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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054397/tolerance-in-clinical-liver-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Josh Levitsky, Sandy Feng
While advances in immunosuppressive therapy have lowered the rate of acute rejection following liver transplantation, the consequence has been an increase in morbidity and mortality related to the lifelong need for maintenance immunosuppression. These complications include an increased risk of malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders, and chronic kidney disease, as well as high health care costs associated with these therapies and the required drug monitoring. Given these issues, most clinicians attempt trial and error dose minimization with variable success rates, and there has been significant interest in full drug withdrawal in select patients through research protocols...
October 17, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054352/patient-related-risk-factors-for-infection-following-open-carpal-tunnel-release-an-analysis-of-over-450-000-medicare-patients
#2
Brian C Werner, Victor A Teran, D Nicole Deal
PURPOSE: To establish the rate of postoperative infection after open carpal tunnel release (CTR) on a national level using an administrative database and define relevant patient-related risk factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: The PearlDiver patient records database was used to query the 100% Medicare Standard Analytic Files retrospectively from 2005 to 2012 for patients undergoing open CTR using Current Procedural Terminology code 64721. Postoperative infection within 90 days of surgery was assessed using both International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for diagnoses of postoperative infection or pyogenic arthritis of the wrist and Current Procedural Terminology codes for procedures for these indications, including either open or arthroscopic irrigation and debridement...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052175/african-americans-with-cirrhosis-are-less-likely-to-receive-endoscopic-variceal-screening-within-one-year-of-cirrhosis-diagnosis
#3
Ann Robinson, Hesam Tavakoli, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Ramsey Cheung, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: Esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that carries high mortality, and can be reduced with timely endoscopic variceal screening and treatment. AIM: We aim to evaluate overall rates of and disparities in receipt of endoscopic variceal screening among an ethnically diverse urban safety-net hospital. METHODS: All consecutive adults with cirrhosis (7/1/2014 to 12/31/2015) were retrospectively evaluated to determine the rates of receiving esophageal variceal screening within 6 months and within 1 year after cirrhosis diagnosis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051789/novel-strategies-and-therapeutic-options-for-the-management-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#4
REVIEW
Amardeep Khanna, David E Jones
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease. It has a varied course of progression ranging from being completely asymptomatic to aggressive disease leading to cirrhosis and resulting in liver transplantation. In addition, symptoms can be debilitating and can have a major impact on quality of life. For decades, there was only one anti-cholestatic agent available to target this disease and that was only effective in around half of patients, with little or no effect on symptoms. With increasing understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of PBC and potential targets for drug treatment, pharmaceutical companies have shown a greater interest in this rare disease...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050854/pretransplantation-portal-vein-recanalization-and-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-creation-for-chronic-portal-vein-thrombosis-final-analysis-of-a-61-patient-cohort
#5
Bartley Thornburg, Kush Desai, Ryan Hickey, Elias Hohlastos, Laura Kulik, Daniel Ganger, Talia Baker, Michael Abecassis, Juan C Caicedo, Daniela Ladner, Jonathan Fryer, Ahsun Riaz, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem
PURPOSE: To report the final analysis of the safety and efficacy of portal vein (PV) recanalization (PVR) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation (PVR-TIPS) in patients with PV thrombosis (PVT) in need of liver transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients with cirrhosis and PVT underwent PVR-TIPS to improve transplantation candidacy. Median patient age was 58 years (range, 22-75 y), and median pre-TIPS Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 14 (range, 7-42)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050312/non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-liver-tumorigenesis-is-suppressed-in-mice-lacking-hepatic-retinoid-storage
#6
Takayasu Ideta, Yohei Shirakami, Masaya Ohnishi, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Hiroyuki Tomita, Takuji Tanaka, William S Blaner, Masahito Shimizu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease that can develop into a more serious form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although hepatic retinoid stores are progressively lost during the development of liver disease, how this affects steatohepatitis and its related hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown. In order to investigate these, we used subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin (0.2 mg/body) and high-fat diet to induce steatohepatitis and hepatic tumorigenesis in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase -deficient mice (n = 10), which lack stored retinoid in the liver, and control mice (n = 12)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049933/systemic-autoimmune-diseases-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Ling-Yi Wang, Jen-Huai Chiang, Shih-Fen Chen, Yu-Chih Shen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggested autoimmunity plays a role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate the association between systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) and the subsequent development of BD, and examine the potential risk factors for developing BD. METHODS: Patients with SADs were identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program (NHIP). A comparison cohort was created by matching patients without SADs with age. The SADs cohort consisted of 65,498 while the comparison cohort consisted of 261,992 patients...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049250/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-gd-eob-dtpa-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-elastography-in-the-detection-and-staging-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#8
Wen-Pei Wu, Cheng-In Hoi, Ran-Chou Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Chen-Te Chou
The present study compared the efficacy of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the estimation of hepatic fibrosis stages with histopathologic correlation.This retrospective study included 104 patients (87 men and 17 women; mean age, 60.6 ± 10.6 years) with chronic liver disease who underwent both Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and MRE. The relative enhancement (RE) ratio of the liver parenchyma and the contrast enhancement index (CEI) were calculated as (SIpostliver - SIpreliver)/SIpreliver and SIpost/SIpre, respectively, where SIpost and SIpre were the liver-to-muscle signal intensity ratios on the hepatobiliary phase images and noncontrast-enhanced images, respectively...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049242/the-prevalence-of-pi-s-and-pi-z-serpina1-alleles-in-healthy-individuals-and-copd-patients-in-saudi-arabia-a-case-control-study
#9
Noura Al-Jameil, Amina A Hassan, Rana Hassanato, Sree R Isac, Maram Al Otaiby, Fadwa Al-Shareef, Basmah Al-Maarik, Iman Al Ajeyan, Khloud Al-Bahloul, Samina Ghani, Dana Al-Torbak
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein produced in hepatocytes. Its deficiency affects the lungs and liver. A case-control study was carried out to determine the prevalence of 2 common deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in both healthy and chronic obstructive pulmmonary disease (COPD)-affected Saudi populations and to clarify the importance of genetic tests in the screening of people at risk for COPD.One thousand blood samples from healthy individuals and 1000 from COPD-affected Saudi individuals were genotyped for the above-mentioned alleles, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the exclusion of any other nationalities...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049037/fractures-and-the-gut-microbiome
#10
Tara McGinty, Paddy W G Mallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, non-AIDS comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and liver disease has become a focus of recent research. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is also widely reported, however, the relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and bone disease in PLWH has not been previously reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Murine models that manipulate the gut microbiome, either through breeding of 'germ-free' mice or antibiotic-depleted gut microbiome, show differences in bone mineral density and bone mass in those with altered gut microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048354/hepatitis-b-virus-and-dna-damage-response-interactions-and-consequences-for-the-infection
#11
REVIEW
Andoni Gómez-Moreno, Urtzi Garaigorta
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, and end-stage liver disease. Establishment of HBV infection, progression to persistency and pathogenesis are determined by viral and cellular factors, some of which remain still undefined. Key steps of HBV life cycle e.g., transformation of genomic viral DNA into transcriptionally active episomal DNA (cccDNA) or transcription of viral mRNAs from cccDNA, take place in the nucleus of infected cells and strongly depend on enzymatic activities provided by cellular proteins...
October 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045942/quantitative-renal-echogenicity-as-a-tool-for-diagnosis-of-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-glomerulopathies-and-no-liver-disease
#12
Alexandre B Libório, Fernanda Macedo de Oliveira Neves, Candice Bezerra Torres de Melo, Tacyano Tavares Leite, Renata de Almeida Leitão
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glomerulopathy patients are prone to developing transitory reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which can be difficult to differentiate from irreversible chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal ultrasound can be useful, but differently from renal length, quantitative renal echogenicity has not been formerly evaluated regarding its capacity to identify irreversible advanced CKD. METHODS: A prospective study was performed, where quantitative renal echogenicity was performed during renal biopsy in patients with suspected glomerular disease (n=197)...
October 18, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#13
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045046/a-novel-mouse-cre-driver-line-targeting-perilipin-2-expressing-cells-in-the-neonatal-lung
#14
Aglaia Ntokou, Marten Szibor, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Jennifer Quantius, Susanne Herold, Elie El Agha, Saverio Bellusci, Isabelle Salwig, Thomas Braun, Robert Voswinckel, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty, Katrin Ahlbrecht
Pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung fibrosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are characterized by the destruction or malformation of the alveolar regions of the lung. The underlying pathomechanisms at play are an area of intense interest since these mechanisms may reveal pathways suitable for interventions to drive reparative processes. Lipid-laden fibroblasts (lipofibroblasts) express the Perilipin 2 (Plin2) gene-product, PLIN2, commonly called adipose-differentiation related protein (ADRP) These cells are also thought to play a role in alveolarization and repair after injury to the alveolus...
October 16, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043871/a-review-of-sarilumab-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Eun Bong Lee
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the peripheral diarthrodial joints. Sarilumab is a human monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor-α. In Phase II and III clinical trials, sarilumab in the background of methotrexate showed superior clinical efficacy over placebo in RA patients with inadequate response to methotrexate or inadequate response or intolerance to TNF inhibitors. Sarilumab monotherapy also showed superior efficacy compared with adalimumab monotherapy in RA patients with inadequate response or intolerance to methotrexate...
October 18, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043711/the-many-guises-of-endometriosis-giant-abdominal-wall-endometriosis-masquerading-as-an-incisional-hernia
#16
Chiara Petrosellini, Sala Abdalla, Tayo Oke
Endometriosis is defined by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Although it is a leading cause of chronic pelvic pain and infertility, its clinical presentation can vary, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Extrapelvic endometriosis is particularly difficult to diagnose owing to its ability to mimic other conditions. Endometrial tissue in a surgical scar is uncommon and often misdiagnosed as a granuloma, abscess, or malignancy. Cyclical hemorrhagic ascites due to peritoneal endometriosis is exceptionally rare...
January 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043594/specialty-care-access-network-extension-of-community-healthcare-outcomes-model-program-for-liver-disease-improves-specialty-care-access
#17
Lisa M Glass, Akbar K Waljee, Heather McCurdy, Grace L Su, Anne Sales
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To improve subspecialty access, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS) implemented the first Specialty Care Access Network (SCAN)-Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) in chronic liver disease. SCAN-ECHO Liver links primary care providers (PCPs) to hepatologists via secure video-teleconferencing. We aim to describe characteristics of participants (PCPs) and patients (clinical question and diagnosis) in SCAN-ECHO Liver. METHODS: This is a prospective study of the VAAAHS SCAN-ECHO Liver (June 10, 2011-March 31, 2015)...
October 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043086/hepatitis-b-vaccination-coverage-and-the-determinants-of-vaccination-among-health-care-workers-in-selected-health-facilities-in-lusaka-district-zambia-an-exploratory-study
#18
Namwaka Mungandi, Mpundu Makasa, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040439/eicosapentaenoic-acid-attenuates-obesity-related-hepatocellular-carcinogenesis
#19
Akane Inoue-Yamauchi, Hiroko Itagaki, Hideaki Oda
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of obesity, is an emerging risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic inflammation represents a plausible link between obesity and HCC, and that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 contributes to the development of obesity-related HCC. In the present study, we aimed to examine the therapeutic potential of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which exerts anti-inflammatory effects...
October 12, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038644/black-box-warning-for-possible-hbv-reactivation-during-daa-therapy-for-chronic-hcv-infection
#20
Paul J Pockros
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in some patients receiving direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HBV reactivation can occur soon after the start of DAA therapy; thus, monitoring liver enzymes during DAA therapy is important in patients at risk. The clinical outcomes of HBV reactivation in this patient population may resemble the outcomes seen in immunosuppressed patients receiving chemotherapy...
September 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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