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Radiation effects on dna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787439/genotoxic-effects-in-human-fibroblasts-exposed-to-microwave-radiation
#1
Valeria Franchini, Elisa Regalbuto, Andrea De Amicis, Stefania De Sanctis, Sara Di Cristofaro, Elisa Coluzzi, Jessica Marinaccio, Antonella Sgura, Silvio Ceccuzzi, Andrea Doria, Gian Piero Gallerano, Emilio Giovenale, Gian Luca Ravera, Roberto Bei, Monica Benvenuto, Andrea Modesti, Laura Masuelli, Florigio Lista
In the last decades, technological development has led to an increasing use of devices and systems based on microwave radiation. The increased employment of these devices has elicited questions about the potential long-term health consequences associated with microwave radiation exposure. From this perspective, biological effects of microwave radiation have been the focus of many studies, but the reported scientific data are unclear and contradictory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential genotoxic and cellular effects associated with in vitro exposure of human fetal and adult fibroblasts to microwave radiation at the frequency of 25 GHz...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787434/influence-of-confounding-factors-on-radiation-dose-estimation-using-in-vivo-validated-transcriptional-biomarkers
#2
Lourdes Cruz-Garcia, Grainne O'Brien, Ellen Donovan, Lone Gothard, Sue Boyle, Antoine Laval, Isabelle Testard, Lucyna Ponge, Grzegorz Woźniak, Leszek Miszczyk, Serge M Candéias, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Piotr Widlak, Navita Somaiah, Christophe Badie
For triage purposes following a nuclear accident, blood-based gene expression biomarkers can provide rapid dose estimates for a large number of individuals. Ionizing-radiation-responsive genes are regulated through the DNA damage-response pathway, which includes activation of multiple transcription factors. Modulators of this pathway could potentially affect the response of these biomarkers and consequently compromise accurate dose estimation calculations. In the present study, four potential confounding factors were selected: cancer condition, sex, simulated bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide), and curcumin, an anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786969/hippocampal-lipidome-and-transcriptome-profile-alterations-triggered-by-acute-exposure-of-mice-to-gsm-1800-mhz-mobile-phone-radiation-an-exploratory-study
#3
Adamantia F Fragopoulou, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria-Despoina Papadopoulou, Anna Sansone, Areti K Manta, Evangelos Balafas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Alexandros Georgakilas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Carla Ferreri, Dimitris Thanos, Lukas H Margaritis
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology. METHODS: In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nE xp  = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4...
May 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785486/radiation-induced-bystander-effect-in-large-japanese-field-mouse-apodemus-speciosus-embryonic-cells
#4
Kentaro Ariyoshi, Tomisato Miura, Kosuke Kasai, Nakata Akifumi, Yohei Fujishima, Mitsuaki A Yoshida
Although evidence suggests that ionizing radiation can induce the bystander effect (radiation-induced bystander effect: RIBE) in cultured cells or mouse models, it is unclear whether the effect occurs in cells of wild animals. We investigated medium-mediated bystander micronucleus (MN) formation and DNA damage in un-irradiated cells from a large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). We isolated four clones of A. speciosus embryonic fibroblasts (A603-1, A603-2, A603-3, and A603-4) derived from the same mother, and examined their radiation sensitivity using the colony-forming assay...
May 22, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781766/significant-suppression-of-ct-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-normal-human-cells-by-the-prc-210-radioprotector
#5
Frank Jermusek, Chelsea Benedict, Emma Dreischmeier, Michael Brand, Michael Uder, Justin J Jeffery, Frank N Ranallo, William E Fahl
While computed tomography (CT) is now commonly used and considered to be clinically valuable, significant DNA double-strand breaks (γ-H2AX foci) in white blood cells from adult and pediatric CT patients have been frequently reported. In this study to determine whether γ-H2AX foci and X-ray-induced naked DNA damage are suppressed by administration of the PrC-210 radioprotector, human blood samples were irradiated in a CT scanner at 50-150 mGy with or without PrC-210, and γ-H2AX foci were scored. X-ray-induced naked DNA damage was also studied, and the DNA protective efficacy of PrC-210 was compared against 12 other common "antioxidants...
May 21, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781764/charged-iron-particles-found-in-galactic-cosmic-rays-are-potent-inducers-of-epithelial-ovarian-tumors
#6
Birendra Mishra, Gregory W Lawson, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts traveling in deep space are exposed to high-charge and energy (HZE) particles from galactic cosmic rays. We have previously determined that irradiation of adult female mice with iron HZE particles induces DNA double-strand breaks, oxidative damage and apoptosis in ovarian follicles, causing premature ovarian failure. These effects occur at lower doses than with conventional photon irradiation. Ovarian failure with resultant loss of negative feedback and elevated levels of gonadotropin hormones is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer...
May 21, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775397/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-in-cancer-radiotherapy-and-its-targeting-for-tumor-radiosensitization
#7
Poushali Bhattacharya, Neena G Shetake, Badri N Pandey, Amit Kumar
PURPOSE: One of the most important implications of 'Radiation Biology' research is to improve cancer radiotherapy with minimum side effects. In this regard, combination of chemotherapy with radiation has significantly improved tumor control as well as overall survival in a variety of cancers. However, this has been achieved at the cost of significant normal tissue toxicity, due to the lack of specificity of chemotherapy. Membrane-localized receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been found to play a driving role in various hallmarks of cancer...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770536/combination-of-ifitm1-knockdown-and-radiotherapy-inhibits-the-growth-of-oral-cancer
#8
Jie Yang, Lei Li, Yan Xi, Ruimei Sun, Hu Wang, Yanxin Ren, Liufang Zhao, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaojiang Li
This research aimed to analyze the effect of IFITM1 on the radioresistance of oral neoplasm. IFITM1 emerged using multi-group heat map from GSE9716 analysis of GEO database as the relevant radioresistance gene. IFITM1 was screened by TCGA database before its expression was analyzed. IFITM1 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 19 paired oral neoplasm cases. The effects of time and dose of radiation on IFITM1 expression level in CAL27 and TSCC1 cell lines was tested via qRT-PCR. Oral neoplasm cells were transfected with siRNA after radiotherapy to disturb IFITM1 expression...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769307/orally-bioavailable-and-blood-brain-barrier-penetrating-atm-inhibitor-az32-radiosensitizes-intracranial-gliomas-in-mice
#9
Jeremy Karlin, Jasmine Allen, Syed F Ahmad, Gareth Hughes, Victoria Sheridan, Rajesh Odedra, Paul Farrington, Elaine B Cadogan, Lucy C Riches, Antonio Garcia-Trinidad, Andrew G Thomason, Bhavika Patel, Jennifer Vincent, Alan Lau, Kurt G Pike, Thomas A Hunt, Amrita Sule, Nicholas C K Valerie, Laura Biddlestone-Thorpe, Jenna Kahn, Jason M Beckta, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Bernard Barlaam, Sebastien L Degorce, Jason Kettle, Nicola Colclough, Joanne Wilson, Aaron Smith, Ian P Barrett, Li Zheng, Tianwei Zhang, Yingchun Wang, Kan Chen, Martin Pass, Stephen T Durant, Kristoffer Valerie
Inhibition of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) during radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) may improve tumor control by short-circuiting the response to radiation-induced DNA damage. A major impediment for clinical implementation is that current inhibitors have limited CNS bioavailability, thus, the goal was to identify ATM inhibitors (ATMi) with improved CNS penetration. Drug screens and refinement of lead compounds identified AZ31 and AZ32. The compounds were then tested in vivo for efficacy and impact on tumor and healthy brain...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761935/the-application-of-transcriptional-benchmark-dose-modeling-for-deriving-thresholds-of-effects-associated-with-solar-simulated-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure
#10
Sami S Qutob, Vinita Chauhan, Byron Kuo, Andrew Williams, Carole L Yauk, James P McNamee, B Gollapudi
Considerable data has been generated to elucidate the transcriptional response of cells to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure providing a mechanistic understanding of UVR-induced cellular responses. However, using these data to support standards development has been challenging. In this study, we apply benchmark dose (BMD) modeling of transcriptional data to derive thresholds of gene responsiveness following exposure to solar-simulated UVR. Human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to three doses (10, 20, 150 kJ/m2 ) of solar simulated UVR and assessed for gene expression changes 6 and 24 hr postexposure...
May 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761305/uv-b-susceptibility-and-photoreactivation-in-embryonic-development-of-the-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#11
Yoshio Yoshioka, Tetsuo Gotoh, Takeshi Suzuki
Developmental errors are often induced in the embryos of many organisms by environmental stress. Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is one of the most serious environmental stressors in embryonic development. Here, we investigated susceptibility to UV-B (0.5 kJ m-2 ) in embryos of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to examine the potential use of UV-B in control of this important agricultural pest worldwide. Peak susceptibility to UV-B (0% hatchability) was found in T. urticae eggs 36-48 h after oviposition at 25 °C, which coincides with the stages of morphogenesis forming the germ band and initial limb primordia...
May 14, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758120/concomitant-administration-of-radiation-with-eribulin-improves-the-survival-of-mice-harboring-intracerebral-glioblastoma
#12
Shunichiro Miki, Shoji Imamichi, Hiroaki Fujimori, Arata Tomiyama, Kenji Fujimoto, Kaishi Satomi, Yuko Matsushita, Sanae Matsuzaki, Masamichi Takahashi, Eiichi Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura, Akitake Mukasa, Ryo Nishikawa, Kenkichi Masutomi, Yoshitaka Narita, Mitsuko Masutani, Koichi Ichimura
Glioblastoma is the most common and devastating type of malignant brain tumor. We recently found that eribulin suppresses glioma growth in vitro and in vivo and that eribulin is efficiently transferred into mouse brain tumors at a high concentration. Eribulin is a non-taxane microtubule inhibitor approved for breast cancer and liposarcoma. Cells arrested in M-phase by chemotherapeutic agents such as microtubule inhibitors are highly sensitive to radiation-induced DNA damage. Several recent case reports demonstrated the clinical benefits of eribulin combined with radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumors...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746214/a-two-component-assay-for-hypoxia-incorporating-long-term-nitroreduction-and-short-term-dna-damage-allows-differentiation-of-the-three-hypoxia-sub-types
#13
Cameron J Koch
Hypoxia in tumors has many well-characterized effects that are known to prevent optimal cancer treatment. Despite the existence of a large number of assays that have supported hypoxia as an important diagnostic, there is no routine clinical assay in use, and anti-hypoxia therapies have often not included parallel hypoxia measurements. Even with a functioning hypoxia assay, it is difficult to match the oxygen dependence of treatment resistance to that of the assay, and this mismatch can vary substantially from assay to assay and even from tumor to tumor [e...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746213/gene-expression-in-parp1-deficient-mice-exposed-to-a-median-lethal-dose-of-gamma-rays
#14
M A Suresh Kumar, Evagelia C Laiakis, Shanaz A Ghandhi, Shad R Morton, Albert J Fornace, Sally A Amundson
There is a current interest in the development of biodosimetric methods for rapidly assessing radiation exposure in the wake of a large-scale radiological event. This work was initially focused on determining the exposure dose to an individual using biological indicators. Gene expression signatures show promise for biodosimetric application, but little is known about how these signatures might translate for the assessment of radiological injury in radiosensitive individuals, who comprise a significant proportion of the general population, and who would likely require treatment after exposure to lower doses...
May 10, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745994/dna-double-strand-breaks-as-a-method-of-radiation-measurements-for-therapeutic-beams
#15
Mohammad Obeidat, Kristen A McConnell, Xiaolei Li, Brian Bui, Sotiris Stathakis, Niko Papanikolaou, Karl Rasmussen, Chul Soo Ha, Sang Eun Lee, Eun Yong Shim, Neil Kirby
PURPOSE: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation dose and calibrate radiotherapy equipment, but none directly measure the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. METHODS: A DNA dosimeter, consisting of magnetic streptavidin beads attached to 4 kilobase pair DNA strands labeled with biotin and fluorescein amidite (FAM) on opposing ends, was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745754/modelling-the-influence-of-treatment-time-on-radiosurgery-single-treatment-biological-effectiveness-to-produce-protective-dose-modification-factors
#16
Bleddyn Jones, John W Hopewell
OBJECTIVE: To provide simpler models for adjusting total dose to compensate for significant variations in CNS radio-surgical treatment times, which vary and will influence treatment bio-effectiveness. At present, no allowance is made for time variations. A framework of simpler equations would allow radio-surgical outcomes to be analysed with respect to treatment time, and a system for dose adjustments between radio-isotope and linac-based techniques with different treatment durations...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745724/radiosensitivity-and-transgenerational-effects-in-non-human-species
#17
C Adam-Guillermin, T Hertal-Aas, D Oughton, L Blanchard, F Alonzo, O Armant, N Horemans
The ALLIANCE working group on effects of ionising radiation on wildlife brings together European researchers to work on the topics of radiosensitivity and transgenerational effects in non-human biota. Differences in radiation sensitivity across species and phyla are poorly understood, but have important implications for understanding the overall effects of radiation and for radiation protection; for example, sensitive species may require special attention in monitoring and radiation protection, and differences in sensitivity between species also lead to overall effects at higher levels (community, ecosystem), since interactions between species can be altered...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743497/radioprotective-effect-of-date-syrup-on-radiation-induced-damage-in-rats
#18
Shimaa M Abou-Zeid, Badr E El-Bialy, Nermeen B El-Borai, Huda O AbuBakr, Abdel Monsef A Elhadary
Ionizing radiation has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused mainly by the oxidative damage induced by free radical release. The need for radioprotectives is increasing to protect normal tissues during radiotherapy. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effect of Date syrup in rats subjected to whole body radiation at 6 Gy through biochemical, molecular and histopathological analysis. Significant elevations were recorded in the activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP and LDH and in the levels of all lipid profiles parameters, while the level of HDL-C was reduced...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738226/nobf-4-functionalized-au-fe-3-o-4-nanoheterodimers-for-radiation-therapy-synergy-effect-due-to-simultaneous-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species-formation
#19
Stefanie Klein, Christina Harreiss, Christina Menter, Julian Hümmer, Luitpold V R Distel, Karsten Meyer, Rainer Hock, Carola Kryschi
Snowman-shaped Au-Fe3 O4 nanoheterodimers were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron oleate on pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Subsequently performed ligand exchange with nitrosyl tetrafluoroborate provided water solubility and enabled X-ray induced NO release. These Au-Fe3 O4 nanoheterodimers combine high-Z material with catalytically active Fe3 O4 surfaces and moreover, plasmonic properties with superparamagnetic performance. We could establish synergetic interactions between X-radiation and both, the Au and Fe3 O4 surfaces, which resulted in the simultaneous production of the nitric oxide radical at the Fe3 O4 surface and the superoxide radical at the Au surface...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736620/cardioprotective-effect-of-zingerone-against-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-by-cisplatin-or-gamma-radiation-in-rats
#20
Ahmed F Soliman, Lobna M Anees, Doaa M Ibrahim
Despite their clinical benefits in cancer treatment, the deleterious effects on heart following chemo/radiotherapy are of increasing importance. Zingerone, a natural polyphenol, possesses multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Thus, the current study was designed to assess the potential cardioprotective effects of zingerone against cisplatin or γ-radiation. Zingerone was given by intragastric intubation (25 mg/kg) daily for three successive weeks prior to the induction of cardiotoxicity using a single dose of cisplatin (20 mg/kg, i...
May 7, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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