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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917927/robust-increase-in-extreme-summer-rainfall-intensity-during-the-past-four-decades-observed-in-china
#1
Chan Xiao, Peili Wu, Lixia Zhang, Lianchun Song
Global warming increases the moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere and consequently the potential risks of extreme rainfall. Here we show that maximum hourly summer rainfall intensity has increased by about 11.2% on average, using continuous hourly gauge records for 1971-2013 from 721 weather stations in China. The corresponding event accumulated precipitation has on average increased by more than 10% aided by a small positive trend in events duration. Linear regression of the 95(th) percentile daily precipitation intensity with daily mean surface air temperature shows a negative scaling of -9...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826821/flash-flood-susceptibility-analysis-and-its-mapping-using-different-bivariate-models-in-iran-a-comparison-between-shannon-s-entropy-statistical-index-and-weighting-factor-models
#2
Khabat Khosravi, Hamid Reza Pourghasemi, Kamran Chapi, Masoumeh Bahri
Flooding is a very common worldwide natural hazard causing large-scale casualties every year; Iran is not immune to this thread as well. Comprehensive flood susceptibility mapping is very important to reduce losses of lives and properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to map susceptibility to flooding by different bivariate statistical methods including Shannon's entropy (SE), statistical index (SI), and weighting factor (Wf). In this regard, model performance evaluation is also carried out in Haraz Watershed, Mazandaran Province, Iran...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779126/mr-compatibility-of-a-high-resolution-small-animal-pet-insert-operating-inside-a-7-t-mri
#3
J D Thiessen, E Shams, G Stortz, G Schellenberg, D Bishop, M S Khan, P Kozlowski, F Retière, V Sossi, C J Thompson, A L Goertzen
A full-ring PET insert consisting of 16 PET detector modules was designed and constructed to fit within the 114 mm diameter gradient bore of a Bruker 7 T MRI. The individual detector modules contain two silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays, dual-layer offset LYSO crystal arrays, and high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) cables for both signal and power transmission. Several different RF shielding configurations were assessed prior to construction of a fully assembled PET insert using a combination of carbon fibre and copper foil for RF shielding...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757255/vector-control-response-in-a-post-flood-disaster-setting-honiara-solomon-islands-2014
#4
Matthew Shortus, Jennie Musto, Hugo Bugoro, Charles Butafa, Alison Sio, Cynthia Joshua
PROBLEM: The close quartering and exposed living conditions in evacuation centres and the potential increase in vector density after flooding in Solomon Islands resulted in an increased risk of exposure for the occupants to vectorborne diseases. CONTEXT: In April 2014, Solomon Islands experienced a flash flooding event that affected many areas and displaced a large number of people. In the capital, Honiara, nearly 10 000 people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency...
January 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755735/within-and-among-population-variation-in-vital-rates-and-population-dynamics-in-a-variable-environment
#5
Simone Vincenzi, Marc Mangel, Dusˇan Jesensˇek, John C Garza, Alain J Crivelli
Understanding the causes of within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics is a central topic in ecology. To understand how within- and among-population variation emerges, we need long-term studies that include episodic events and contrasting environmental conditions, data to characterize individual and shared variation, and statistical models that can tease apart shared and individual contribution to the observed variation. We used long-term tag-recapture data to investigate and estimate within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics of marble trout Salmo marmoratus, an endemic freshwater salmonid with a narrow range...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591599/a-modified-weighted-mixture-model-for-the-interpretation-of-spatial-and-temporal-changes-in-the-microbial-communities-in-drinking-water-reservoirs-using-compositional-phospholipid-fatty-acid-data
#6
I Stanimirova, A Woznica, T Plociniczak, M Kwasniewski, J Karczewski
The aim of this work was to check whether a methodology based on the analysis of data that contain the entire phospholipid fatty acid, PLFA, compositions of water samples can be successfully used to interpret spatial and temporal changes in the microbial communities in water reservoirs. The proposed methodology consists of the construction of a modified weighted multivariate mixture model for the PLFA profiles of the water samples collected in a given monitoring campaign and the identification of latent PLFA components through a comparison with the known PLFA profiles of some cultivated or non-cultivated microbial communities...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443455/a-newly-developed-dispersal-metric-indicates-the-succession-of-benthic-invertebrates-in-restored-rivers
#7
Fengqing Li, Andrea Sundermann, Stefan Stoll, Peter Haase
Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441250/impacts-of-a-flash-flood-on-drinking-water-quality-case-study-of-areas-most-affected-by-the-2012-beijing-flood
#8
Rubao Sun, Daizhi An, Wei Lu, Yun Shi, Lili Wang, Can Zhang, Ping Zhang, Hongjuan Qi, Qiang Wang
In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups...
February 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175353/viral-outbreaks-and-communicable-health-hazards-due-to-devastating-floods-in-pakistan
#9
Umar Saeed, Zahra Zahid Piracha
Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091867/defining-population-health-vulnerability-following-an-extreme-weather-event-in-an-urban-pacific-island-environment-honiara-solomon-islands
#10
Eileen S Natuzzi, Cynthia Joshua, Matthew Shortus, Reginald Reubin, Tenneth Dalipanda, Karen Ferran, Audrey Aumua, Stephanie Brodine
Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986264/flood-disturbance-effects-on-benthic-diatom-assemblage-structure-in-a-semiarid-river-network
#11
Elisabet Tornés, Vicenç Acuña, Clifford N Dahm, Sergi Sabater
Disturbances such as floods and droughts play a central role in determining the structure of riverine benthic biological assemblages. Extreme disturbances from flash floods are often restricted to part of the river network and the magnitude of the flood disturbance may lessen as floods propagate downstream. The present study aimed to characterize the impact of summer monsoonal floods on the resistance and resilience of the benthic diatom assemblage structure in nine river reaches of increasing drainage size within the Gila River in the southwestern United States...
February 2015: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974566/a-review-of-atmospheric-and-land-surface-processes-with-emphasis-on-flood-generation-in-the-southern-himalayan-rivers
#12
REVIEW
A P Dimri, R J Thayyen, K Kibler, A Stanton, S K Jain, D Tullos, V P Singh
Floods in the southern rim of the Indian Himalayas are a major cause of loss of life, property, crops, infrastructure, etc. They have long term socio-economic impacts on the habitat living along/across the Himalayas. In the recent decade extreme precipitation events have led to numerous flash floods in and around the Himalayan region. Sporadic case-based studies have tried to explain the mechanisms causing the floods. However, in some of the cases, the causative mechanisms have been elusive. Various types of flood events have been debated at different spatial and temporal scales...
June 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960082/loss-and-damage-affecting-the-public-health-sector-and-society-resulting-from-flooding-and-flash-floods-in-brazil-between-2010-and-2014-based-on-data-from-national-and-global-information-systems
#13
Aline Costa Minervino, Elisabeth Carmen Duarte
This article outlines the results of a descriptive study that analyses loss and damage caused by hydrometeorological disasters in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 using the EM DAT (global) and S2iD (national) databases. The analysis shows major differences in the total number of disaster events included in the databases (EM-DAT = 36; S2iD = 4,070) and estimated costs of loss and damage (EM-DAT - R$ 9.2 billion; S2iD - R$331.4 billion). The analysis also shows that the five states most affected by these events are Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná in Brazil's South and Southeast regions and that these results are consistent with the findings of other studies...
March 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925325/stratigraphy-palaeoenvironments-and-palaeoecology-of-the-loch-humphrey-burn-lagerst%C3%A3-tte-and-other-mississippian-palaeobotanical-localities-of-the-kilpatrick-hills-southwest-scotland
#14
Richard M Bateman, Liadan G Stevens, Jason Hilton
Background and Aims. The largely Mississippian strata of the Kilpatrick Hills, located at the western end of the Scottish Midland Valley, enclose several macrofossil floras that together contain ca 21 organ-species of permineralised plants and ca 44 organ-species of compressed plants, here estimated to represent 25 whole-plant species (Glenarbuck = nine, Loch Humphrey Burn Lower = 11, Upper = seven). The most significant locality is the internationally important volcanigenic sequence that is reputedly intercalated within the Clyde Plateau Lava Formation at Loch Humphrey Burn, where ca 30 m of reworked tuffs and other clastic sediments enclose one of the world's most important terrestrial lagerstätten of this period...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895622/bioaugmentation-mitigates-the-impact-of-estrogen-on-coliform-grazing-protozoa-in-slow-sand-filters
#15
Sarah-Jane Haig, Caroline Gauchotte-Lindsay, Gavin Collins, Christopher Quince
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment...
March 15, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849329/carbon-cycling-and-exports-over-diel-and-flood-recovery-timescales-in-a-subtropical-rainforest-headwater-stream
#16
Arún Looman, Isaac R Santos, Douglas R Tait, Jackie R Webb, Caroline A Sullivan, Damien T Maher
Catchment headwaters comprise the majority of all stream length globally, however, carbon (C) dynamics in these systems remains poorly understood. We combined continuous measurements of pCO2 and radon ((222)Rn, a natural groundwater tracer) with discrete sampling for particulate organic, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (POC, DOC, and DIC) to assess the short-term carbon dynamics of a pristine subtropical headwater stream in Australia, over contrasting hydrologic regimes of drought, flash-flooding and recovery...
April 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845178/regional-reconstruction-of-flash-flood-history-in-the-guadarrama-range-central-system-spain
#17
C Rodriguez-Morata, J A Ballesteros-Cánovas, D Trappmann, M Beniston, M Stoffel
Flash floods are a common natural hazard in Mediterranean mountain environments and responsible for serious economic and human disasters. The study of flash flood dynamics and their triggers is a key issue; however, the retrieval of historical data is often limited in mountain regions as a result of short time series and the systematic lack of historical data. In this study, we attempt to overcome data deficiency by supplementing existing records with dendrogeomorphic techniques which were employed in seven mountain streams along the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountain range...
April 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779955/new-perspectives-on-interdisciplinary-earth-science-at-the-dead-sea-the-deserve-project
#18
Christoph Kottmeier, Amotz Agnon, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Pinhas Alpert, Ulrich Corsmeier, Torsten Dahm, Adam Eshel, Stefan Geyer, Michael Haas, Eoghan Holohan, Norbert Kalthoff, Pavel Kishcha, Charlotte Krawczyk, Joseph Lati, Jonathan B Laronne, Friederike Lott, Ulf Mallast, Ralf Merz, Jutta Metzger, Ayman Mohsen, Efrat Morin, Manuela Nied, Tino Rödiger, Elias Salameh, Ali Sawarieh, Benbella Shannak, Christian Siebert, Michael Weber
The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~1m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required...
February 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26694376/plant-adaptation-to-multiple-stresses-during-submergence-and-following-desubmergence
#19
REVIEW
Bishal Gole Tamang, Takeshi Fukao
Plants require water for growth and development, but excessive water negatively affects their productivity and viability. Flash floods occasionally result in complete submergence of plants in agricultural and natural ecosystems. When immersed in water, plants encounter multiple stresses including low oxygen, low light, nutrient deficiency, and high risk of infection. As floodwaters subside, submerged plants are abruptly exposed to higher oxygen concentration and greater light intensity, which can induce post-submergence injury caused by oxidative stress, high light, and dehydration...
December 17, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679903/mitigating-the-impact-of-flash-flooding
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2015: Veterinary Record
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