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Adenoids in children

S S Liu, J R Deng, D S Wang, X Gong, Y H Zhou, X M Gao
Objective: Nasopharynx is an important compartment of the upper airway. It is closely associated with the characteristic craniofacial skeletal pattern related to sleep breathing. The present study aimed to investigate the growth pattern of the nasopharynx during rapid puberty growth period. Methods: Thirty non-snoring children (aged 8 to 11 years old) were selected by means of questionnaires and clinical examination. Periodic yearly follow up using MRI, lateral cephalogram, and polysomnograph (PSG) was done in these children...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
J S Park, D K Chan, S R Parikh, A K Meyer, K W Rosbe
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of surgical management for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in children with hypotonia, and to identify common anatomic sites of airway obstruction. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of polysomnographic parameters and quality of life instrument scores for seventy eight children with hypotonia who underwent surgical intervention for sleep-disordered breathing at two tertiary children's hospitals, and analysis of drug-induced sleep endoscopy data using a previously validated scoring system...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Howard Faden, Vincent Callanan, Michael Pizzuto, Mark Nagy, Mark Wilby, Daryl Lamson, Brian Wrotniak, Stefan Juretschko, Kirsten St George
BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. METHODS: Non-acutely ill children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for various reasons were enrolled prospectively in a study to determine the frequency of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in each lymphoid tissue and to relate the number and types of virus to the degree of airway obstruction...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Yaofeng Ji, Yin Liu, Na Yang
Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
S Torretta, P Marchisio, V Rinaldi, D Carioli, E Nazzari, L Pignataro
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is involved in modulating inflammatory airway processes and mucociliary clearance. Some studies have tested the effectiveness of the topical administration of HA in patients with upper airway diseases with positive preliminary results. A prospective, single-blind, 1:1 randomised controlled study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of the daily topical administration of 9 mg of sodium hyaluronate in 3 mL of a 0.9 % sodium saline solution on the basis of endoscopic and clinical parameters in children with chronic adenoiditis associated with recurrent acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion; age- and gender-matched children receiving normal 0...
October 1, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Changlong Hu, Demin Han, Bing Zhou, Luo Zhang, Yunchuan Li, HongRui Zang, LiFeng Li
CONCLUSION: From aspect of fluid dynamics, expanding patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area to 48.3-54.7% of normal area will bring the airflow velocity back to normal in adenoidal hypertrophy children. It might provide a suggestion for adenoidectomy range selection and whether total resection is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the nasopharyngeal airflow characteristics in pediatric OSA patients with adenoidal hypertrophy, and to explore the proper resection range for adenoidectomy Method: Nine OSA patients and four normal children were recruited...
August 9, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Cigdem Fırat Koca, Tamer Erdem, Tuba Bayındır
BACKGROUND: Deformity in the dental arc and facial skeleton by adenoid hypertrophy due to chronic mouth breathing is a well-known process. Most of the related studies have been based on cephalometric analyses. The aim of this study is to detect the presence of skeletal deformities on the soft tissue by analyzing distances and angles on photographs. METHODS: Ninety-seven children having between 25 and 100 % of adenoids, ages 4-12 years (48 boys, 49 girls), and 90 cases having 0-25 % adenoid tissue, ages 4-12 years (54 boys, 36 girls), were studied by clinical history, physical examination (including endoscopy), and standardized clinical photographs...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Rogatus Kabyemera, Neema Chami, Neema Kayange, Respicius Bakalemwa, Antke Zuechner, Tumaini Mhada, Gustave Buname, Adolfine Hokororo, Johannes Kataraihya
Upper airway obstruction (UAO) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy represents one of the rare causes of pulmonary hypertension in children. We report a case of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, managed at pediatric and otorhinolaryngology departments in Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), northwestern Tanzania, with complete remission of symptoms of pulmonary hypertension following adenotonsillectomy. A 17-month-old boy presented with difficulty breathing, dry cough, and noisy breathing since 1 year. He had facial and lower limb oedema with a pan systolic murmur at the tricuspid area, fine crepitations, and tender hepatomegaly...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Henrik Szőke, Márta Maródi, Zsuzsa Sallay, Balázs Székely, Martin-Günther Sterner, Gabriella Hegyi
BACKGROUND: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) and adenoid hypertrophy (AH) are common entities in the pediatric population. The conventional treatment approach (conventional medicine; COM) involved mainly surgery after a period of close observation. In this study, we aimed to introduce an integrative, non-invasive approach (integrative medicine; IM) for COME, AH, and associated episodes of recurrent acute otitis media, and compared outcomes with conventional treatment. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, non-randomized study in an integrative primary care pediatric practice and a conventional pediatric otolaryngological clinic, where treatment modality was determined by patient preference...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Chibuike Nwosu, Mathilda Uju Ibekwe, Lucky Obukowho Onotai
Introduction. Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common childhood disorder. Adenoid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME). The aim of this study is to critically appraise the tympanometric finding among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology. A Prospective, controlled study carried out among newly diagnosed cases of adenoid hypertrophy at the ENT clinic of the UPTH, between November 2014 and June 2015. Tympanometry was done on each child and each ear was considerably studied as a single entity...
2016: International Journal of Otolaryngology
Ozlem Atan Sahin, Nuray Kececioglu, Muhittin Serdar, Aysel Ozpinar
BACKGROUND: There are many consequences of mold exposure related to respiratory system health of children This retrospective cohort study aims to find the association between adenoid hypertrophy and mold exposure in children living in damp environments. METHODS: Children with history of recurrent respiratory tract infections were enrolled in the study between June 2012 and June 2013 and were followed up for adenoid hypertrophy from June 2013 to June 2016. One hundred and forty two children were residents of moldy houses and 242 were living in normal houses...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mehmet Emre Dinc, Aytug Altundag, Denizhan Dizdar, Mehmet Ozgur Avincsal, Ethem Sahin, Seckin Ulusoy, Ceki Paltura
OBJECTIVES: Although most specialists in otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics find halitosis to be a common problem in children with adenoid hypertrophy, there are no objective data on this topic in the literature. Whether adenoid hypertrophy is a risk factor for halitosis or whether halitosis is a sign of adenoid hypertrophy remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether children diagnosed with adenoid hypertrophy have a higher probability of halitosis than do children in the normal population and whether adenoidectomy can decrease oral malodor...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Sara Torretta, Paola Marchisio, Vittorio Rinaldi, Michele Gaffuri, Carla Pascariello, Lorenzo Drago, Elena Baggi, Lorenzo Pignataro
Hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment has been successfully performed in patients with recurrent upper airway infections or rhinitis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the topical nasal administration of an HA-based compound by investigating its effects in children with recurrent or chronic middle ear inflammations and chronic adenoiditis. A prospective, single-blind, 1:1 randomised controlled study was performed to compare otoscopy, tympanometry and pure-tone audiometry in children which received the daily topical administration of normal 0...
September 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Romeo Patini, Mariantonietta Arrica, Enrico Di Stasio, Patrizia Gallenzi, Massimo Cordaro
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of MRI in evaluating upper airway structures in children affected by obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed databases from their inception to 31/03/2016, including available randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials published in English assessing the use of MRI integrated with traditional polysomnography (PSG) among children up to 15 years of age affected by OSAS...
September 2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Foster T Orji, Daberechukwu K Adiele, Nnaemeka G Umedum, James O Akpeh, Vincent C Ofoegbu, Jones N Nwosu
Unrelieved upper airway obstruction from highly prevalent adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) has the potential of producing structural remodelling of the pulmonary vascular bed with resultant pulmonary hypertension (PH) and cor pulmonale. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the local prevalence of PH and examine its clinical and radiological pointers among children with ATH. The airway obstruction was evaluated clinically by grading the nocturnal and daytime symptoms of ATH. A Brodsky scale and adenoid-nasopharynx ratio (AN ratio) were used to categorize tonsil and adenoid size, respectively...
July 18, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Izabela Korona-Glowniak, Maciej Maj, Radosław Siwiec, Artur Niedzielski, Anna Malm
A total of 125 isolates were recovered from adenoids and/or nasopharynx of 170 children aged 2 to 5 from south-east Poland; they had undergone adenoidectomy for recurrent and/or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Pneumococcal isolates were analyzed by phenotyping (serotyping and antimicrobial resistance tests) and genotyping together with the clonality of the pneumococcal isolates based on resistance determinants, transposon distribution and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Serotypes 19F, 6B and 23F constituted 44...
2016: PloS One
Rahul Chatopadhayay, Preeti Tiwari, A N Gangopadhyay, Vaibhav Pandey
Whilst rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the third most common solid tumour in children, congenital RMS of the tongue is extremely rare and usually present as painless progressive mass since birth (Dagher and Helman in Oncologist 4:34-44, 1999; Childs and Goudy in Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 5:126-128, 2010). In neonates, presentation with respiratory distress is unexpected as neonates are preferential nasal breathers and restricted oral breathing due to tumour usually poses no problem. We herein report a case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue with co-existent unilateral choanal atresia, presenting with respiratory distress...
July 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Mahmut Dogru, Muhammed Fatih Evcimik, Omer Faruk Calim
Our study aims to evaluate the presence of adenoid hypertrophy (AH) in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and the association of AH disease severity and clinical laboratory finding from retrospective, cross-sectional, and nonrandomized trial. The study included 566 children being treated and followed up for allergic rhinitis. Skin prick test for the same allergens was performed for all patients. Adenoid tissue was analyzed by an ENT specialist and the diagnosis was confirmed based on the patient history, endoscopic physical examination and radiology...
July 12, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Kazlin N Mason, Jamie L Perry
The purpose of this study was to create a 3D volumetric segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharyngeal space and adenoid tissue and to examine the relationship between nasopharyngeal volume (NPV), adenoid volume, and linear measures of the velopharyngeal structures, pharynx, and vocal tract in children with and without cleft palate. A total of 24 participants including 18 typically developing children (4-8 years of age) and 6 children (4-8 years of age) with varying degrees of cleft palate were imaged using MRI...
July 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Lanye Hu, Jun Yang
Tonsillectomy and(or) adenoidectomy are effective procedures for children with chronic tonsillitis, diseases associated with the tonsil and other adenotonsillar diseases, and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Since the tonsil and adenoid gland play a dual role in fluid and cell immunity, whether adenotonsillectomy results in the abnormal immune function in children after the surgery has always been the focus of attention. This review focuses on the alterations and impacts on immunity in children after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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