwaya, Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Mhoira Leng, Scott A Murray
BACKGROUND: The short prognosis of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the associated multidimensional distress as illustrated in literature from high income countries necessitates the integration of palliative care into the care of advanced HF patients to address these needs and improve their quality of life. These needs, which are subjective, have not been described from the patients' and health care professionals'(HPs) view point in the Ugandan setting, a low income country with a different socio-cultural context...
May 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545479/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Neil T Sprenkle, Savannah G Sims, Cristina L Sánchez, Gordon P Meares
Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to drive the pathology of many chronic disorders due to its potential to elicit aberrant inflammatory signaling and facilitate cell death. In neurodegenerative diseases, the accumulation of misfolded proteins and concomitant induction of ER stress in neurons contributes to neuronal dysfunction. In addition, ER stress responses induced in the surrounding neuroglia may promote disease progression by coordinating damaging inflammatory responses, which help fuel a neurotoxic milieu...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#11
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
May 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544861/social-buffering-of-stress-in-development-a-career-perspective
#12
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544444/review-of-the-ecosystem-service-implications-of-mangrove-encroachment-into-salt-marshes
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Kelleway, Kyle Cavanaugh, Kerrylee Rogers, Ilka C Feller, Emilie Ens, Cheryl Doughty, Neil Saintilan
Salt marsh and mangrove have been recognized as being among the most valuable ecosystem types globally in terms of their supply of ecosystem services and support for human livelihoods. These coastal ecosystems are also susceptible to the impacts of climate change and rising sea levels, with evidence of global shifts in the distribution of mangroves, including encroachment into salt marshes. The encroachment of woody mangrove shrubs and trees into herbaceous salt marshes may represent a substantial change in ecosystem structure, although resulting impacts on ecosystem functions and service provisions are largely unknown...
May 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543679/the-missing-the-short-and-the-long-l-dopa-responses-and-dopamine-actions
#14
Roger L Albin, Daniel K Leventhal
We attempt to correlate the clinical pharmacology of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson Disease with known features of striatal dopamine actions. Despite its obvious impact, DRT does not normalize motor function, likely due to disrupted phasic dopaminergic signaling. The DRT Short Duration Response is likely a permissive-paracrine effect, possibly resulting from dopaminergic support of corticostriate synaptic plasticity. The DRT Long Duration Response may result from mimicry of tonic dopamine signaling regulation of movement vigor...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543089/treatments-for-people-living-with-schizophrenia-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-realist-review
#15
REVIEW
S Chidarikire, M Cross, I Skinner, M Cleary
AIM: To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. BACKGROUND: Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Adapted realist literature review...
May 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542892/knowledge-diagnosis-and-management-of-dentine-hypersensitivity-a-national-survey-of-dentists-in-nigeria
#16
Olabisi Hajarat Oderinu, Mathew Asizide Sede, Adeleke Oke Oginni, Ilemobade Cyril Adegbulugbe, Omolara Gbonjubola Uti, Adeyemi Oluniyi Olusile, Christopher I Udoye, Kofoworola Olaide Savage
AIM: To assess the knowledge of Nigerian dentists regarding dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and their methods of diagnosis and management. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of dentists practicing in all six geopolitical zones of Nigeria was conducted. The questionnaire focussed on participant's demography, exposure to patients with DH, knowledge-based questions, diagnosis and management of DH. Data analysis using EPI Info statistical software determined frequencies and proportions...
May 20, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542470/differential-physiological-changes-following-internet-exposure-in-higher-and-lower-problematic-internet-users
#17
Phil Reed, Michela Romano, Federica Re, Alessandra Roaro, Lisa A Osborne, Caterina Viganò, Roberto Truzoli
Problematic internet use (PIU) has been suggested as in need of further research with a view to being included as a disorder in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, but lack of knowledge about the impact of internet cessation on physiological function remains a major gap in knowledge and a barrier to PIU classification. One hundred and forty-four participants were assessed for physiological (blood pressure and heart rate) and psychological (mood and state anxiety) function before and after an internet session...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542285/educating-early-childhood-care-and-education-providers-to-improve-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-reporting-child-maltreatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ben Mathews, Chengwu Yang, Erik B Lehman, Claudia Mincemoyer, Nicole Verdiglione, Benjamin H Levi
Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541641/update-on-rare-epithelial-ovarian-cancers-based-on-the-rare-ovarian-tumors-young-investigator-conference
#19
REVIEW
Ji Yon Agnes Jang, Nozomu Yanaihara, Eric Pujade-Lauraine, Yoshiki Mikami, Katsutoshi Oda, Michael Bookman, Jonathan Ledermann, Muneaki Shimada, Takako Kiyokawa, Byoung Gie Kim, Noriomi Matsumura, Tsunehisa Kaku, Takafumi Kuroda, Yoko Nagayoshi, Ayako Kawabata, Yasushi Iida, Jae Weon Kim, Michael Quinn, Aikou Okamoto
There has been significant progress in the understanding of the pathology and molecular biology of rare ovarian cancers, which has helped both diagnosis and treatment. This paper provides an update on recent advances in the knowledge and treatment of rare ovarian cancers and identifies gaps that need to be addressed by further clinical research. The topics covered include: low-grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas of the ovary. Given the molecular heterogeneity and the histopathological rarity of these ovarian cancers, the importance of designing adequately powered trials or finding statistically innovative ways to approach the treatment of these rare tumors has been emphasized...
July 2017: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541552/evidence-appraisal-a-scoping-review-conceptual-framework-and-research-agenda
#20
Andrew Goldstein, Eric Venker, Chunhua Weng
Objective: Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. Methods: We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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