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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329315/role-of-n-glycosylation-in-activation-of-prommp-9-a-molecular-dynamics-simulations-study
#1
Sonu Kumar, Piotr Cieplak
Human matrix metalloproteinase proMMP-9 is secreted as latent zymogen, which requires two-steps proteolytic activation. The secreted proMMP-9 is glycosylated at two positions: Asn38 and Asn120 located in the prodomain and catalytic domain, respectively. It has been demonstrated that glycosylation at Asn120 is required for secretion of the enzyme, while the role of Asn38 glycosylation is not well understood, but is usually linked to the activation process. One hypothesis stated that the Asn38 glycosylation might protect against proteolytic activation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328490/galectin-1-expression-in-activated-pancreatic-satellite-cells-promotes-fibrosis-in-chronic-pancreatitis-pancreatic-cancer-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway
#2
Dong Tang, Qi Wu, Jingqiu Zhang, Hongpeng Zhang, Zhongxu Yuan, Jiaming Xu, Yang Chong, Yuqin Huang, Qingquan Xiong, Sen Wang, Ying Tian, Yongdie Lu, Xiao Ge, Wenjing Shen, Daorong Wang
Chronic pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer (CP/PC) is characterized by fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Galectin-1 is upregulated in activated PSCs and is important for the continuing activation of PSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of galectin-1 derived from activated PSCs on the progression of fibrosis in CP/PC. To this end, the expression of desmin, α-SMA, galectin-1, fibronectin and collagen type I in normal pancreatic, CP and PC tissues, as well as quiescent/activated PSCs, was investigated...
January 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327139/galectin-3-levels-relate-in-children-to-total-body-fat-abdominal-fat-body-fat-distribution-and-cardiac-size
#3
Magnus Dencker, Daniel Arvidsson, Magnus K Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Lars B Andersen, Ola Thorsson
Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325895/the-vertebrate-limb-an-evolving-complex-of-self-organizing-systems
#4
REVIEW
Stuart A Newman, Tilmann Glimm, Ramray Bhat
The paired appendages (fins or limbs) of jawed vertebrates contain an endoskeleton consisting of nodules, bars and, in some groups, plates of cartilage, or bone arising from replacement of cartilaginous templates. The generation of the endoskeletal elements occurs by processes involving production and diffusion of morphogens, with, variously, positive and negative feedback circuits, adhesion, and receptor dynamics with similarities to the mechanism for chemical pattern formation proposed by Alan Turing. This review presents a unified interpretation of the evolution and functioning of these mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325545/phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-promote-access-to-the-cytosol-and-intracellular-burden-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#5
Thomas R Lerner, Christophe J Queval, Antony Fearns, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Maximiliano G Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), glycolipids found on the outer surface of virulent members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex, are a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Mtb. Myelocytic cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, are the primary hosts for Mtb after infection and previous studies have shown multiple roles for PDIM in supporting Mtb in these cells. However, Mtb can infect other cell types. We previously showed that Mtb efficiently replicates in human lymphatic endothelial cells (hLECs) and that the hLEC cytosol acts as a reservoir for Mtb in humans...
January 4, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322198/association-of-cardiovascular-biomarkers-with-incident-heart-failure-with-preserved-and-reduced-ejection-fraction
#6
Rudolf A de Boer, Matthew Nayor, Christopher R deFilippi, Danielle Enserro, Vijeta Bhambhani, Jorge R Kizer, Michael J Blaha, Frank P Brouwers, Mary Cushman, Joao A C Lima, Hossein Bahrami, Pim van der Harst, Thomas J Wang, Ron T Gansevoort, Caroline S Fox, Hanna K Gaggin, Willem J Kop, Kiang Liu, Ramachandran S Vasan, Bruce M Psaty, Douglas S Lee, Hans L Hillege, Traci M Bartz, Emelia J Benjamin, Cheeling Chan, Matthew Allison, Julius M Gardin, James L Januzzi, Sanjiv J Shah, Daniel Levy, David M Herrington, Martin G Larson, Wiek H van Gilst, John S Gottdiener, Alain G Bertoni, Jennifer E Ho
Importance: Nearly half of all patients with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as opposed to reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), yet associations of biomarkers with future heart failure subtype are incompletely understood. Objective: To evaluate the associations of 12 cardiovascular biomarkers with incident HFpEF vs HFrEF among adults from the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 4 longitudinal community-based cohorts: the Cardiovascular Health Study (1989-1990; 1992-1993 for supplemental African-American cohort), the Framingham Heart Study (1995-1998), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), and the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study (1997-1998)...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321242/adhesion-growth-regulatory-galectins-tested-in-combination-evidence-for-formation-of-hybrids-as-heterodimers
#7
Michelle C Miller, Anna-Kristen Ludwig, Kanin Wichapong, Herbert Kaltner, Jürgen Kopitz, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Kevin H Mayo
The delineation of the physiological significance of protein (lectin)-glycan recognition and the structural analysis of individual lectins have directed our attention to studying them in combination. In this report, we tested the hypothesis of hybrid formation by using binary mixtures of homodimeric galectins-1 and -7 as well as a proteolytically truncated version of chimera-type galectin-3. Initial supportive evidence is provided by affinity chromatography using resin-presented galectin-7. Intriguingly, extent of cell binding by cross-linking of surface counter-receptor increased significantly for monomeric galectin-3 form by presence of galectin-1 or -7...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320431/galectin-targeted-therapy-in-oncology-current-knowledge-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Kamil Wdowiak, Tomasz Francuz, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Natalia Ruiz-Agamez, Marcin Kubeczko, Iga Grochoła, Jerzy Wojnar
The incidence and mortality of cancer have increased over the past decades. Significant progress has been made in understanding the underpinnings of this disease and developing therapies. Despite this, cancer still remains a major therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic research has targeted several aspects of the disease such as cancer development, growth, angiogenesis and metastases. Many molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unknown and current therapies have so far failed to meet their intended potential...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318378/mac-2-binding-protein-glycan-isomer-m2bpgi-is-a-new-serum-biomarker-for-assessing-liver-fibrosis-more-than-a-biomarker-of-liver-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Ken Shirabe, Yuki Bekki, Dolgormaa Gantumur, Kenichiro Araki, Norihiro Ishii, Atsushi Kuno, Hisashi Narimatsu, Masashi Mizokami
Assessing liver fibrosis is important for predicting the efficacy of antiviral therapy and patient prognosis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing liver fibrosis, despite its invasiveness and problematic diagnostic accuracy. Although noninvasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis are becoming important, reliable serum surrogate markers are not available. A glycoproteomics study aimed at identifying such markers discovered Mac 2-Binding Protein Gylcan Isomer (M2BPGi), which is a reliable marker for assessing liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis and other fibrotic liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis, biliary atresia, autoimmune hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316949/ezh2-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-through-modulating-mir-22-galectin-9-axis
#10
Shaofei Chen, Jiarui Pu, Jie Bai, Yuping Yin, Ke Wu, Jiliang Wang, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Hang Li
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced galectin-9 expression in Kupffer cells plays an essential role in modulatingthe microenvironment of hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether or not IFN-γ induces galectin-9 expression in HCC cells, its biological role and regulatory mechanism in HCC development and progression are poorly defined. METHODS: Quantitative PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect galectin-9 and EZH2 levels in HCC cell lines stimulated with IFN-γ...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316658/galectin-12-in-cellular-differentiation-apoptosis-and-polarization
#11
REVIEW
Lei Wan, Ri-Yao Yang, Fu-Tong Liu
Galectin-12 is a member of a family of mammalian lectins characterized by their affinity for β-galactosides and consensus amino acid sequences. The protein structure consists of a single polypeptide chain containing two carbohydrate-recognition domains joined by a linker region. Galectin-12 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, but is also detected in macrophages and other leukocytes. Downregulation of galectin-12 in mouse 3T3-L1 cells impairs their differentiation into adipocytes. Conversely, overexpression of galectin-12 in vitro induces cell cycle arrest in G1 and apoptosis...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315388/galectin-3-and-cancer-stemness
#12
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
Over the last few decades galectin-3, a carbohydrate binding protein, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine residues, has been unique due to the regulatory roles it performs in processes associated with tumor progression and metastasis such as cell proliferation, homotypic/ heterotypic aggregation, dynamic cellular transformation, migration and invasion, survival and apoptosis. Structure-function association of galectin-3 reveals that it consists of a short amino terminal motif, which regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling; a collagen α-like domain, susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteases and prostate specific antigen (PSA); accountable for its oligomerization and lattice formation, and a carbohydrate recognition/binding domain containing the anti-death motif of the Bcl2 protein family...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313666/carbon-1-versus-carbon-3-linkage-of-d-galactose-to-porphyrins-synthesis-uptake-and-photodynamic-efficiency
#13
Patrícia Manuela Ribeiro Pereira, Waqar Rizvi, Naga Venkata Satya Dinesh Kumar Bhupathiraju, Naxhije Berisha, Rosa Fernandes, Joao P C Tome, Charles Michael Michael Drain
The use of glycosylated compounds is actively pursued as a therapeutic strategy for cancer due to the overexpression of various types of sugar receptors and transporters on most cancer cells. Conjugation of saccharides to photosensitizers such as porphyrins provides a promising strategy to improve the selectivity and cell uptake of the photosensitizers, enhancing the overall photosensitizing efficacy. Most porphyrin-carbohydrate conjugates are linked via the carbon-1 position of the carbohydrate because this is the most synthetically accessible approach...
January 9, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313168/clinical-and-prognostic-usefulness-of-soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Rafał Nikodem Wlazeł, Iwona Szadkowska, Piotr Bartnicki, Kinga Rośniak-Bąk, Jacek Rysz
PURPOSE: Considering its prognostic usefulness and the relationship with chronic kidney disease, we analyzed the clinical utility of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment. We focused on the association between suPAR levels and clinical outcomes, especially those related to cardiovascular events and mortality as well as the effect of hemodialysis on the protein levels. METHODS: We enrolled 64 patients...
January 8, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312645/serum-galectin-3-level-not-galectin-1-is-associated-with-the-clinical-feature-and-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Han Dong, Zhi-Hao Wang, Na Zhang, Si-Da Liu, Jian-Jun Zhao, Song-Yan Liu
Aim: To study the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum galectin-1 (Gal-1) and -3 (Gal-3) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: We enrolled 233 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke and 252 healthy controls in this study. The AIS severity was evaluated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The serum Gal-1 and -3 levels were determined. All patients were followed for 1 years and the functional outcome were evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306235/expression-profiles-of-cd11b-galectin-1-beclin-1-and-caspase-3-in-nasal-polyposis
#16
Alper Dilci, Nuray Varol, İlker Kılıçcıoğlu, Ece Konac, Utku Aydil, Yusuf Kızıl, Sabri Uslu
Background/aim: Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosae. It is thought that genetic and molecular mechanisms in inflammatory and apoptotic pathways are the main factors in the etiopathogenesis of nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of CD11b, galectin-1, beclin-1, and caspase-3 in nasal polyps.Materials and methods: The mRNA expression levels of CD11b, galectin-1, beclin-1, and caspase-3 protein and western blot analysis of caspase-3 protein were evaluated in inferior turbinate mucosae and nasal polyp tissues...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305989/the-immune-response-of-mytilus-edulis-hemocytes-exposed-to-vibrio-splendidus-lgp32-strain-a-transcriptomic-attempt-at-identifying-molecular-actors
#17
Marion Tanguy, Sophie Gauthier-Clerc, Jocelyne Pellerin, Jean-Michel Danger, Ahmed Siah
The marine mussel Mytilus edulis, tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, combines a key role as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring programs and a significant economic importance. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites have not been described in mussels, which suggests an efficient immune system. This study aims at identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in the early immune responses M. edulis' hemocytes challenged with Vibrio splendidus LGP32 strain during 2, 4 and 6 h...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304535/circulating-angiogenic-mediators-in-patients-with-moderate-and-severe-von-willebrand-disease-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#18
Dafna J Groeneveld, Yvonne V Sanders, Jelle Adelmeijer, Evelien P Mauser-Bunschoten, Johanna G van der Bom, Marjon H Cnossen, Karin Fijnvandraat, Britta A P Laros-van Gorkom, Karina Meijer, Ton Lisman, Jeroen Eikenboom, Frank W G Leebeek
Inhibition of von Willebrand factor (VWF) expression in endothelial cells results in enhanced, possible dysfunctional angiogenesis, consistent with observations of severe gastrointestinal bleedings caused by vascular malformations in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF is stored in endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) with several other mediators of angiogenesis, like angiopoietin-2, osteoprotegerin and galectin-3. Increased release of angiopoietin-2 has been observed in medium of endothelial cells lacking VWF, but data on circulating levels of angiogenic factors in patients with VWD are lacking...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298841/galectin-8-induces-partial-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-with-invasive-tumorigenic-capabilities-involving-a-fak-egfr-proteasome-pathway-in-mdck-cells
#19
Claudia Oyanadel, Christopher Holmes, Evelyn Pardo, Claudio Retamal, Ronan Shaughnessy, Patricio Smith, Priscilla Cortes, Marcela Bravo-Zehnder, Claudia Metz, Teo Feuerhake, Diego Romero, Juan Carlos Roa, Viviana Montecinos, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Epithelial cells can acquire invasive and tumorigenic capabilities through epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). The glycan-binding protein Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is over-expressed by certain carcinomas and activates selective β1-integrins involved in EMT. Here we show that Gal-8 over-expression or exogenous addition promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-tumoral MDCK cells, involving focal-adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated transactivation of the EGFR, likely triggered by α5β1integrin binding...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287900/galectin-3-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Qi Kang, XiaoLong Li, Mengyun Yang, Taniya Fernando, Zheng Wan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the change of the inflammatory factor Galectin-3 in patients with coronary heart disease, and the correlation between Galectin-3 and the severity of the disease. To observe changes of Galectin-3 in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) before and after radiofrequency ablation, and the changes of Galectin-3 before and after an interim treatment with a high dose of atorvastatin on patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI). METHODS: Patients with coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation having normal heart function were selected, among them, the patients with AMI were given a short term treatment of 80mg atorvastatin before PCI, and patients with atrial fibrillation underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation...
December 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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