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Galectin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917454/a-phase-2a-open-label-pilot-study-of-the-galectin-3-inhibitor-gr-md-02-for-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis
#1
Simon Ritchie, Danielle Neal, Harold Shlevin, Adam Allgood, Peter Traber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915646/interleukin-15-stimulates-natural-killer-cell-mediated-killing-of-both-human-pancreatic-cancer-and-stellate-cells
#2
Jonas R M Van Audenaerde, Jorrit De Waele, Elly Marcq, Jinthe Van Loenhout, Eva Lion, Johan M J Van den Bergh, Ralf Jesenofsky, Atsushi Masamune, Geert Roeyen, Patrick Pauwels, Filip Lardon, Marc Peeters, Evelien L J Smits
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4(th) leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries with a 5-year survival rate below 5%. One of the hallmarks of this cancer is the strong desmoplastic reaction within the tumor microenvironment (TME), orchestrated by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). This results in a functional and mechanical shield which causes resistance to conventional therapies. Aiming to overcome this resistance by tackling the stromal shield, we assessed for the first time the capacity of IL-15 stimulated natural killer (NK) cells to kill PSC and pancreatic cancer cells (PCC)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893908/the-intrinsically-disordered-n-terminal-domain-of-galectin-3-dynamically-mediates-multisite-self-association-of-the-protein-through-fuzzy-interactions
#3
Yu-Hao Lin, De-Chen Qiu, Wen-Han Chang, Yi-Qi Yeh, U-Ser Jeng, Fu-Tong Liu, Jie-Rong Huang
Galectins are a family of lectins that bind β-galactosides through their conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and can induce aggregation with glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surface and thereby regulate cell activation, migration, adhesion, and signaling. Galectin-3 has an intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (NTD) and a canonical CRD. Unlike the other 14 known galectins in mammalian cells, which have dimeric or tandem-repeated CRDs enabling multivalency for various functions, galectin-3 is monomeric, and its functional multivalency therefore is somewhat of a mystery...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893801/galectin-3-a-druggable-vulnerability-for-kras-addicted-cancers
#4
Laetitia Seguin, Maria F Camargo, Hiromi I Wettersten, Shumei Kato, Jay S Desgrosellier, Tami von Schalscha, Kathryn C Elliott, Erika Cosset, Jacqueline Lesperance, Sara M Weis, David A Cheresh
Identifying the molecular basis for cancer cell dependence on oncogenes such as KRAS can provide new opportunities to target these addictions. Here, we identify a novel role for the carbohydrate-binding protein Galectin-3 as a lynchpin for KRAS dependence. By directly binding to the cell surface receptor integrin αvβ3, Galectin-3 gives rise to KRAS addiction by enabling multiple functions of KRAS in anchorage-independent cells, including formation of macropinosomes that facilitate nutrient uptake and ability to maintain redox balance...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889122/galectin-9-produced-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-enhances-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-dendritic-cells-in-a-pi3k-and-p38-dependent-manner
#5
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Mary E Morgan, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887481/glycosylation-dependent-galectin-1-neuropilin-1-interactions-promote-liver-fibrosis-through-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-pdgf-like-signals-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#6
Ming-Heng Wu, Yuh-Ling Chen, Kuen-Haur Lee, Che-Chang Chang, Tsai-Mu Cheng, Szu-Yuan Wu, Chao-Chiang Tu, Wan-Lin Tsui
Concomitant expressions of glycan-binding proteins and their bound glycans regulate many pathophysiologic processes, but this issue has not been addressed in liver fibrosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a rate-limiting step in liver fibrosis and is an important target for liver fibrosis therapy. We previously reported that galectin (Gal)-1, a β-galactoside-binding protein, regulates myofibroblast homeostasis in oral carcinoma and wound healing, but the role of Gal-1 in HSC migration and activation is unclear...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884048/expression-levels-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-galectin-3-in-meningioma-and-their-effect-on-brain-invasion-and-recurrence-a-tissue-microarray-study
#7
Rehab Allah Ahmed, Abdelhadi M Shebl, Hany Onsy Habashy
OBJECTIVE: Meningiomas are neoplasms that arise from the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). They constitute about 25.6% of CNS tumors diagnosed in Egypt. Some morphological variants of meningiomas display aggressive behavior, leading to brain-invasive growth pattern. Although meningiomas are usually treated by complete surgical excision, the risk of postoperative recurrence remains. Hence, additional biomarkers for predicting aggressive behavior must be discovered. This study aims to explore the clinical and biological relevance of the protein expression levels of β-catenin and galectine-3 in meningioma and to understand the pathobiology of this neoplasm...
August 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880321/real-time-dynamic-sers-detection-of-galectin-using-glycan-decorated-gold-nanoparticles
#8
Judith Langer, Isabel García, Luis M Liz-Marzán
We present the application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the fast, sensitive and highly specific detection of the galectin-9 (Gal-9) protein in binding buffer (mimicking natural conditions). The method involves the use of specifically designed nanotags comprising glycan-decorated gold nanoparticles encoded with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. At fast time scales Gal-9 can be detected down to a concentration of 1.2 nM by monitoring the SERS signal of the reporter, driven by aggregation of the functionalized Au NPs tags, induced by Gal-9 recognition...
September 7, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877989/regulatory-t-cell-mediated-suppression-of-inflammation-induced-by-dr3-signaling-is-dependent-on-galectin-9
#9
Shravan Madireddi, So-Young Eun, Amit K Mehta, Aruna Birta, Dirk M Zajonc, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Eckhard R Podack, Taylor H Schreiber, Michael Croft
Stimulation of several TNF receptor family proteins has been shown to dampen inflammatory disease in murine models through augmenting the number and/or activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs). We recently found that one molecule, 4-1BB, used binding to Galectin-9 to exert its immunosuppressive effects and drive expansion of CD8(+)Foxp3(-) Tregs. We now show that ligation of another TNFR family molecule, DR3, which has previously been found to strongly expand CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and suppress inflammation, also requires Galectin-9...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875838/biomarkers-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#10
Evangelos Oikonomou, Theodoros Zografos, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Panagiotis Theofilis, Alexandros Briasoulis, Spyridon Papaioannou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms behind AF are not completely elucidated, the underlying pathophysiological changes have been well described. Predisposal factors for AF include the older age, the increased left atrial size, the decreased left atrial function, the presence of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the presence of coronary heart disease or pulmonary or mitral valve disease...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875213/mass-spectrometry-based-identification-of-galectin-3-interacting-proteins-potentially-involved-in-lung-melanoma-metastasis
#11
Manohar C Dange, Hemangi S Bhonsle, Rashmi K Godbole, Shyam K More, Sanjay M Bane, Mahesh J Kulkarni, Rajiv D Kalraiya
Adhesive interactions between molecules on tumor cells and those on target organs play a key role in organ specific metastasis. Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) substituted N-oligosaccharides on melanoma cell surface glycoproteins promote lung specific metastasis via galectin-3 by facilitating their arrest and extravasation. This study reports the identification and characterization of galectin-3 interacting proteins using a combination of galectin-3 sepharose affinity and leucoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (L-PHA) columns...
September 6, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872212/galectin-3-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-cohort
#12
Pankaj Arora, Zubin Agarwal, Anand Venkatraman, Peter Callas, Brett Kissela, Nancy Jenny, Suzanne Judd, Neil A Zakai, Mary Cushman
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 is a biomarker of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease, and may be a useful marker for ischemic stroke risk. METHODS: The REGARDS cohort enrolled and examined 30,239 US participants between 2003 and 2007 (41% black, 59% white, and 55% in the southeastern stroke belt). Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 526 subjects with incident ischemic stroke over 5.4 years, and in a cohort random sample (CRS) of 947 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) of ischemic stroke by quartiles of galectin-3...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871094/the-immunologic-advantage-of-recurrent-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-from-the-viewpoint-of-galectin-9-tim-3-related-changes-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#13
Tseng-Cheng Chen, Chao-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Ping Wang, Pei-Hsuan Lin, Tsung-Lin Yang, Pei-Jen Lou, Jenq-Yuh Ko, Chen-Tu Wu, Yih-Leong Chang
Given salvage treatment for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains a clinical dilemma, immunotherapy targeting NPC-specific immunosuppression may bring new hope. We analyzed the expression of CD8, CD4, Foxp3 and Tim-3 in lymphocytes, and of Galectin-9 in tumour cells between paired primary and recurrent NPC from 95 patients and we noted that there was significant increase in the expression of Galectin-9+ tumour cells (p < 0.001) and Foxp3+ lymphocytes (p < 0.001) but a significant decrease in the expression of CD8+ lymphocytes (p = 0...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870921/significance-of-circulating-galectin-3-in-patients-with-pancreatobiliary-cancer
#14
Tatsuo Shimura, Masahiko Shibata, Kenji Gonda, Yasuhide Kofunato, Ryo Okada, Teruhide Ishigame, Takashi Kimura, Akira Kenjo, Koji Kono, Shigeru Marubashi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pancreatobiliary cancer is a disease associated with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. The aim of the present study was to clarify the usefulness of circulating galectin-3 in pancreatobiliary cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined serum galectin-3 concentrations in 45 patients with pancreatobiliary cancer. Receiver operating characteristic curves were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of circulating galectin-3 to discriminate pancreatobiliary cancer patients from controls and predict the prognostic outcomes...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870237/the-n-and-c-terminal-carbohydrate-recognition-domains-of-haemonchus-contortus-galectin-bind-to-distinct-receptors-of-goat-pbmc-and-contribute-differently-to-its-immunomodulatory-functions-in-host-parasite-interactions
#15
MingMin Lu, XiaoWei Tian, XinChao Yang, Cheng Yuan, Muhammad Ehsan, XinChao Liu, RuoFeng Yan, LiXin Xu, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Hco-gal-m is a tandem-repeat galectin isolated from the adult worm of Haemonchus contortus. A growing body of studies have demonstrated that Hco-gal-m could exert its immunomodulatory effects on host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to facilitate the immune evasion. Our previous work revealed that C-terminal and N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) of Hco-gal-m had different sugar binding abilities. However, whether different domains of Hco-gal-m account differently for its multiple immunomodulatory functions in the host-parasite interaction remains to be elucidated...
September 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865675/plasma-galectin-3-levels-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Casey M Rebholz, Elizabeth Selvin, Menglu Liang, Christie M Ballantyne, Ron C Hoogeveen, David Aguilar, John W McEvoy, Morgan E Grams, Josef Coresh
Galectin-3 has been proposed as a novel biomarker of heart failure and cardiac fibrosis, and may also be associated with fibrosis of other organs such as the kidney. To determine this, we prospectively analyzed data from 9,148 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants with measured plasma galectin-3 levels (baseline, visit 4, 1996-98) and without prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heart failure. We identified 1,983 incident CKD cases through December 31, 2013 over a median follow-up of 16 years...
August 30, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865412/association-between-4259-t-g-and-574-g-t-polymorphisms-of-tim-3-with-asthma-in-an-iranian-population
#17
Maryam Sadri, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Peyman Akbari, Rasoul Salehi, Sedighe Rastaghi, Ramin Ghasemi, Rezvan Meshkat
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM)-3 have been shown to negatively regulate Th1 cell-mediated immunity. Activation of TIM-3 by galectin-9 induces Th1 cell apoptosis, which may contribute to skewing of immune response towards Th2-dominant immunity. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain genetic variations of TIM-3 influence predisposition to asthma in a sample of Iranian population. This case-control study was conducted on 209 patients with asthma and 200 healthy controls. The +4259 T>G and -574 G>T polymorphisms were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system-PCR(ARMS-PCR)...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858976/galectin-3-pharmacological-inhibition-attenuates-early-renal-damage-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Jaime Ibarrola, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Laurent Calvier, Celine Leroy, Victoria Cachofeiro, Patrick Rossignol, Natalia López-Andrés
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological blockade of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, reduces renal impairment in acute kidney injury, hyperaldosteronism or nephropathy. We herein investigated the effects of pharmacological Gal-3 inhibition by modified citrus pectin (MCP) in renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Gal-3 inhibition did not modify blood pressure levels in 30-week-old SHR. Kidney weight was higher in SHR, with no effect of MCP treatment (100 mg/kg/day in the drinking water)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857355/galectin-1-from-conditioned-medium-of-three-dimensional-culture-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-accelerates-migration-and-proliferation-of-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#19
Min Ho Kim, Wen Hao Wu, Jee Hyun Choi, Ji Hyun Kim, Jin Hyun Jun, Yong Ko, Jong Hun Lee
Keratinocytes and fibroblasts cells play important roles in the skin-wound healing process and are the cell types activated by trauma. Activated cells participate in epithelialization, granulation, scar-tissue formation, wound remodeling, and angiogenesis via a series of cellular activities including migration and proliferation. Previous studies reported that the conditioned medium (CM) of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) stimulated the migration and proliferation of cell types involved in the skin-wound healing process; however, these studies only show ADSC-CM effects that were obtained using 2-dimensional (2D) culture...
August 30, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855452/galectin-3-and-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-canrenone-in-mild-heart-failure
#20
Francesco Clemenza, Serge Masson, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Daniele Di Carlo, Alessandro Boccanelli, Gian Francesco Mureddu, Lucio Gonzini, Donata Lucci, Aldo P Maggioni, Andrea Di Lenarda, Enrico B Nicolis, Massimo Vanasia, Roberto Latini
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is involved in collagen deposition and inflammation and is a prognostic biomarker in heart failure (HF).Methods and Results:Gal-3 and other markers of fibrosis or cardiac stress were measured serially in 413 patients with mild HF randomized to the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist canrenone or placebo to evaluate treatment effect and association with clinical outcome. Gal-3 increased slightly over 6 months in both arms of the study and was associated with clinical endpoints...
August 31, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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