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Galectin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432704/human-galectin-9-on-the-porcine-cells-affects-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-m1-differentiated-thp-1-cells-through-inducing-a-shift-in-m2-differentiated-thp-1-cells
#1
Sung Han Jung, Jeong Ho Hwang, Sang Eun Kim, Young Kyu Kim, Hyo Chang Park, Hoon Taek Lee
BACKGROUND: In xenotransplantation, immune rejection by macrophages occurs rapidly and remains a major obstacle. Studies to control immune rejection in macrophages have been continuing to date. Recent studies have reported that human galectin-9 (hGal-9) can regulate the function of regulatory T cells (Treg), as well as cytotoxicity T cells (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). Although the effect of hGal-9 on lymphocytes has been well studied, the relationship between hGal-9 and myeloid cells has been scarcely studied...
April 21, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431936/galectin-3-mediates-the-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced-right-ventricular-remodeling-through-interacting-with-nadph-oxidase-4
#2
Jingni He, Xiaohui Li, Hui Luo, Tangzhiming Li, Lin Zhao, Qiangqiang Qi, Yuwei Liu, Zaixin Yu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder that affects both pulmonary vasculature and the heart. The response of the right ventricle (RV) to the increased afterload is an important determinant of the PAH final outcome. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a novel biomarker in left cardiac remodeling, takes part in multiple pathophysiological processes including the inflammation, fibrosis, immunity, and oxidative stress. The levels of Gal-3 are elevated in PAH patients, although the exact mechanisms underlie the PAH-induced right ventricular structural changes remain unclear...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430337/circulating-neuregulin-1-and-galectin-3-can-be-prognostic-markers-in-breast-cancer
#3
Francesca De Iuliis, Gerardo Salerno, Ludovica Taglieri, Rosina Lanza, Patrizia Cardelli, Susanna Scarpa
BACKGROUND: It is important to identify novel plasmatic biomarkers that can contribute to assessing the prognosis and outcome of breast cancer patients. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are proteins that are involved in breast cancer development and patient survival; therefore, we studied whether the serum concentration of these 2 proteins can be correlated to breast cancer progression. METHODS: Plasmatic NRG1 and Gal-3 were evaluated in 25 healthy controls and 50 breast cancer patients at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after treatment with anthracyclines and taxanes, with or without trastuzumab...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428895/suppression-of-retinal-neovascularization-by-inhibition-of-galectin-1-in-a-murine-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#4
Ning Yang, Wenxi Zhang, Tao He, Yiqiao Xing
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been proved to be an important factor in the process of tumor angiogenesis recently. As a small molecule, OTX008 serves as a selective inhibitor of Gal-1. In this study, the role of Gal-1 and the antiangiogenic effect of OTX008 on retinal neovascularization (RNV) were investigated using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. The outcome indicated that Gal-1 was overexpressed and closely related to retinal neovessels in OIR. After intravitreal injection of OTX008 at P12, the RNV was significantly reduced at P17, measuring by cross-sectional H&E staining and whole-mount fluorescence...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#5
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425846/alterations-to-adipose-tissue-morphology-during-inflammatory-arthritis-is-indicative-of-vasculopathology-in-dba-1-mice
#6
Katie Sime, Ernest H Choy, Anwen S Williams
The physiologic function of adipose tissue is altered by the host's inflammatory response; the implications for maintaining human health and regulating inflammation-associated disease progression are ill defined. However, this cannot be investigated in humans, therefore the use of animal models is required. With the aim to determine morphological and molecular alterations to perivascular and organ-associated adipose tissues during inflammatory arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established in male DBA/1 mice...
February 21, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425099/network-analysis-of-adhesion-growth-regulatory-galectins-and-their-binding-sites-in-adult-chicken-retina-and-choroid
#7
Joachim C Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius
The highly ordered multilayered organization of the adult chicken retina is a suitable test model for examining zonal distribution of the members of a bioeffector family. Based on the concept of the sugar code, the functional pairing of glycan epitopes with cognate receptors (lectins) is emerging as a means to explain the control of diverse physiological activities. Having recently completed the biochemical characterization of all seven adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins present in chicken, it was possible to establish how the individual characteristics of their expression profiles add up to shape the galectin network, which until now has not been defined at this level of complexity...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424265/effects-of-altered-sialic-acid-biosynthesis-on-n-linked-glycan-branching-and-cell-surface-interactions
#8
Nam D Pham, Poh-Choo Pang, Soumya Krishnamurthy, Amberlyn M Wands, Paola Grassi, Anne Dell, Stuart M Haslam, Jennifer J Kohler
GNE myopathy is a rare muscle disorder associated with aging and is related to sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), the most common acquired muscle disease of aging. While the cause of sIBM is unknown, GNE myopathy is associated with mutations in UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE). GNE harbors two enzymatic activities required for biosynthesis of sialic acid in mammalian cells. Mutations to both GNE domains are linked to GNE myopathy. However, correlation between mutation-associated reductions in sialic acid production and disease severity is imperfect...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423602/promoter-hypermethylation-of-lgals4-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-urothelial-carcinoma
#9
Meei-Maan Wu, Ching-Fei Li, Li-Fang Lin, Alexander Sheng-Shin Wang, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Hsiu-Hua Wang, Ai-Chung Mar, Chien-Jen Chen, Te-Chang Lee
Galectine-4 (gal-4), encoded by the LGALS4 gene, was recently shown to exhibit a tumor suppressive effect in colorectal carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, although how the expression of this gene is regulated remains unknown. No reports describe the significance of gal-4 in the malignant potential of urothelial tumors. Thus, we analyzed LGALS4 methylation and gene expression and their clinical relevance and biological function in urothelial carcinoma (UC). LGALS4 methylation was initially identified as a progression biomarker for UC patients through genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of 16 tumor samples...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423321/hepatocellular-carcinomas-originate-predominantly-from-hepatocytes-and-benign-lesions-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#10
Krishna S Tummala, Marta Brandt, Ana Teijeiro, Osvaldo Graña, Robert F Schwabe, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas) and aggressive HCCs...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417017/galectin-1-inhibition-attenuates-profibrotic-signaling-in-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Jaymin J Kathiriya, Niyati Nakra, Jenna Nixon, Puja S Patel, Vijay Vaghasiya, Ahmed Alhassani, Zhi Tian, Diane Allen-Gipson, Vrushank Davé
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by lung remodeling arising from epithelial injury, aberrant fibroblast growth, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Repeated epithelial injury elicits abnormal wound repair and lung remodeling, often associated with alveolar collapse and edema, leading to focal hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia is a physiological insult that contributes to pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and define its molecular roles in profibrotic activation of lung epithelial cells...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415760/binding-of-galectin-1-to-integrin-%C3%AE-1-potentiates-drug-resistance-by-promoting-survivin-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
KeeSoo Nam, Seog-Ho Son, Sunhwa Oh, Donghwan Jeon, Hyungjoo Kim, Dong-Young Noh, Sangmin Kim, Incheol Shin
Galectin-1 is a β-galactoside binding protein secreted by many types of aggressive cancer cells. Although many studies have focused on the role of galectin-1 in cancer progression, relatively little attention has been paid to galectin-1 as an extracellular therapeutic target. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying galectin-1-mediated cancer progression, we established galectin-1 knock-down cells via retroviral delivery of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against galectin-1 in two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413178/synthesized-a%C3%AE-42-caused-intracellular-oxidative-damage-leading-to-cell-death-via-lysosome-rupture
#13
Yuki Oku, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Jun Hoseki, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Neuronal cellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, a toxic form of Aβ, was observed as an early event in AD patients. However, its contribution and the cellular mechanism of cell death remained unclear. We herein revealed the mechanism by which Aβ42 incorporated into cells leads to cell death by using chemically synthesized Aβ42 variants. The Aβ42 variant Aβ42 (E22P) which has an increased tendency to oligomerize, accumulated in lysosomes at an earlier stage than wild-type Aβ42, leading to higher ROS production and lysosomal membrane oxidation, and resulting in cell death...
April 12, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412087/pregestational-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-murine-embryo-through-cardiac-remodeling-and-fibrosis
#14
Xue Lin, Penghua Yang, E Albert Reece, Peixin Yang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with T2DM and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study has revealed that maternal T2DM induces structural heart defects in their offspring. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine whether maternal T2DM induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406123/utilization-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-galectin-3-in-the-diagnosis-of-cerebral-infarction-patients-with-normal-cranial-tomography
#15
E Ekingen, M Yilmaz, M Yildiz, M Atescelik, M C Goktekin, M Gurger, O D Alatas, M Basturk, N Ilhan
OBJECTIVE: It was aimed to determine whether levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Galectin-3 contribute to the diagnosis of cerebral infarction in clinically suspected ischemic stroke patients with normal computerized cranial tomography (CCT) in the emergency department. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, patients above the age of 18 years who presented to emergency department of Firat University between December 2011-November 2012 and were diagnosed with cerebral infarction were included...
April 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406038/the-gala-study-relationship-between-galectin-3-serum-levels-and-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#16
Òscar Miró, Bernardino González de la Presa B, Pablo Herrero, Rosa Fernández Bonifacio, Martin Möckel, Christian Mueller, Gregori Casals, Silvia Sandalinas, Pere Llorens, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez, Javier Jacob, José Luis Bedini, Víctor Gil
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that early measurement of galactin-3 at the emergency department (ED) during an episode of acute heart failure (AHF) allows predicting short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: We performed an exploratory study including 115 patients consecutively diagnosed with AHF in a single ED. Clinical and analytical variables were recorded. The primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause mortality, and secondary endpoints were 30-day composite outcome (death, rehospitalisation or ED reconsultation, whichever first) and 1-year mortality...
April 13, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405776/immune-mediated-and-hypoxia-regulated-programs-accomplices-in-resistance-to-anti-angiogenic-therapies
#17
Diego O Croci, Santiago P Mendez-Huergo, Juan P Cerliani, Gabriel A Rabinovich
In contrast to mechanisms taking place during resistance to chemotherapies or other targeted therapies, compensatory adaptation to angiogenesis blockade does not imply a mutational alteration of genes encoding drug targets or multidrug resistance mechanisms but instead involves intrinsic or acquired activation of compensatory angiogenic pathways. In this article we highlight hypoxia-regulated and immune-mediated mechanisms that converge in endothelial cell programs and preserve angiogenesis in settings of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade...
April 13, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405179/a-review-of-studies-of-the-proteomes-of-circulating-microparticles-key-roles-for-galectin-3-binding-protein-expressing-microparticles-in-vascular-diseases-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
REVIEW
Christoffer T Nielsen, Ole Østergaard, Niclas S Rasmussen, Søren Jacobsen, Niels H H Heegaard
Subcellular microvesicles (MVs) have attracted increasing interest during the past decades. While initially considered as inert cellular debris, several important roles for MVs in physiological homeostasis, cancer, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases have been uncovered. Although still poorly understood, MVs are involved in trafficking of information from cell-to-cell, and are implicated in the regulation of immunity, thrombosis, and coagulation. Different subtypes of extracellular MVs exist. This review focuses on the cell membrane-derived shedded MVs (ranging in size from 200 to 1000 nm) typically termed microparticles (MPs)...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403043/plasma-galectin-3-concentrations-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#19
T N A Daniëlle van den Berg, Wouter C Meijers, A Rogier T Donders, Antonius E Van Herwaarden, Gerard A Rongen, Rudolf A de Boer, Jaap Deinum, Niels P Riksen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cardiovascular events is higher in patients with primary aldosteronism than in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), despite similar blood pressure levels. This suggests detrimental cardiovascular effects of aldosterone. Amongst others, it has been suggested that galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a key mediator in aldosterone-induced myocardial fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether patients with primary aldosteronism have higher plasma Gal-3 concentrations than patients with EHT and evaluated its reversibility after adrenalectomy...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401257/ido-and-galectin-3-hamper-the-ex-vivo-generation-of-clinical-grade-tumor-specific-t-cells-for-adoptive-cell-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#20
Sara M Melief, Marten Visser, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Els M E Verdegaal
Adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) with ex vivo-expanded tumor-reactive T cells proved to be successful for the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Mixed lymphocyte tumor cell cultures (MLTC) can be used to generate tumor-specific T cells for ACT; however, in a number of cases tumor-reactive T cell, expansion is far from optimal. We hypothesized that this is due to tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors and aimed to identify and manipulate these factors so to optimize our clinical, GMP-compliant MLTC protocol...
April 11, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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