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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718445/mouse-versus-human-neutrophils-in-cancer-a-major-knowledge-gap
#1
REVIEW
Evgeniy B Eruslanov, Sunil Singhal, Steven M Albelda
Many types of cancer recruit neutrophils that could have protumor or antitumor effects on tumor development. Numerous findings in murine models suggest a predominantly protumoral role for neutrophils in cancer development. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human tumors in the evolution of tumors, genetic diversity, immune response, and also in the intrinsic biology of neutrophils that might have a profound impact on tumor development and the function of these cells. A crucial difference is that the majority of mouse tumor models lack the prolonged initial phases of multistage tumor evolution present in humans when antitumoral mechanisms are activated...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717926/clinical-evaluation-of-modified-release-and-immediate-release-tacrolimus-formulations
#2
Simon Tremblay, Rita R Alloway
The science of drug delivery has evolved considerably and has led to the development of multiple sustained release formulations. Each of these formulations can present particular challenges in terms of clinical evaluation and necessitate careful study to identify their optimal use in practice. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in organ transplant recipients. However, it is poorly soluble, has an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile subject to important genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions, and has a narrow therapeutic index...
July 17, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#3
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717334/osteoporosis-knowledge-among-future-healthcare-practitioners-findings-from-a-malaysian-public-university
#4
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, Shazia Qasim Jamshed, Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi, Muhammad Farhan Baharuddin, Muhammad Afif Johari, Nur Ashikin Binti Ab Aziz, Siti Farhanah Binti Ahmad Sabri, Nur Akmal Binti Ismail
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Students in relevant health-care academic programs are the future professionals who should play an active role in increasing community awareness regarding chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. This research aimed to evaluate the knowledge of osteoporosis, one of the growing health-care burdens in Malaysia, among students belong to three different health occupations programs in a Malaysian University. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess the level of knowledge on osteoporosis and to explore the potential association between the study program and osteoporosis-related knowledge among medicine, pharmacy, and allied health sciences students in a Malaysian University...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716370/a-systematic-review-and-framework-for-the-use-of-hormone-therapy-with-salvage-radiation-therapy-for-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Daniel E Spratt, Robert T Dess, Zachary S Zumsteg, Daniel W Lin, Phuoc T Tran, Todd M Morgan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Paul L Nguyen, Charles J Ryan, Howard M Sandler, Matthew R Cooperberg, Edwin Posadas, Felix Y Feng
CONTEXT: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is a standard of care for men who recur postprostatectomy, and recent randomized trials have assessed the benefit and toxicity of adding hormone therapy (HT) to SRT with differing results. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of randomized phase III trials of the use of SRT ± HT and generate a framework for the use of HT with SRT. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic literature searches were conducted on February 15, 2017 in three databases (MEDLINE [via PubMed], EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials...
July 14, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716329/mending-gaps-in-knowledge-collaborations-in-neurogenic-bladder-research
#6
REVIEW
Jeremy B Myers, Darshan P Patel, Sean P Elliott, John T Stoffel, Blayne Welk, Amitabh Jha, Sara M Lenherr
Patient-reported outcomes and quality of life assessments are essential to studying conditions such as neurogenic bladder in which multiple management strategies are approximately equally efficacious. Innovations for the treatment of neurogenic bladder need to be guided by both clinical and patient-reported outcomes that are rigorously tested via high-quality prospective cohort or randomized studies. Collaborative research groups in reconstructive urology are critical to the study of uncommon disease processes because they allow studies to be powered adequately, foster innovative treatment strategies through collaboration, and help moderate the risk of investigator and or institutional biases...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715603/an-exploratory-study-on-exemplary-practice-of-nurse-consultants
#7
Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Ada Tak Yin Lau, Rebecca Ng, Elaine Wing Yee Wong, So Man Wong, Eva Ching Yee Kan, Eva Liu, Denise Bryant-Lukosius
PURPOSE: To examine the exemplary practice of nurse consultants (NCs) and derive a model to illustrate the highest level of advanced nursing practice. DESIGN: A descriptive study was conducted to examine the practice and outcomes of seven NC roles in varied clinical specialties in Hong Kong. Exemplary practice was examined in relation to competencies for advanced practice nursing in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data about NC characteristics and their practices were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715439/knowledge-attitude-and-perceived-stigma-towards-tuberculosis-among-pastoralists-do-they-differ-from-sedentary-communities-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#8
Bezawit Temesgen Sima, Tefera Belachew, Fekadu Abebe
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is ninth among the world high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, pastoralists being the most affected population. However, there is no published report whether the behavior related to TB are different between pastoralist and the sedentary communities. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the pastoralist community knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis and their health care seeking behavior in comparison to the neighboring sedentary communities and this may help to plan TB control interventions specifically for the pastoralist communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715407/building-the-biomedical-data-science-workforce
#9
Michelle C Dunn, Philip E Bourne
This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#10
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713495/awareness-of-epidural-analgesia-among-pregnant-women-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#11
Abdulrahim Gari, Ala Aziz, Nourah ALSaleh, Yosra Hamour, Hanaa Abdelal, Raed Sayed Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Labor pain is one of the most severe forms of pain that women experience throughout their lifetime. Many pregnant women decide to have an epidural anesthesia to cope with labor pain. This study has focused on general awareness about epidural anesthesia among pregnant women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study using a self-administered questionnaire, conducted in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center and International Medical Centre...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713376/myristoylation-an-important-protein-modification-in-the-immune-response
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Ikenna Udenwobele, Ruey-Chyi Su, Sara V Good, Terry Blake Ball, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein N-myristoylation is a cotranslational lipidic modification specific to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. The ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, N-myristoyltransferase, catalyzes the myristoylation process. Precisely, attachment of a myristoyl group increases specific protein-protein interactions leading to subcellular localization of myristoylated proteins with its signaling partners. The birth of the field of myristoylation, a little over three decades ago, has led to the understanding of the significance of protein myristoylation in regulating cellular signaling pathways in several biological processes especially in carcinogenesis and more recently immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713201/language-dependent-changes-in-pitch-relevant-neural-activity-in-the-auditory-cortex-reflect-differential-weighting-of-temporal-attributes-of-pitch-contours
#13
Ananthanarayan Krishnan, Jackson T Gandour, Yi Xu, Chandan H Suresh
There remains a gap in our knowledge base about neural representation of pitch attributes that occur between onset and offset of dynamic, curvilinear pitch contours. The aim is to evaluate how language experience shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response components. Responses were elicited from three nonspeech, bidirectional (falling-rising) pitch contours representative of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in location of the turning point with fixed onset and offset...
February 2017: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713146/-being-persistent-without-being-pushy-student-reflections-on-vaccine-hesitancy
#14
Amy E Caruso Brown, Manika Suryadevara, Thomas R Welch, Ann S Botash
Our goal as pediatric educators is to graduate physicians who have witnessed effective approaches and have grasped the nuances of communication strategies between vaccine-hesitant families and health care providers. We identified vaccine hesitancy as a recurring topic in 19 of 304 medical student reflective narratives addressing an issue in professionalism or systems-based practice. We conducted content analysis on the narratives in order to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of visits in which they observed a provider discussing vaccine hesitancy with a parent...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713032/psychosocial-rehabilitation-after-war-trauma-with-adaptive-disclosure-design-and-rationale-of-a-comparative-efficacy-trial
#15
Julie D Yeterian, Danielle S Berke, Brett T Litz
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from warzone exposure is associated with chronic and disabling social and occupational problems. However, functional impairment is rarely assessed or targeted directly in PTSD treatments, which instead focus on symptom reduction. Trauma-related contributors to diminished functioning, including guilt, shame, and anger resulting from morally compromising or loss-based war experiences, are also underemphasized. The goal of this clinical trial is to fill a substantial gap in the treatment of military-related PTSD by testing a modified Adaptive Disclosure (AD) therapy for war-related PTSD stemming from moral injury and traumatic loss focused on improving psychosocial functioning AD...
July 13, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712959/associations-between-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-glycosylated-hemoglobin-and-diabetes
#16
Trenton Honda, Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposures have been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways associated with glucose metabolism. However, few studies have evaluated the associations between air pollution and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Further, no studies have evaluated these associations in US populations or investigated whether associations differ in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic populations. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712328/knowledge-of-hypertension-and-its-management-among-hypertensive-patients-on-chronic-medicines-at-primary-health-care-public-sector-facilities-in-south-africa-findings-and-implications
#17
E M Rampamba, J C Meyer, E Helberg, B Godman
BACKGROUND: High and growing prevalence rates of hypertension in South Africa. Consequently, there is a need to assess knowledge and management among hypertensive patients receiving chronic medication from primary health care (PHC) facilities in South Africa as a basis for improving future management. This is important as South Africa seeks to improve its management of chronic diseases. METHOD: Descriptive, quantitative study amongst chronic hypertensive patients in the chronic disease programme...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712191/assessing-the-role-of-education-in-adult-women-s-knowledge-and-awareness-of-human-papillomavirus-and-human-papillomavirus-vaccine
#18
Humera Ismail, Sarah Rafiq, Shafia Shakoor, Muhammad Tariq Karim, Rabia Raheel
BACKGROUND: Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine among women are not satisfactory in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the role of education in adult women about knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in women aged 19- 50 years attending the out-patient waiting area of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from August 2014 to August 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712124/sexual-violence-associated-with-poor-mental-health-in-women-attending-australian-general-practices
#19
Laura Tarzia, Sarah Maxwell, Jodie Valpied, Kitty Novy, Rebecca Quake, Kelsey Hegarty
OBJECTIVE: Sexual violence (SV) against adult women is prevalent and associated with a range of mental health issues. General practitioners could potentially have a role in responding, however, there is little information to help guide them. Data around prevalence of all forms of adult SV (not just rape) is inconsistent, particularly in clinical samples, and the links between other forms of SV and mental health issues are not well supported. This study aimed to address these gaps in the knowledge base...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712081/survey-on-awareness-and-attitudes-of-secondary-school-students-regarding-plastic-pollution-implications-for-environmental-education-and-public-health-in-sharjah-city-uae
#20
Mohammad Bakri Alaa Hammami, Eman Qasem Mohammed, Anas Mohammad Hashem, Mina Amer Al-Khafaji, Fatima Alqahtani, Shaikha Alzaabi, Nihar Dash
Since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, plastic pollution is becoming a global reality. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude about plastic pollution among secondary school students in Sharjah city, United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 students in 6 different secondary schools in Sharjah city. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through probability stratified random sampling method between February and April 2016. Majority of the population understands how harmful plastic wastes are to the environment (85...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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