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Galectin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634242/type-ii-secretion-substrates-of-legionella-pneumophila-translocate-out-of-the-pathogen-occupied-vacuole-via-a-semipermeable-membrane
#1
Hilary K Truchan, Harry D Christman, Richard C White, Nakisha S Rutledge, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila replicates in macrophages in a host-derived phagosome, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). While the translocation of type IV secretion (T4S) effectors into the macrophage cytosol is well established, the location of type II secretion (T2S) substrates in the infected host cell is unknown. Here, we show that the T2S substrate ProA, a metalloprotease, translocates into the cytosol of human macrophages, where it associates with the LCV membrane (LCVM). Translocation is detected as early as 10 h postinoculation (p...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629160/structural-characterization-of-a-rhamnogalacturonan-i-domain-from-ginseng-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-galectin-3
#2
Huimin Shi, Li Yu, Yun Shi, Jiaojiao Lu, He Teng, Yifa Zhou, Lin Sun
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Partial acid hydrolysis, monoclonal antibody detection, and NMR spectra analysis suggested RG-I-3A was composed of →4)-α-GalpA-(1→2)-α-Rhap-(1→disaccharide repeating units as backbone, with β-1,4-galactan, α-1,5-arabinan, AG-I, and AG-II side chains substituted via the O-4 of Rhap...
June 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627758/spectral-library-based-glycopeptide-analysis-detection-of-circulating-galectin-3-binding-protein-in-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Eslam N Nigjeh, Ru Chen, Yasuko Allen-Tamura, Randall E Brand, Teresa A Brentnall, Sheng Pan
PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease characterized by its late diagnosis, poor prognosis and rapid development of drug resistance. Using the data independent acquisition (DIA) technique, we applied a spectral library-based proteomic approach to analyze N-glycosylated peptides in human plasma, in the context of pancreatic cancer study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We extended the application of DIA to the quantification of N-glycosylated peptides enriched from plasma specimens from a clinically well-defined cohort that consists of patients with early stage PDAC, chronic pancreatitis and healthy subjects...
June 19, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#4
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620605/regulation-of-eosinophil-recruitment-and-activation-by-galectins-in-allergic-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Savita P Rao, Xiao Na Ge, P Sriramarao
Eosinophils are differentiated granulocytes that are recruited from the bone marrow to sites of inflammation via the vascular system. Allergic asthma is characterized by the presence of large numbers of eosinophils in the lungs and airways. Due to their capacity to rapidly release inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and cytotoxic granule proteins upon stimulation, eosinophils play a critical role in pro-inflammatory processes in allergen-exposed lungs. Identifying key players and understanding the molecular mechanisms directing eosinophil trafficking and recruitment to inflamed airways is a key to developing therapeutic strategies to limit their influx...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619659/effects-of-canagliflozin-on-cardiovascular-biomarkers-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
James L Januzzi, Javed Butler, Petr Jarolim, Naveed Sattar, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, Mehul Desai, Michael J Davies
BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may reduce cardiovascular and heart failure risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of canagliflozin on cardiovascular biomarkers in older patients with T2DM. METHODS: In 666 T2DM patients randomized to receive canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo, we assessed median percent change in serum N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) , soluble (s)ST2, and galectin-3 from baseline to 26, 52, and 104 weeks...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618039/serum-galectin-9-levels-are-correlated-to-liver-fibrosis-regardless-of-chronic-inflammation-or-hepatocellular-carcinoma-complications
#7
Koji Fujita, Toshiro Niki, Takako Nomura, Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Teppei Sakamoto, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Noriyuki Kuroda, Takeshi Arai, Naoki Nishimoto, Takashi Himoto, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) progress from chronic inflammation to fibrosis to tumorigenesis. Galectin-9, a β-galactoside-specific animal lectin, is indicated to contribute to all three steps of progression. The aim of this study was to determine which of the three steps was most dominant in elevating the serum galectin-9 concentration and to test the possibility of galectin-9 as a serum biomarker. METHODS: Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic liver disease who provided informed consent were enrolled in this study...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617578/antibodies-against-specific-muc16-glycosylation-sites-inhibit-ovarian-cancer-growth
#8
Thapi Dharma Rao, Alberto Fernández-Tejada, Abram Axelrod, Nestor Rosales, Xiujun Yan, Sahityasri Thapi, Amy Wang, Kay J Park, Brandon Nemieboka, Jingyi Xiang, Jason S Lewis, Nariso Olvera, Douglas A Levine, Samuel J Danishefsky, David Spriggs
Expression of the retained C-terminal extracellular portion of the ovarian cancer glycoprotein MUC16 induces transformation and tumor growth. However, the mechanisms of MUC16 oncogenesis related to glycosylation are not clearly defined. We establish that MUC16 oncogenic effects are mediated through MGAT5-dependent N-glycosylation of two specific asparagine sites within its 58 amino acid ectodomain. Oncogenic signaling from the C-terminal portion of MUC16 requires the presence of Galectin-3 and growth factor receptors co-localized on lipid rafts...
June 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615524/interleukin-15-stimulates-natural-killer-cell-mediated-killing-of-both-human-pancreatic-cancer-and-stellate-cells
#9
Jonas R M Van Audenaerde, Jorrit De Waele, Elly Marcq, Jinthe Van Loenhout, Eva Lion, Johan M J Van den Bergh, Ralf Jesenofsky, Atsushi Masamune, Geert Roeyen, Patrick Pauwels, Filip Lardon, Marc Peeters, Evelien L J Smits
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries with a 5-year survival rate below 5%. One of the hallmarks of this cancer is the strong desmoplastic reaction within the tumor microenvironment (TME), orchestrated by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). This results in a functional and mechanical shield which causes resistance to conventional therapies. Aiming to overcome this resistance by tackling the stromal shield, we assessed for the first time the capacity of IL-15 stimulated natural killer (NK) cells to kill PSC and pancreatic cancer cells (PCC)...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612913/the-usefulness-of-soluble-st2-and-galectin-3-as-novel-biomarkers-for-better-risk-stratification-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Monika Gawor, Mateusz Śpiewak, Jadwiga Janas, Katarzyna Kożuch, Aleksandra Wróbel, Łukasz Mazurkiewicz, Rafał Baranowski, Magdalena Marczak, Jacek Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Estimation of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk is an integral part of clinical management of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Identification of novel biomarkers of this disease can provide additional criteria for SCD risk stratification. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity (sST2) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are useful biomarkers for prognosis of heart failure (HF). Both of them appear to mediate cardiac fibrosis - an important pathogenetic process in HCM. Data about sST2 and Gal-3 usefulness in patients with HCM are limited...
June 14, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610414/role-of-galectin-3-combined-with-multi-detector-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-in-predicting-disease-recurrence-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#11
Emanuela Anastasi, Silvia Gigli, Maria Santulli, Sara Tartaglione, Laura Ballesio, Maria Grazia Porpora, Teresa Granato, Carlo Catalano, Antonio Angeloni, Lucia Manganaro
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an endogenous β-galactoside-binding lectin, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies. Aim of the study was to evaluate in a group of patients treated for ovarian cancer (EOC), the role of Gal-3 combined with multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MDCT), as predictor of recurrence disease. Seventeen follow-up patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and 13 follow-up patients with stable ovarian disease, who performed MDCT at one-year follow-up after cytoreductive treatment, were enrolled...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608969/effect-of-iloprost-on-biomarkers-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Xiao-Ye Li, Yu Zheng, Yuliang Long, Xiaochun Zhang, Lei Zhang, Dan Tian, Daxin Zhou, Qian-Zhou Lv
Some biomarkers play important roles in the endothelial dysfunction of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), including nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), galectin-3 (Gal-3), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and uric acid (UA). However, studies on these biomarkers in pulmonary artery blood in congenital heart disease-PAH (CHD-PAH) and the effect of iloprost on the regulation of biomarkers are lacking. This study investigated potential CHD-PAH biomarkers and their association with the severity of disease...
June 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607536/the-many-roles-of-galectin-3-a-multifaceted-molecule-in-innate-immune-responses-against-pathogens
#13
REVIEW
Laura Díaz-Alvarez, Enrique Ortega
Galectins are a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins with the ability to bind β-galactosides through characteristic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-3 is structurally unique among all galectins as it contains a C-terminal CRD linked to an N-terminal protein-binding domain, being the only chimeric galectin. Galectin-3 participates in many functions, both intra- and extracellularly. Among them, a prominent role for Galectin-3 in inflammation has been recognized. Galectin-3 has also been shown to directly bind to pathogens and to have various effects on the functions of the cells of the innate immune system...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597803/prognostic-value-of-galectin-3-on-admission-in-chinese-patients-with-heart-failure-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Hua Wang, Qingyong Chen, Yingying Li, Xianchao Jing, Tianya Liang, Jiefu Yang
Objective We performed a prospective observational study to explore the prognostic value of plasma galectin-3, a biomarker for fibrosis and inflammation, in Chinese patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and results Galectin-3, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and other clinically related variables were measured in consecutive HF patients in Beijing Hospital. Specifically, galectin-3 was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause mortality or readmission at the end of follow-up...
April 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597244/seasonal-and-flight-related-variation-of-galectin-expression-in-heart-liver-and-flight-muscles-of-yellow-rumped-warblers-setophaga-coronata
#15
Stefanie S Bradley, Morag F Dick, Christopher G Guglielmo, Alexander V Timoshenko
Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds...
June 8, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596509/serum-galectin-3-level-not-galectin-1-is-associated-with-the-clinical-feature-and-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Han Dong, Zhi-Hao Wang, Na Zhang, Si-Da Liu, Jian-Jun Zhao, Song-Yan Liu
AIM: To study the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum galectin-1 (Gal-1) and -3 (Gal-3) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 233 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke and 252 healthy controls in this study. The AIS severity was evaluated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The serum Gal-1 and -3 levels were determined. All patients were followed for 1 years and the functional outcome were evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594391/galectins-1-3-and-7-are-prognostic-markers-for-survival-of-ovarian-cancer-patients
#17
Heiko Schulz, Elisa Schmoeckel, Christina Kuhn, Simone Hofmann, Doris Mayr, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke
There is a tremendous need for developing new useful prognostic factors in ovarian cancer. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins which have been suggested to serve as prognostic factors for various cancer types. In this study, the presence of Galectin-1, -3, and -7 was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer specimens by immunochemical staining. Staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells as well as the peritumoral stroma using a semi quantitative score (Remmele (IR) score)...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593065/high-expression-of-galectin-3-in-patients-with-igg4-related-disease-a-proteomic-approach
#18
Adeeb Salah, Hajime Yoshifuji, Shinji Ito, Koji Kitagori, Kaori Kiso, Norishige Yamada, Toshiki Nakajima, Hironori Haga, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Aya Miyagawa-Hayashino
OBJECTIVES: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan condition manifesting itself in different forms. This study aimed to investigate protein expression profiles and to find the possible biomarker for IgG4-RD by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using tissue sections in IgG4-RD patients. METHODS: Protein expression profiles in five IgG4-related pancreatitis and three normal pancreatic samples were compared using LC-MS and were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry...
2017: Pathology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591719/stable-and-high-expression-of-galectin-8-tightly-controls-metastatic-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#19
Lucas Daniel Gentilini, Felipe Martín Jaworski, Carolina Tiraboschi, Ignacio González Pérez, Monica Lidia Kotler, Anne Chauchereau, Diego Jose Laderach, Daniel Compagno
Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586026/effects-of-galectin-9-on-apoptosis-cell-cycle-and-autophagy-in-human-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-cells
#20
Emiko Akashi, Shintaro Fujihara, Asahiro Morishita, Tomoko Tadokoro, Taiga Chiyo, Keiko Fujikawa, Hideki Kobara, Hirohito Mori, Hisakazu Iwama, Keiichi Okano, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly increasing in western countries. The overall mortality of this disease remains high with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%, despite remarkable advances in the care of patients with EAC. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a tandem-repeat type galectin that exerts anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell types. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Gal-9 on human EAC cells and to assess the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effects of Gal-9 in vitro...
June 1, 2017: Oncology Reports
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