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Radiation effects on dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902990/high-purity-semiconducting-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-a-key-enabling-material-in-emerging-electronics
#1
Jacques Lefebvre, Jianfu Ding, Zhao Li, Paul Finnie, Gregory Lopinski, Patrick R L Malenfant
Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) are emerging as a promising material for high-performance, high-density devices as well as low-cost, large-area macroelectronics produced via additive manufacturing methods such as roll-to-roll printing. Proof-of-concept demonstrations have indicated the potential of sc-SWCNTs for digital electronics, radiofrequency circuits, radiation hard memory, improved sensors, and flexible, stretchable, conformable electronics. Advances toward commercial applications bring numerous opportunities in SWCNT materials development and characterization as well as fabrication processes and printing technologies...
September 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902577/post-irradiation-promotes-susceptibility-to-reprogramming-to-pluripotent-state-in-human-fibroblasts
#2
Seung Bum Lee, Sung-Hoon Han, Min-Jung Kim, Sehwan Shim, Hye-Yun Shin, Sun-Joo Lee, Hye Won Kim, Won-Suk Jang, Songwon Seo, Seongjae Jang, Yanghee Lee, Sunhoo Park
Ionizing radiation causes not only targeted effects in cells that have been directly irradiated but also non-targeted effects in several cell generations after initial exposure. Recent studies suggest that radiation can enrich for a population of stem cells, derived from differentiated cells, through cellular reprogramming. Here, we elucidate the effect of irradiation on reprogramming, subjected to two different responses, using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model. iPSCs were generated from non-irradiated cells, directly-irradiated cells, or cells subsequently generated after initial radiation exposure...
September 13, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901519/salidroside-a-scavenger-of-ros-enhances-the-radioprotective-effect-of-ex-rad%C3%A2-via-a-p53-dependent-apoptotic-pathway
#3
Tian Feng, Libin Wang, Nan Zhou, Chang Liu, Jiahui Cui, Rangxin Wu, Juan Jing, Shengyong Zhang, Hui Chen, Siwang Wang
Salidroside (Sal), the predominant component of a Chinese medicinal herb, Rhodiola rosea L., has become an attractive bioagent due to its significant anti-radiation, antioxidant and immune adjustment effects. We explored the radioprotective effect of Sal to ascertain whether it could enhance the anti-radiation effect of ON 01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) in vivo and in vitro, and elucidate its underlying mechanism. Our data demonstrated that Sal inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased the DNA damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
September 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901132/regioselectivity-of-the-oh-radical-addition-to-uracil-in-nucleic-acids-a-theoretical-approach-based-on-qm-mm-simulations
#4
Juan Aranda, Antonio Francés-Monerris, Iñaki Tuñón, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán
Oxidation of nucleic acids are ubiquitous in living beings under metabolic impairments and/or exposed to external agents such as radiation, pollutants, or drugs, playing a central role in the development of many diseases mediated by DNA/RNA degeneration. Great efforts have been devoted to unveil the molecular mechanisms behind the OH radical additions to the double bonds of nucleobases, however, the specific role of the biological environment remains rela-tively unexplored. The present contribution tackles the study of the OH radical addition to uracil from the gas phase to a full RNA macromolecule by means of quantum-chemistry methods combined with molecular dynamics simulations...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895780/mir-300-regulates-cellular-radiosensitivity-through-targeting-p53-and-apaf1-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#5
Jinpeng He, Xiu Feng, Junrui Hua, Li Wei, Zhiwei Lu, Wenjun Wei, Hui Cai, Bing Wang, Wengui Shi, Nan Ding, He Li, Yanan Zhang, Jufang Wang
microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in mediation of the cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). Previous studies revealed that miR-300 was involved in the cellular response to IR or chemotherapy drug. However, whether miR-300 could regulate the DNA damage responses induced by extrinsic genotoxic stress in human lung cancer and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, the expression of miR-300 was examined in lung cancer cells treated with IR, and the effects of miR-300 on DNA damage repair, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence induced by IR were investigated...
September 12, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893414/transcriptional-mediated-effects-of-radiation-on-the-expression-of-immune-susceptibility-markers-in-melanoma
#6
Lauryn R Werner, Jasdeep S Kler, Monica M Gressett, Maureen Riegert, Lindsey K Werner, Clinton M Heinze, Joseph G Kern, Mahyar Abbariki, Amy K Erbe, Ravi B Patel, Raghava N Sriramaneni, Paul M Harari, Zachary S Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We recently reported a time-sensitive, cooperative, anti-tumor effect elicited by radiation (RT) and intra-tumoral-immunocytokine injection in vivo. We hypothesized that RT triggers transcriptional-mediated changes in tumor expression of immune susceptibility markers at delayed time points, which may explain these previously observed time-dependent effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the time course of changes in expression of immune susceptibility markers following in vitro or in vivo RT in B78 murine melanoma and A375 human melanoma using flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and qPCR...
September 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892876/effect-of-radiofrequency-radiation-emitted-from-2g-and-3g-cell-phone-on-developing-liver-of-chick-embryo-a-comparative-study
#7
Mary Hydrina D'Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J Anbalagan, Bhargavan Rajesh
INTRODUCTION: The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892302/cancer-targeted-selenium-nanoparticles-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-continuous-%C3%AE-radiation-to-achieve-synergetic-chemo-radiotherapy
#8
Leung Chan, Lizhen He, Binwei Zhou, Shouhai Guan, Mingjun Bo, Yahui Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Liu, Yanyang Zhang, Qiang Xie, Tianfeng Chen
Cancer radiotherapy with 125I seeds demonstrates long-term higher efficacy and lower side effects than traditional X-ray radiotherapy due to its low-dose and continuous radiation but is still limited by radioresistance in clinical applications. Therefore, the design and synthesis for sensitizers that could enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to 125I seeds is of great importance for future radiotherapy. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been found to exhibit high potential in cancer chemotherapy and as drug carriers...
September 11, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880740/cytogenetic-monitoring-of-hospital-staff-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-optimize-protocol-considering-dna-repair-genes-variability
#9
Hajer Doukali, Ghada Ben Salah, Bochra Ben Rhouma, Mounira Hajjaji, Amel Jaouadi, Neila Belguith-Mahfouth, Mohamed-Larbi Masmoudi, Leila Ammar-Keskes, Hassen Kamoun
PURPOSE: Chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces a wide spectrum of DNA damages. The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and to evaluate their association with XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln and XRCC3 241 Thr/Met polymorphisms in Hospital staff occupationally exposed to IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire followed by a cytogenetic analysis was concluded for each subject in our study...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868219/appraisal-of-biochemical-classes-of-radioprotectors-evidence-current-status-and-guidelines-for-future-development
#10
REVIEW
Krishnanand Mishra, Ghazi Alsbeih
The search for efficient radioprotective agents to protect from radiation-induced toxicity, due to planned or accidental radiation exposure, is still ongoing worldwide. Despite decades of research and development of widely different biochemical classes of natural and derivative compounds, a safe and effective radioprotector is largely unmet. In this comprehensive review, we evaluated the evidence for the radioprotective performance of classical thiols, vitamins, minerals, dietary antioxidants, phytochemicals, botanical and bacterial preparations, DNA-binding agents, cytokines, and chelators including adaptogens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863778/gene-flow-during-glacial-habitat-shifts-facilitates-character-displacement-in-a-neotropical-flycatcher-radiation
#11
Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M Garg, Chyi Yin Gwee, Scott V Edwards, Frank E Rheindt
BACKGROUND: Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are known to be an engine of biotic diversification at higher latitudes, but their impact on highly diverse tropical areas such as the Andes remains less well-documented. Specifically, while periods of global cooling may have led to fragmentation and differentiation at colder latitudes, they may - at the same time - have led to connectivity among insular patches of montane tropical habitat with unknown consequences on diversification. In the present study we utilized ~5...
September 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863396/proximity-effects-in-chromosome-aberration-induction-by-low-let-ionizing-radiation
#12
John James Tello Cajiao, Mario Pietro Carante, Mario Antonio Bernal Rodriguez, Francesca Ballarini
Although chromosome aberrations are known to derive from distance-dependent mis-rejoining of chromosome fragments, evaluating whether a certain model describes such "proximity effects" better than another one is complicated by the fact that different approaches have often been tested under different conditions. Herein, a biophysical model ("BIANCA", i.e. BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations) was upgraded, implementing explicit chromosome-arm domains and two new models for the dependence of the rejoining probability on the fragment initial distance, r...
August 24, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860152/proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-is-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-focal-radiation-induced-osteoporosis
#13
Abhishek Chandra, Luqiang Wang, Tiffany Young, Leilei Zhong, Wei-Ju Tseng, Michael A Levine, Keith Cengel, X Sherry Liu, Yejia Zhang, Robert J Pignolo, Ling Qin
Bone atrophy and its related fragility fractures are frequent, late side effects of radiotherapy in cancer survivors and have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. In another study, we showed that parathyroid hormone 1-34 and anti-sclerostin antibody attenuates radiation-induced bone damage by accelerating DNA repair in osteoblasts. DNA damage responses are partially regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In the current study, we examined whether proteasome inhibitors have similar bone-protective effects against radiation damage...
August 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856770/genotoxic-effects-of-high-dose-rate-x-ray-and-low-dose-rate-gamma-radiation-in-apc-min-mice
#14
Anne Graupner, Dag M Eide, Dag A Brede, Michele Ellender, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Deborah H Oughton, Simon D Bouffler, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann Karin Olsen
Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans are based on epidemiological data largely drawn from the Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies, which received an acute high dose rate (HDR) ionising radiation. Limited knowledge exists about the effects of chronic low dose rate (LDR) exposure, particularly with respect to the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor. As part of a study to investigate the development of colon cancer following chronic LDR vs. acute HDR radiation, this study presents the results of genotoxic effects in blood of exposed mice...
August 30, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852434/a-new-natural-antioxidant-mixture-protects-against-oxidative-and-dna-damage-in-endothelial-cell-exposed-to-low-dose-irradiation
#15
T Cervelli, D Panetta, T Navarra, S Gadhiri, P Salvadori, A Galli, D Caramella, G Basta, E Picano, S Del Turco
Exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic procedures increases systemic oxidative stress and predisposes to higher risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease development. Many studies indicated that antioxidants protect against radiation-induced damage and have high efficacy and lack of toxicity in preventing radiation exposure damages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro protective effect of a new antioxidant mixture, named RiduROS, on oxidative stress generation and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by low doses of X-rays in endothelial cells...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844239/personal-samplers-of-bioavailable-pesticides-integrated-with-a-hair-follicle-assay-of-dna-damage-to-assess-environmental-exposures-and-their-associated-risks-in-children
#16
Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Kim A Anderson, Haiying Chen, Rebecca Anderson, Naike Salvador-Moreno, Dana C Mora, Carolyn Poutasse, Paul J Laurienti, Stephanie S Daniel, Thomas A Arcury
Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840192/androgen-receptor-as-a-mediator-and-biomarker-of-radioresistance-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
Corey Speers, Shuang G Zhao, Ben Chandler, Meilan Liu, Kari Wilder-Romans, Eric Olsen, Shyam Nyati, Cassandra Ritter, Prasanna G Alluri, Vishal Kothari, Daniel F Hayes, Theodore S Lawrence, Daniel E Spratt, Daniel R Wahl, Lori J Pierce, Felix Y Feng
Increased rates of locoregional recurrence have been observed in triple-negative breast cancer despite chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thus, approaches that combine therapies for radiosensitization in triple-negative breast cancer are critically needed. We characterized the radiation therapy response of 21 breast cancer cell lines and paired this radiation response data with high-throughput drug screen data to identify androgen receptor as a top target for radiosensitization. Our radiosensitizer screen nominated bicalutamide as the drug most effective in treating radiation therapy-resistant breast cancer cell lines...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835664/the-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-by-2-4-6-octatrienoic-acid-protects-human-keratinocytes-from-uvr-induced-damages
#18
Enrica Flori, Arianna Mastrofrancesco, Daniela Kovacs, Barbara Bellei, Stefania Briganti, Vittoria Maresca, Giorgia Cardinali, Mauro Picardo
Increasing attention is addressed to identify products able to enhance skin photoprotection and to prevent skin carcinogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), acting on a functional MC1R, provides a photoprotective effect by inducing pigmentation, antioxidants and DNA repair. We discovered a link between αMSH and the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ), suggesting that some of the αMSH protective effects may be dependent on PPARγ transcriptional activity...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834744/mediator-med23-links-pigmentation-and-dna-repair-through-the-transcription-factor-mitf
#19
Min Xia, Kun Chen, Xiao Yao, Yichi Xu, Jiaying Yao, Jun Yan, Zhen Shao, Gang Wang
DNA repair is related to many physiological and pathological processes, including pigmentation. Little is known about the role of the transcriptional cofactor Mediator complex in DNA repair and pigmentation. Here, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 plays an important role in coupling UV-induced DNA repair to pigmentation. The loss of Med23 specifically impairs the pigmentation process in melanocyte-lineage cells and in zebrafish. Med23 deficiency leads to enhanced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and less DNA damage following UV radiation because of the enhanced expression and recruitment of NER factors to chromatin for genomic stability...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833929/the-impact-of-uv-radiation-on-paramecium-populations-from-alpine-lakes
#20
Barbara Kammerlander, Barbara Tartarotti, Bettina Sonntag
Paramecium populations from a clear and a glacier-fed turbid alpine lake were exposed to solar simulated ultraviolet (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 8 °C and 15 °C. The ciliates were tested for DNA damage (comet assay), behavioral changes, and mortality after UVR + PAR exposure. High DNA damage levels (~58% tail DNA) and abnormal swimming behavior were observed, although no significant changes in cell numbers were found irrespective of the lake origin (clear, turbid), and temperatures...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
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