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Radiation effects on dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100096/targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-by-hyperthermia
#1
A L Oei, L E M Vriend, P M Krawczyk, M R Horsman, N A P Franken, J Crezee
Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumor that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), is considered to be of particular significance for tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. CSCs are considered in particular to be therapy-resistant and may drive disease recurrence, which positions CSCs in the focus of anti-cancer research, but successful CSC-targeting therapies are limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100039/low-dose-radiation-causes-skin-cancer-in-mice-and-has-a-differential-effect-on-distinct-epidermal-stem-cells
#2
Tatiana Revenco, Gaelle Lapouge, Virginie Moers, Sylvain Brohée, Panagiota A Sotiropoulou
The carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation has been evaluated based on limited populations accidently exposed to high dose radiation. In contrast, insufficient data are available on the effect of low dose radiation, such as radiation deriving from medical investigations and interventions, as well as occupational exposure that concern a large fraction of western populations. Using mouse skin epidermis as a model, we showed that low dose radiation results in DNA damage in sebaceous gland and bulge epidermal stem cells (SCs)...
January 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098304/real-time-monitoring-of-plasmon-induced-dissociative-electron-transfer-to-the-potential-dna-radiosensitizer-8-bromoadenine
#3
R Schürmann, I Bald
The excitation of localized surface plasmons in noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) results in different nanoscale effects such as electric field enhancement, the generation of hot electrons and a temperature increase close to the NP surface. These effects are typically exploited in diverse fields such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), NP catalysis and photothermal therapy (PTT). Halogenated nucleobases are applied as radiosensitizers in conventional radiation cancer therapy due to their high reactivity towards secondary electrons...
January 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094518/conformational-effects-of-uv-light-on-dna-origami
#4
Haorong Chen, Ruixin Li, Shiming Li, Joakim Andréasson, Jong Hyun Choi
The responses of DNA origami conformation to UV radiation of different wavelengths and doses are investigated. Short and medium wavelength UV light can cause photo-lesions in DNA origami. At moderate doses, the lesions do not cause any visible defects in the origami, nor do they significantly affect the hybridization capability. Instead, they help relieve the internal stress in the origami structure and restore it to the designed conformation. At high doses, staple dissociation increases and causes structural disintegration...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091673/conformational-and-electronic-effects-on-the-formation-of-anti-cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimers-in-g-quadruplex-structures
#5
Wook Lee, Spiridoula Matsika
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are the most commonly formed photochemical products when nucleic acids interact with UV radiation. In duplex DNA, the relative inflexible structure allows for only the cis, syn CPD isomer to be formed. G-quadruplex structures, however, have loops that are more flexible and allow for different orientations of the bases to interact. As a result, the highly unusual formation of an anti CPD has been observed in these structures. Due to the close proximity between two opposing loops containing the TTA sequence in two G-quadruplex structures (called "form-3" and "basket"), a high yield of anti CPD formation was expected in these structures...
January 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088539/the-dna-damage-response-of-c-elegans-affected-by-gravity-sensing-and-radiosensitivity-during-the-shenzhou-8-spaceflight
#6
Ying Gao, Dan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yeqing Sun
Space radiation and microgravity are recognized as primary and inevitable risk factors for humans traveling in space, but the reports regarding their synergistic effects remain inconclusive and vary across studies due to differences in the environmental conditions and intrinsic biological sensitivity. Thus, we studied the synergistic effects on transcriptional changes in the global genome and DNA damage response (DDR) by using dys-1 mutant and ced-1 mutant of C. elegans, which respectively presented microgravity-insensitivity and radiosensitivity when exposure to spaceflight condition (SF) and space radiation (SR)...
January 7, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088481/saxs-structural-studies-of-dps-from-deinococcus-radiodurans-highlights-the-conformation-of-the-mobile-n-terminal-extensions
#7
Sandra P Santos, Maxime G Cuypers, Adam Round, Stephanie Finet, Theyencheri Narayanan, Edward P Mitchell, Célia V Romão
The radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contains two DNA binding proteins from starved cells (Dps): Dps1 (DR2263) and Dps2 (DRB0092). These are suggested to play a role in DNA interaction, manganese and iron storage. The proteins assemble as a conserved dodecameric structure with structurally uncharacterized N-terminal extensions. In the case of DrDps1 these extensions have been proposed to be involved in DNA interactions, while in DrDps2 their function has yet to be established. The reported data reveals the relative position of the N-terminal extensions to the dodecameric sphere in solution for both Dps...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076755/rad51-is-a-selective-dna-repair-target-to-radiosensitize-glioma-stem-cells
#8
Harry O King, Tim Brend, Helen L Payne, Alexander Wright, Thomas A Ward, Karan Patel, Teklu Egnuni, Lucy F Stead, Anjana Patel, Heiko Wurdak, Susan C Short
Patients with glioblastoma die from local relapse despite surgery and high-dose radiotherapy. Resistance to radiotherapy is thought to be due to efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in stem-like cells able to survive DNA damage and repopulate the tumor. We used clinical samples and patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) to confirm that the DSB repair protein RAD51 is highly expressed in GSCs, which are reliant on RAD51-dependent DSB repair after radiation. RAD51 expression and RAD51 foci numbers fall when these cells move toward astrocytic differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075468/microrna-138-5p-controls-sensitivity-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-to-radiation-by-targeting-eif4ebp1
#9
Wei Gao, Jacky Wei Kei Lam, John Zeng-Hong Li, Si-Qi Chen, Raymond King-Yin Tsang, Jimmy Yu-Wai Chan, Thian-Sze Wong
Radiation therapy is the standard treatment for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MicroRNA regulates cancer responsiveness to radiation therapy by controlling the genes involved in radiation responses. Recent studies suggested that downregulation of microRNA-138-5p was clinically significant in NPC. Here, we evaluated the effect of miR-138-5p on radiosensitivity of NPC cells and explored the underlying mechanisms by identifying its target gene that impacted sensitivity to radiation. Our results revealed that overexpression of miR-138-5p reduced the ability to form colonies, inhibited proliferation, and enhanced radiation-induced DNA damage and autophagy in NPC cells upon radiation treatment...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066797/mitochondrial-dysfunction-activates-the-ampk-signaling-and-autophagy-to-promote-cell-survival
#10
Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang, Joy Joseph, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Benoit Viollet, Yu-Ying He
Autophagy is a cellular self-eating process essential for stress response and maintaining tissue homeostasis by lysosomal degradation of unwanted or damaged proteins and organelles. Here, we show that cells with defective mitochondria induce autophagy to promote cell survival through activating the AMPK pathway. Loss of mitochondrial complex III protein cytochrome b activates the AMPK signaling and induced autophagy. Inhibiting mitochondria energetics by mitochondria-targeted agents activates the AMPK signaling and induced autophagy...
March 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060508/an-exploration-of-the-singlet-o2-oxidation-of-8-oxoguanine-by-guided-ion-beam-scattering-and-density-functional-theory-changes-of-reaction-intermediates-energetics-and-kinetics-upon-ionization-and-hydration
#11
Yan Sun, Wenchao Lu, Jianbo Liu
8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species and ionizing radiation, and is involved in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and cell death. Notably, 8-oxodGuo is more reactive toward singlet (a(1)Δg) O2 than the undamaged guanosine, and the lesions arising from the secondary oxidation of 8-oxodGuo are more mutagenic. Herein the (1)O2 oxidation of free base 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) was investigated at different initial conditions including protonated [8-oxoG + H](+), deprotonated [8-oxoG - H](-) and their monohydrates...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052067/the-paradoxical-effects-of-different-hepatitis-c-viral-loads-on-host-dna-damage-and-repair-abilities
#12
Shu-Chi Wang, Kuan-Ru Lai, Chia-Yang Li, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Guann-Yi Yu, Naoya Sakamoto, Wen-Yu Tu, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatic stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and has been implicated in hepatic inflammation. However, HCV infection and replication are uneven and vary among individual hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of the viral load on host DNA damage, we used an Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein gene (EYFP)-tagged HCV virus to distinguish between HCV intracellular high viral load (HVL) cells and low viral load (LVL) cells. The cell sorting efficiency was confirmed by the high expression of the HCV polyprotein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048551/we-fg-brb-02-spatial-mapping-of-the-rbe-of-scanned-particle-beams
#13
D Grosshans
: The physical pattern of energy deposition and the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons and carbon ions compared to photons offer unique and not fully understood or exploited opportunities to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy. Variations in RBE within a pristine or spread out Bragg peak and between particle types may be exploited to enhance cell killing in target regions without a corresponding increase in damage to normal tissue structures. In addition, the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic tumors to photon-based therapies may be partially overcome through the use of more densely ionizing radiations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048338/we-de-202-00-connecting-radiation-physics-with-computational-biology
#14
Jan Schuemann
: Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048302/mo-ab-bra-04-radiation-measurements-with-a-dna-double-strand-break-dosimeter
#15
M Obeidat, K Cline, S Stathakis, N Papanikolaou, K Rasmussen, A Gutierrez, C S Ha, S E Lee, E Y Shim, N Kirby
PURPOSE: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. METHODS: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048194/we-fg-brb-01-clinical-significance-of-rbe-variations-in-proton-therapy
#16
H Paganetti
: The physical pattern of energy deposition and the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons and carbon ions compared to photons offer unique and not fully understood or exploited opportunities to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy. Variations in RBE within a pristine or spread out Bragg peak and between particle types may be exploited to enhance cell killing in target regions without a corresponding increase in damage to normal tissue structures. In addition, the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic tumors to photon-based therapies may be partially overcome through the use of more densely ionizing radiations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047698/th-cd-201-11-optimizing-the-response-and-cost-of-a-dna-double-strand-break-dosimeter
#17
M Obeidat, K Cline, S Stathakis, N Papanikolaou, K Rasmussen, A Gutierrez, C S Ha, S E Lee, E Y Shim, N Kirby
PURPOSE: A DNA double-strand break (DSB) dosimeter was developed to measure the biological effect of radiation. The goal here is to refine the fabrication method of this dosimeter to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation (CoV) and reduce the cost for the dosimeter. METHODS: Our dosimeter consists of 4 kilo-base pair DNA strands (labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein) attached to streptavidin magnetic beads. The final step of the DNA dosimeter fabrication is to suspend these attached beads in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047687/we-de-202-01-connecting-nanoscale-physics-to-initial-dna-damage-through-track-structure-simulations
#18
J Schuemann
: Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047206/tu-h-campus-tep2-04-measurement-of-stereotactic-output-factors-with-dna-double-strand-breaks
#19
K Cline, M Obeidat, S Stathakis, C Kabat, M Markovic, N Papanikolaou, K Rasmussen, A Gutierrez, C Ha, S Lee, E Shim, N Kirby
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy treatment is specified by radiation dose prescriptions, but biological DNA damage actually controls treatment effectiveness. It is impractical to directly measure dose in the clinic, so we measure quantities, such as collected charge, and calculate the relationship to dose. At small fields, such as those in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), charged-particle equilibrium (CPE) breaks down and the accuracy of the measurement for delivered dose decreases. By measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) directly, we believe treatment accuracy could improve by providing a more meaningful measurement...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047038/we-de-202-02-are-track-structure-simulations-truly-needed-for-radiobiology-at-the-cellular-and-tissue-levels
#20
R Stewart
: Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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