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Radiation effects on dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735740/dna-damage-and-the-bystander-response-in-tumor-and-normal-cells-exposed-to-x-rays
#1
M Subhashree, R Venkateswarlu, K Karthik, V Shangamithra, P Venkatachalam
Monolayer and suspension cultures of tumor (BMG-1, CCRF-CEM), normal (AG1522, HADF, lymphocytes) and ATM-mutant (GM4405) human cells were exposed to X-rays at doses used in radiotherapy (high dose and high dose-rate) or radiological imaging (low dose and low dose-rate). Radiation-induced DNA damage, its persistence, and possible bystander effects were evaluated, based on DNA damage markers (γ-H2AX, p53(ser15)) and cell-cycle-specific cyclins (cyclin B1 and cyclin D1). Dose-dependent DNA damage and a dose-independent bystander response were seen after exposure to high dose and high dose-rate radiation...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729543/evaluation-of-atm-heterozygous-mutations-underlying-individual-differences-in-radiosensitivity-using-genome-editing-in-human-cultured-cells
#2
Ekaterina Royba, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Kosuke Hosoba, Hiroshi Tauchi, Yoshiki Kudo, Satoshi Tashiro, Takashi Yamamoto, Shinya Matsuura
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are an initial step towards chromosomal aberrations and cell death. It has been suggested that there are individual differences in radiosensitivity within human populations, and that the variations in DNA repair genes might determine this heterogeneity. However, it is difficult to quantify the effect of genetic variants on the individual differences in radiosensitivity, since confounding factors such as smoking and the diverse genetic backgrounds within human populations affect radiosensitivity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728127/is-bacterial-luminescence-response-to-low-dose-radiation-associated-with-mutagenicity
#3
T V Rozhko, O A Guseynov, V E Guseynova, A A Bondar, A N Devyatlovskaya, N S Kudryasheva
Luminous marine bacteria are widely used in bioassays with luminescence intensity being a physiological parameter tested. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bacterial genetic alteration is responsible for bioluminescence kinetics change under low-dose radiation exposure. The alpha-emitting radionuclide (241)Am and beta-emitting radionuclide (3)H were used as the sources of low-dose ionizing radiation. Changes of bioluminescence kinetics of Photobacterium phosphoreum in solutions of (241)Am(NO3)3, 7 kBq/L, and tritiated water, 100 MBq/L, were studied; bioluminescence kinetics stages (absence of effect, activation, and inhibition) were determined...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723592/effects-of-near-infrared-radiation-on-dna-dls-and-atr-ftir-study
#4
Katarzyna Szymborska-Małek, Małgorzata Komorowska, Marlena Gąsior-Głogowska
We presume that the primary effect of Near Infrared (NIR) radiation on aqueous solutions of biological molecules concerns modification of hydrogen bonded structures mainly the global and the hydration shell water molecules. Since water has a significant influence on the DNA structure, we expect that the thermal stability of DNA could be modified by NIR radiation. The herring sperm DNA was exposed to NIR radiation (700-1100nm) for 5, 10, and 20min periods. The temperature dependent infrared measurements were done for the thin films formed on the diamond ATR crystal from evaporated DNA solutions exposed and unexposed to NIR radiation...
July 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723273/the-repair-project-examining-the-biological-impacts-of-sub-background-radiation-exposure-within-snolab-a-deep-underground-laboratory
#5
Christopher Thome, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Jake Pirkkanen, Andrew Zarnke, Taylor Laframboise, Douglas R Boreham
Considerable attention has been given to understanding the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure at levels slightly above background. However, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the inverse, where natural background radiation is removed. The limited available data suggest that organisms exposed to sub-background radiation environments undergo reduced growth and an impaired capacity to repair genetic damage. Shielding from background radiation is inherently difficult due to high-energy cosmic radiation...
July 19, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714110/poly-vinylpyrollidone-and-selenocysteine-modified-bi2-se3-nanoparticles-enhance-radiotherapy-efficacy-in-tumors-and-promote-radioprotection-in-normal-tissues
#6
Jiangfeng Du, Zhanjun Gu, Liang Yan, Yuan Yong, Xuan Yi, Xiao Zhang, Jing Liu, Renfei Wu, Cuicui Ge, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
The development of a new generation of nanoscaled radiosensitizers that can not only enhance radiosensitization of tumor tissues, but also increase radioresistance of healthy tissue is highly desirable, but remains a great challenge. Here, this paper reports a new versatile theranostics based on poly(vinylpyrollidone)- and selenocysteine-modified Bi2 Se3 nanoparicles (PVP-Bi2 Se3 @Sec NPs) for simultaneously enhancing radiotherapeutic effects and reducing the side-effects of radiation. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced free-radical generation upon X-ray radiation, and remarkable photothermal effects under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation because of their strong X-ray attenuation ability and high NIR absorption capability...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#7
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703119/dna-double-strand-break-dsb-induction-and-cell-survival-in-iodine-enhanced-computed-tomography-ct
#8
Seth W Streitmatter, Robert D Stewart, Peter A Jenkins, Tatjana Jevremovic
A multi-scale Monte Carlo model is proposed to assess the dosimetric and biological impact of iodine-based contrast agents commonly used in computed tomography. As presented, the model integrates the general purpose MCNP6 code system for larger-scale radiation transport and dose assessment with the Monte Carlo damage simulation to determine the sub-cellular characteristics and spatial distribution of initial DNA damage. The repair-misrepair-fixation model is then used to relate DNA double strand break (DSB) induction to reproductive cell death...
July 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702744/plant-extracts-and-natural-compounds-used-against-uvb-induced-photoaging
#9
REVIEW
Maria Cavinato, Birgit Waltenberger, Giorgia Baraldo, Carla V C Grade, Hermann Stuppner, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
Skin is continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UVB is an inherent component of sunlight that crosses the epidermis and reaches the upper dermis, leading to increased oxidative stress, activation of inflammatory response and accumulation of DNA damage among other effects. The increase in UVB radiation on earth due to the destruction of stratospheric ozone poses a major environmental threat to the skin, increasing the risk of damage with long-term consequences, such as photoaging and photocarcinogenesis...
July 12, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697403/ameliorative-efficacy-of-bioencapsulated-chironomous-larvae-with-shilajit-on-zebrafish-danio-rerio-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#10
M Saiyad Musthafa, A Athaullah, S Anbumani, A Jawahar Ali, Mehrajuddin War, Bilal Ahmad Paray, Mohammad K Al-Sadoon, S S Muthiah, Palani Kembeeram, R Harikrishnan
Using Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism, we evaluated the radioprotective and antioxidant effects of the Indian traditional medicine Shilajit exposed to X-Ray. The Zebrafish were divided into three experimental groups and control group, each group containing ten fish. The three experimental fish groups, group I, group II and group III were fed with 3, 5 and 7ppm shilajit encapsulated Chironomous larvae and group IV served as a control fed with non- encapsulated larvae. After 60 days of feeding trial, fish were irradiated with X-Ray at a single acute dose of 1Gy...
July 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693270/hyperthermia-and-radiation-reduce-the-toxic-side-effects-of-bufadienolides-for-cancer-therapy
#11
Heba Emam, Alaa Refaat, Paras Jawaid, Mati Ur Rehman, Peng Li, Qing-Li Zhao, Takashi Kondo
Bufadienolides are constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su and are found in toad venom. Cardiovascular side-effects are one of the limiting factors towards developing bufadienolides as chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, in the present study, low doses of bufalin and cinobufotalin, prominent members of the bufadienolides, were investigated for their cytotoxic activity in combination with hyperthermia (HT) or radiation (Rad) therapy. In addition, the underlying mechanism involved was investigated...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690887/prevention-of-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-human-lymphocytes-using-a-serine-magnesium-sulfate-mixture
#12
Vahid Changizi, Mona Bahrami, Mahbod Esfahani, Seyed V Shetab-Boushehri
OBJECTIVES: Ionising radiation has deleterious effects on human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and cysteine, the active metabolite of NAC, are well-known radioprotective agents. Recently, a serine-magnesium sulfate combination was proposed as an antidote for organophosphate toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the use of a serine-magnesium sulfate mixture in the prevention of γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes as compared to NAC and cysteine. METHODS: This study was carried out at the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2016...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689138/enhanced-dna-double-strand-break-repair-of-microbeam-targeted-a549-lung-carcinoma-cells-by-adjacent-wi38-normal-lung-fibroblast-cells-via-bi-directional-signaling
#13
Alisa Kobayashi, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad, Narongchai Autsavapromporn, Masakazu Oikawa, Shino Homma-Takeda, Yoshiya Furusawa, Jun Wang, Teruaki Konishi
Understanding the mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) and bi-directional signaling between irradiated carcinoma cells and their surrounding non-irradiated normal cells is relevant to cancer radiotherapy. The present study investigated propagation of RIBE signals between human lung carcinoma A549 cells and normal lung fibroblast WI38 cells in bystander cells, either directly or indirectly contacting irradiated A549 cells. We prepared A549-GFP/WI38 co-cultures and A549-GFP/A549 co-cultures, in which A549-GFP cells stably expressing H2BGFP were co-cultured with either A549 cells or WI38 cells, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687416/the-effect-of-interaction-of-heat-and-uvb-on-human-keratinocyte-novel-insights-on-uvb-induced-carcinogenesis-of-the-skin
#14
Cheng-Che E Lan, Yeng-Tseng Wang, Chi-Yu Lu, Ai-Hui Fang, Ching-Shuang Wu
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is an important environmentally-related health issue. Although sun exposure is closely associated with increasing environmental heat, the effects of environmental heat on the skin, especially in the context of photocarcinogenesis, has not been carefully examined. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects and interactions of UVB radiation and environmental heat on photocarcinogenesis of the skin using cell and animal models. METHODS: Cultured keratinocytes and hairless mice were exposed to different treatment conditions including UVB radiation and environmental heat...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678877/effects-of-low-dose-rate-%C3%AE-irradiation-combined-with-simulated-microgravity-on-markers-of-oxidative-stress-dna-methylation-potential-and-remodeling-in-the-mouse-heart
#15
John W Seawright, Yusra Samman, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Xiao Wen Mao, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Stepan Melnyk, Igor Koturbash, Gregory A Nelson, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Marjan Boerma
PURPOSE: Space travel is associated with an exposure to low-dose rate ionizing radiation and the microgravity environment, both of which may lead to impairments in cardiac function. We used a mouse model to determine short- and long-term cardiac effects to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading; HU), continuous low-dose rate γ-irradiation, or a combination of HU and low-dose rate γ-irradiation. METHODS: Cardiac tissue was obtained from female, C57BL/6J mice 7 days, 1 month, 4 months, and 9 months following the completion of a 21 day exposure to HU or a 21 day exposure to low-dose rate γ-irradiation (average dose rate of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677687/topk-modulates-tumour-specific-radiosensitivity-and-correlates-with-recurrence-after-prostate-radiotherapy
#16
Giacomo Pirovano, Thomas M Ashton, Katharine J Herbert, Richard J Bryant, Clare L Verrill, Lucia Cerundolo, Francesca M Buffa, Remko Prevo, Iona Harrap, Anderson J Ryan, Valentine Macaulay, William G McKenna, Geoff S Higgins
BACKGROUND: Tumour-specific radiosensitising treatments may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy without exacerbating side effects. In this study we determined the radiation response following depletion or inhibition of TOPK, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family Ser/Thr protein kinase that is upregulated in many cancers. METHODS: Radiation response was studied in a wide range of cancer cell lines and normal cells using colony formation assays. The effect on cell cycle progression was assessed and the relationship between TOPK expression and therapeutic efficacy was studied in a cohort of 128 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy...
July 4, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676531/mtdna-polymorphism-and-metabolic-inhibition-affect-sperm-performance-in-conplastic-mice
#17
Maximiliano Tourmente, Misa Hirose, Saleh Ibrahim, Damian Dowling, Daniel Tompkins, Eduardo R S Roldan, Neil Gemmell
A broad link exists between nucleotide substitutions in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and a range of metabolic pathologies, but the exploration of the effect of specific mtDNA genotypes is on-going. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are of particular relevance for reproductive traits, because they are expected to have profound effects on male specific processes as a result of the strict maternal inheritance of mtDNA. Sperm motility is crucially dependent on ATP in most systems studied. However, the importance of mitochondrial function in the production of the ATP necessary for sperm function remains uncertain...
July 4, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670525/melatonin-ameliorates-the-production-of-cox-2-inos-and-the-formation-of-8-ohdg-in-non-targeted-lung-tissue-after-pelvic-irradiation
#18
Reza Fardid, Ashkan Salajegheh, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi, Sedigheh Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Ali Okhovat, Masoud Najafi, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Akbar Abaszadeh
In this study, we evaluated the bystander effect of radiation on the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin. A 2×2 cm(2) area of the pelvis of male Sprague-Dawley rats with and without pre-administration of melatonin (100 mg/kg) by oral and intraperitoneal injection was irradiated with a 3 Gy dose of 1.25 MeV γ-rays. Alterations in the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and 8-OHdG in the out-of-field lung areas of the animals were detected by enzyme immunoassay...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670521/methoxyamine-enhances-5-fluorouracil-induced-radiosensitization-in-colon-cancer-cell-line-ht29
#19
Samideh Khoei, Roghayeh Poorabdollahi, Ahmad Mostaar, Fariborz Faeghi
OBJECTIVE: This study intended to observe the effects of methoxyamine (Mx) on cytotoxic effects and DNA damage caused by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with gamma radiation in a human colon cancer cell line, HT29. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, HT29 cells were cultured as a monolayer and treated with different concentrations of 5-FU along with 1 mM Mx for 24 hours. Next, the cells were irradiated with 2 Gy gamma radiation. After the treatments, we assessed for DNA damage, cytotoxicity, and viability by alkaline comet, clonogenic survival, and trypan blue dye exclusion assays...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664512/microbial-radiation-resistance-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Kwang-Woo Jung, Sangyong Lim, Yong-Sun Bahn
Organisms living in extreme environments have evolved a wide range of survival strategies by changing biochemical and physiological features depending on their biological niches. Interestingly, organisms exhibiting high radiation resistance have been discovered in the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya), even though a naturally radiationintensive environment has not been found. To counteract the deleterious effects caused by radiation exposure, radiation- resistant organisms employ a series of defensive systems, such as changes in intracellular cation concentration, excellent DNA repair systems, and efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems...
July 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
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