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chronic liver diseases

Kouichi Sakamoto, Ngin Cin Khai, Yuqing Wang, Rie Irie, Hideo Takamatsu, Hiroshi Matsufuji, Ken-Ichiro Kosai
In contrast to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the therapeutic potential and pathophysiologic roles of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver diseases remain relatively unknown. To address the lack of effective pharmacologic treatments for cholestatic liver injuries, as well as to clarify the biologic features of these growth factors, we explored the effects of HB-EGF and HGF in mice with cholestatic liver injury induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The mice were assessed 3, 5 and/or 14 days after BDL (acute, subacute and/or chronic phases, respectively) and intravenous injection of adenoviral vector expressing LacZ (control), HB-EGF, HGF, or HB-EGF and HGF...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
ShaoMing Zhu, Yulituzi Waili, XiaoTing Qi, YueMei Chen, YuFeng Lou
BACKGROUND: The lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) in the peripheral blood is suggested to be a potential biomarker for predicting the clinical outcomes of several diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relative efficiency of LMR for predicting 3-month mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 74 chronic hepatitis B patients, 90 AoCLF patients, and 70 healthy controls were followed up for 4 months. The primary endpoint was 3-month in-hospital mortality...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jonathan G Stine, Jennifer Wang, Brian W Behm
Drug-induced liver injury is a rare but clinically important diagnosis. Vedolizumab is an α4β7 integrin inhibitor recently approved for use in patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease. Cases of hepatoxicity due to vedolizumab in the pre-marketing stage were rare, and all cases resolved upon drug withdrawal. We present here the first reported case of hepatotoxicity attributable to vedolizumab, which despite drug cessation persisted with chronic cholestatic liver injury.
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Deniz Koksal, Aydin Seref Koksal, Ahmet Gurakar
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease caused by diffuse inflammation, destruction and fibrosis of the intrahepatic bile ducts, ultimately leading to cirrhosis, portal hypertension and liver failure. The pathogenesis of PBC is incompletely understood, but current data suggest roles for genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. PBC is often thought of as an organ-specific autoimmune disease, which mainly targets the liver; however, lung tissue is also a site for autoimmune involvement of PBC...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Walid S Ayoub, Erica Cohen
Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Donald P Rice, John J Faragon, Sarah Banks, Lisa M Chirch
Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C has evolved over the past decade, resulting in better control of infection and clinical outcomes; however, drug-drug interactions remain a significant hazard. Joint recommendations from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America regarding drug-drug interactions between HIV antiretroviral agents and direct-acting antiviral agents for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are reviewed here...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Xinyang Li, Jun Shen, Zhihua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammation. Autoimmune liver disease (AILD) may be involved in IBD as an extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM). Epidemiologic and anatomic evidence have demonstrated an intimate crosstalk between the gut and the liver. In this review, we briefly introduced nine groups of susceptibility loci shared by inflammatory bowel and autoimmune liver disease for the first time. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) evidence of pathways involving crosstalk between the gut and the liver is clarified and explained...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Hala Attia, Nouf Al-Rasheed, Raeesa Mohamad, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Maha Al-Amin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis and its end point; cirrhosis, are the major cause of liver failure and death in patients with chronic liver disease. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. This study was designed to assess the potential effects of aqueous extract of date fruits, either flesh (DFE) or pits (DPE), on oxidative DNA damage and liver inflammation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and whether they are related to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB pathway...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lei Liang, Xue Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoyong Li, Yechen Wu, Rongyu Shi, Jinghua Jiang, Lu Gao, Fei Ye, Qiudong Zhao, Rong Li, Lixin Wei, Zhipeng Han
Babao Dan (BBD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat chronic liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to observe the protective effect of BBD on rat hepatic fibrosis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and explore it possible mechanism. BBD was administrated while DEN was given. After eight weeks, values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) indicated that BBD significantly protected liver from damaging by DEN and had no obvious side effect on normal rat livers...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Anna Hojka-Osinska, Lucyna Budzko, Agnieszka Zmienko, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Patrick Maillard, Agata Budkowska, Marek Figlerowicz, Paulina Jackowiak
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of HCV infection-induced liver injury and host-virus interactions are still not well recognized. To better understand these processes we determined the changes in the host gene expression that occur during HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells. As a result, we identified genes that may contribute to the immune and metabolic cellular responses to infection. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HCV induced an increased expression of genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, adipocytokine signaling, cell cycle and nitrogen metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, In Hwan Oh, Seok Jun Yoon
In recognition of Korea's rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), we investigated the nation's NCD status and extracted detailed information from the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease study. Consistent with that study, we used disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as a metric. Using national data sources and disability weights specific to the Korean population, we analyzed 116 disaggregated NCDs from the study's four-level disease and injury hierarchy for both sexes and nine age groups. Per 100,000 population, 21,019 DALYs were lost to 116 NCDs...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jihyun Yoon, In Hwan Oh, Hyeyoung Seo, Eun Jung Kim, Young Hoon Gong, Minsu Ock, Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Ye Rin Lee, Dongwoo Kim, Min Woo Jo, Hyesook Park, Seok Jun Yoon
This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
María Luján Cuestas
Since the British scientist Michael Houghton along with George Kuo, Qui-Lim Choo (Chiron Corporation Emeryville), and Daniel W. Bradley (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) co-discovered the causative agent of hepatitis C in 1989, so much progress has been made for the screening of blood donors and management of this chronic liver disease. In this regard, direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have emerged as the potential "cure" of this slowly progressing and devastating disease. However, improvements are still clearly required since the anti-hepatitis C drugs currently available in the market are so extremely expensive (i...
October 19, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Dana Tedesco, Manoj Thapa, Sanjeev Gumber, Elizabeth J Elrod, Khalidur Rahman, Chris C Ibegbu, Joseph F Magliocca, Andrew B Adams, Frank Anania, Arash Grakoui
: Persistent hepatotropic viral infections are a common etiologic agent of chronic liver disease. Unresolved infection can be attributed to non-functional intrahepatic CD8+ T cell responses. In light of dampened CD8+ T cell responses, liver disease often manifests systemically as Ig-related syndromes due to aberrant B cell functions. These two opposing yet co-existing phenomena implicate the potential of altered CD4+ T cell help. Elevated CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were evident in both human liver disease and a mouse model of chemically induced liver injury despite marked activation and spontaneous IgG production by intrahepatic B cells...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Liliana F Iannucci, Jingfeng Sun, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Vincent A Kaddai, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial fermentation products derived from dietary fiber sources. Although depletion of gut microflora has been linked to the development of liver disease, the direct effects of SCFAs on intracellular hepatic processes are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner. Induction of autophagy by SCFAs required PPARγ stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) expression that was associated with reduced intracellular ATP levels and activation of PRKAA1/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit)...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kate Forgan-Smith, Enrico Roche, David Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Kiran Gajurel, Jack T Stapleton
Hepatitis viruses are named for their primary clinical illness, inflammation of the liver. Currently, six types of viruses are designated hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, and G), although only five of these cause hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses are composed of RNA and DNA viruses from different families and with different virologic properties, some of which typically cause acute hepatitis while others cause acute and chronic hepatitis. In addition to their role in liver disease, members of this group of viruses may cause a variety of pathologic changes in the kidney and other organs, and chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis in addition to raising a variety of important issues in the management of kidney transplant recipients...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Ankur Jindal, Archana Rastogi, Shiv Kumar Sarin
For over 20 years, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has taken multiple definitions and/or classifications. The definition outlines the acute and chronic insults to include a homogenous patient group with liver failure and an expected outcome in a specific time frame. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential as this inflammation of the liver may tilt the balance of liver destruction and regeneration adversely. Various factors such as superadded systemic sepsis, liver reserve, cause of primary chronic liver disease, state of immune system or the state of gut microbial flora might determine the ultimate prognosis...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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