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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125248/effects-of-flash-flooding-on-mosquito-and-community-dynamics-in-experimental-pools
#1
C Duchet, G M Moraru, O Segev, M Spencer, A Gershberg Hayoon, L Blaustein
Pulsed disturbances of larval mosquito sites are likely to have a direct negative effect on mosquitoes but may also have indirect effects due to the alteration of community structure. These altered communities may become attractive to gravid mosquitoes searching for oviposition sites when the disturbances decrease the abundance of mosquito antagonists such as competitors, which often results in an increase in mosquito food resources. However, flash flood disturbances in intermittent riverbeds can also remove mosquito food resources such as algae, so that the net effect of flash floods could be either to increase or decrease mosquito abundance...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059704/toward-probabilistic-prediction-of-flash-flood-human-impacts
#2
Galateia Terti, Isabelle Ruin, Jonathan J Gourley, Pierre Kirstetter, Zachary Flamig, Juliette Blanchet, Ami Arthur, Sandrine Anquetin
This article focuses on conceptual and methodological developments allowing the integration of physical and social dynamics leading to model forecasts of circumstance-specific human losses during a flash flood. To reach this objective, a random forest classifier is applied to assess the likelihood of fatality occurrence for a given circumstance as a function of representative indicators. Here, vehicle-related circumstance is chosen as the literature indicates that most fatalities from flash flooding fall in this category...
October 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036896/remote-sensing-based-quantification-of-the-impact-of-flash-flooding-on-the-rice-production-a-case-study-over-northeastern-bangladesh
#3
M Razu Ahmed, Khan Rubayet Rahaman, Aaron Kok, Quazi K Hassan
The northeastern region of Bangladesh often experiences flash flooding during the pre-harvesting period of the boro rice crop, which is the major cereal crop in the country. In this study, our objective was to delineate the impact of the 2017 flash flood (that initiated on 27 March 2017) on boro rice using multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS data. Initially, we opted to use Landsat-8 OLI data for mapping the damages; however, during and after the flooding event the acquisition of cloud free images were challenging...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829530/the-social-construction-of-disasters-in-the-united-states-a-historical-and-cultural-phenomenon
#4
Tonya T Neaves, T Aaron Wachhaus, Grace A Royer
INTRODUCTION: Societal risks from hazards are continually increasing. Each year, disasters cause thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars. In the first half of 2011, the United States endured countless disasters-winter snowstorms in the Midwest and Northeast; severe tornadic weather in the Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri; flash flooding in Nashville; flooding along the Mississippi River; an earthquake on the East Coast, wildfires in Texas, and Hurricane Irene. Fundamental disaster planning is regarded as an interdisciplinary approach to develop strategies and instituting policies concerned with phases of emergency management; as such, its needs are predicated on the identification of hazards and assessment of risks...
May 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821012/multidomain-analyses-of-a-longitudinal-human-microbiome-intestinal-cleanout-perturbation-experiment
#5
Julia Fukuyama, Laurie Rumker, Kris Sankaran, Pratheepa Jeganathan, Les Dethlefsen, David A Relman, Susan P Holmes
Our work focuses on the stability, resilience, and response to perturbation of the bacterial communities in the human gut. Informative flash flood-like disturbances that eliminate most gastrointestinal biomass can be induced using a clinically-relevant iso-osmotic agent. We designed and executed such a disturbance in human volunteers using a dense longitudinal sampling scheme extending before and after induced diarrhea. This experiment has enabled a careful multidomain analysis of a controlled perturbation of the human gut microbiota with a new level of resolution...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798350/wet-tropical-climate-in-se-tibet-during-the-late-eocene
#6
Philippe Sorrel, Ines Eymard, Philippe-Herve Leloup, Gweltaz Maheo, Nicolas Olivier, Mary Sterb, Loraine Gourbet, Guocan Wang, Wu Jing, Haijian Lu, Haibing Li, Xu Yadong, Kexin Zhang, Kai Cao, Marie-Luce Chevalier, Anne Replumaz
Cenozoic climate cooling at the advent of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~33.7 Ma ago, was stamped in the ocean by a series of climatic events albeit the impact of this global climatic transition on terrestrial environments is still fragmentary. Yet archival constraints on Late Eocene atmospheric circulation are scarce in (tropical) monsoonal Asia, and the paucity of terrestrial records hampers a meaningful comparison of the long-term climatic trends between oceanic and continental realms. Here we report new sedimentological data from the Jianchuan basin (SE Tibet) arguing for wetter climatic conditions in monsoonal Asia at ~35...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#7
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676799/impact-of-aeolian-dry-deposition-of-reactive-iron-minerals-on-sulfur-cycling-in-sediments-of-the-gulf-of-aqaba
#8
Barak Blonder, Valeria Boyko, Alexandra V Turchyn, Gilad Antler, Uriel Sinichkin, Nadav Knossow, Rotem Klein, Alexey Kamyshny
The Gulf of Aqaba is an oligotrophic marine system with oxygen-rich water column and organic carbon-poor sediments (≤0.6% at sites that are not influenced by anthropogenic impact). Aeolian dust deposition from the Arabian, Sinai, and Sahara Deserts is an important source of sediment, especially at the deep-water sites of the Gulf, which are less affected by sediment transport from the Arava Desert during seasonal flash floods. Microbial sulfate reduction in sediments is inferred from the presence of pyrite (although at relatively low concentrations), the presence of sulfide oxidation intermediates, and by the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate and solid-phase sulfides...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618318/effect-of-differential-forest-management-on-land-use-change-luc-in-a-tropical-hill-forest-of-malaysia
#9
Kazi Mohammad Masum, Asyraf Mansor, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Hwee San Lim
Forest ownership is considered as a vital aspect for sustainable management of forest and its associated biodiversity. The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 reported that privately owned forest area are increasing on a global scale, but deforestation was found very active in privately owned hill forest areas of Malaysia. Penang State was purposively chosen as it has been experiencing rapid and radical changes due to urban expansion over the last three decades. In this study, analyses of land-use changes were done by PCI Geomatica using Landsat images from 1991 to 2015, future trends of land-use change were assessed using EXCEL forecast function, and its impact on the surrounding environment were conducted by reviewing already published articles on changing environment of the study area...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599360/lessons-learned-from-khartoum-flash-flood-impacts-an-integrated-assessment
#10
Mohamad Ibrahim Mahmood, Nadir Ahmed Elagib, Finlay Horn, Suhair A G Saad
This study aims at enabling the compilation of key lessons for decision makers and urban planners in rapidly urbanizing cities regarding the identification of representative, chief causal natural and human factors for the increased level of flash flood risk. To achieve this, the impacts of flash flood events of 2013 and 2014 in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, were assessed using seven integrated approaches, i.e. rainfall data analysis, document analysis of affected people and houses, observational fieldwork in the worst flood affected areas, people's perception of causes and mitigation measures through household interviews, reported drinking water quality, reported water-related diseases and social risk assessment...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575822/a-national-scale-flood-hazard-mapping-methodology-the-case-of-greece-protection-and-adaptation-policy-approaches
#11
Nektarios N Kourgialas, George P Karatzas
The present work introduces a national scale flood hazard assessment methodology, using multi-criteria analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques in a GIS environment. The proposed methodology was applied in Greece, where flash floods are a relatively frequent phenomenon and it has become more intense over the last decades, causing significant damages in rural and urban sectors. In order the most prone flooding areas to be identified, seven factor-maps (that are directly related to flood generation) were combined in a GIS environment...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404465/tool-for-decision-making-regarding-general-evacuation-during-a-rapid-river-flood
#12
V Radosavljevic, G Belojevic, N Pavlovic
OBJECTIVES: To propose a simple and effective tool for decision-making regarding general evacuation during a rapid river flood. STUDY DESIGN: Virtual testing of a tool in a real event. METHOD: A four-component tool was applied to build an alternative scenario of the catastrophic river flood in Obrenovac, Serbia, on May 2014. The components of this tool are: (1) the amount of precipitation above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (2) upstream river discharge above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; (3) upstream river level above the 95th percentile of all previous measurements; and (4) worsening of the hydrometeorological situation in the following 48 h...
May 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303313/significant-change-in-marine-plankton-structure-and-carbon-production-after-the-addition-of-river-water-in-a-mesocosm-experiment
#13
E Fouilland, A Trottet, C Alves-de-Souza, D Bonnet, T Bouvier, M Bouvy, S Boyer, L Guillou, E Hatey, H Jing, C Leboulanger, E Le Floc'h, H Liu, S Mas, B Mostajir, J Nouguier, D Pecqueur, E Rochelle-Newall, C Roques, C Salles, M-G Tournoud, C Vasseur, F Vidussi
Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters...
August 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239235/quality-control-of-an-hourly-rainfall-dataset-and-climatology-of-extremes-for-the-uk
#14
Stephen Blenkinsop, Elizabeth Lewis, Steven C Chan, Hayley J Fowler
Sub-daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non-operation of gauges...
February 2017: International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148745/genetic-and-life-history-consequences-of-extreme-climate-events
#15
Simone Vincenzi, Marc Mangel, Dusan Jesensek, John Carlos Garza, Alain J Crivelli
Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. Tests on empirical data of theory-based predictions on the consequences of extreme climate events are thus necessary to understand the adaptive potential of species and the overarching risks associated with all aspects of climate change. We tested predictions on the genetic and life-history consequences of extreme climate events in two populations of marble trout Salmo marmoratus that have experienced severe demographic bottlenecks due to flash floods...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132193/presence-and-distribution-of-current-use-pesticides-in-surface-marine-sediments-from-a-mediterranean-coastal-lagoon-se-spain
#16
R Moreno-González, V M León
The spatial and seasonal distributions of current-use pesticides (CUPs), including triazines, organophosphorus pesticides, and tributylphosphate, were characterized in surface sediments from the Mar Menor lagoon during 2009 and 2010. The impact of two flash flood events on the input of CUPs and their distribution in the lagoon were also assessed. The total (dissolved + sorbed phase) input of CUPs in the two flash floods through the El Albujón watercourse into the lagoon was estimated at 38.9 kg, of which 9...
March 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973357/flood-prevention-dams-for-arid-regions-at-a-micro-scale-sub-catchment-case-study-tabuk-saudi-arabia
#17
Eyad Abushandi
Unexpected flash flooding is one of the periodic hydrological problems affecting the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia. The region has high potential for floods as it suffers high rainfall intensity in a short time and also has high urbanization rates and topographic complexity. Constructing flood prevention dams is one option to solve this problem. A cost-effective design requires a detailed feasibility study and analysis for the selection of suitable sites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for selecting a suitable site for flood protection dams in the Abu Saba'a district, the most affected part of the city of Tabuk during the flash flood in January 2013...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917927/robust-increase-in-extreme-summer-rainfall-intensity-during-the-past-four-decades-observed-in-china
#18
Chan Xiao, Peili Wu, Lixia Zhang, Lianchun Song
Global warming increases the moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere and consequently the potential risks of extreme rainfall. Here we show that maximum hourly summer rainfall intensity has increased by about 11.2% on average, using continuous hourly gauge records for 1971-2013 from 721 weather stations in China. The corresponding event accumulated precipitation has on average increased by more than 10% aided by a small positive trend in events duration. Linear regression of the 95(th) percentile daily precipitation intensity with daily mean surface air temperature shows a negative scaling of -9...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826821/flash-flood-susceptibility-analysis-and-its-mapping-using-different-bivariate-models-in-iran-a-comparison-between-shannon-s-entropy-statistical-index-and-weighting-factor-models
#19
Khabat Khosravi, Hamid Reza Pourghasemi, Kamran Chapi, Masoumeh Bahri
Flooding is a very common worldwide natural hazard causing large-scale casualties every year; Iran is not immune to this thread as well. Comprehensive flood susceptibility mapping is very important to reduce losses of lives and properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to map susceptibility to flooding by different bivariate statistical methods including Shannon's entropy (SE), statistical index (SI), and weighting factor (Wf). In this regard, model performance evaluation is also carried out in Haraz Watershed, Mazandaran Province, Iran...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779126/mr-compatibility-of-a-high-resolution-small-animal-pet-insert-operating-inside-a-7-t-mri
#20
J D Thiessen, E Shams, G Stortz, G Schellenberg, D Bishop, M S Khan, P Kozlowski, F Retière, V Sossi, C J Thompson, A L Goertzen
A full-ring PET insert consisting of 16 PET detector modules was designed and constructed to fit within the 114 mm diameter gradient bore of a Bruker 7 T MRI. The individual detector modules contain two silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays, dual-layer offset LYSO crystal arrays, and high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) cables for both signal and power transmission. Several different RF shielding configurations were assessed prior to construction of a fully assembled PET insert using a combination of carbon fibre and copper foil for RF shielding...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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