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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912756/hyperlipidemia-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-predispose-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-without-cirrhosis
#1
Jennifer Phan, Vivian Ng, Alan Sheinbaum, Sam French, Gina Choi, Mohamed El Kabany, Francisco Durazo, Sammy Saab, Myron Tong, Ronald Busuttil, Steven-Huy Han
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary hepatic malignancies. With the exception of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), other etiologies of chronic liver disease require progression to cirrhosis before HCC development. Case reports have described HCC in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C (HCV) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. GOAL: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of patients without cirrhosis and CHB who developed HCC among a large cohort of HCC patients and to identify independent variables that are associated with no cirrhosis among patients with HCC...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912593/cost-estimate-of-platelet-transfusion-in-the-united-states-for-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-associated-thrombocytopenia-undergoing-elective-procedures
#2
Christine L Barnett, Deirdre Mladsi, Michael Vredenburg, Kavita Aggarwal
AIMS: This study aimed to estimate the cost of platelet transfusion in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD)-associated thrombocytopenia undergoing an elective procedure in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2 parts: development of a conceptual framework identifying direct, indirect, and intangible costs of platelet transfusion, followed by the estimation of the total cost of platelet transfusion in patients with CLD-associated thrombocytopenia before an elective procedure in the United States using the conceptual framework and cost data obtained from a literature search...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912129/ct-scan-is-still-a-valuable-tool-to-assess-hepatic-encephalopathy-pathophysiology-in-both-acute-and-chronic-liver-diseases
#3
Nicolas Weiss, Dominique Thabut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911962/evans-syndrome-after-successful-immunosuppressant-free-living-donor-liver-transplant
#4
Amr Badawy, Toshimi Kaido, Yoshizawa Atsushi, Shintaro Yagi, Koichiro Hata, Naoko Kamo, Ken Fukumitsu, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
Evans syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by a combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and autoimmune thrombocytopenia concomitantly or sequentially with a positive direct Coombs test in the absence of any underlying known cause. Here, we present a case of an adult patient who underwent living-donor liver transplant that was preceded by bone marrow transplant 20 years earlier from the same HLA identical donor and who received a single-agent immunosuppressive therapy for only 2 months as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease...
June 18, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910217/hormone-replacement-therapy-for-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-nash-associated-with-hypopituitarism
#5
Nobuyuki Torii, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuki Mizuguchi, Yasufumi Seki, Etsuko Hashimoto, Katsutoshi Tokushige
The patient was a 23-year-old man who was diagnosed with severe hypoxemia and liver dysfunction after suffering from sudden difficulty breathing. At 2 years of age, he had been diagnosed with hypopituitarism, and had received hormone-replacement until he was 18 years of age. Echocardiography using micro bubbles and pulmonary scintigraphy indicated intrapulmonary shunt and a liver biopsy showed steatohepatitis. He was diagnosed with hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hormone-replacement therapy was re-started...
2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910011/misconceptions-preferences-and-barriers-to-alcohol-use-disorder-treatment-in-alcohol-related-cirrhosis
#6
Jessica L Mellinger, G Scott Winder, Melissa DeJonckheere, Robert J Fontana, Michael L Volk, Anna S F Lok, Frederic C Blow
BACKGROUND: While alcohol cessation improves mortality in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), many patients struggle to achieve abstinence. Our aim was to characterize ALD patients' preferences, misconceptions, and barriers to alcohol use treatment options. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included outpatients with a history of alcohol-related cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis recruited from a hepatology clinic for a survey or an in-depth semi-structured interview. We purposefully sampled men and women, compensated and decompensated patients to ensure adequate representation of gender and severity of liver disease for the qualitative interviews...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909701/prevalence-and-outcome-of-post-transfusion-hepatitis-c-acquired-at-different-ages-and-detected-in-look-back-screening
#7
Charlotta Millbourn, Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Gudrun Lindh, Ingegerd Hökeberg, Björn Fischler, Karin Lindahl
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Sweden is estimated to 0.5%. Before 1992, blood transfusion posed a risk of HCV transmission. The primary aim of this study was to estimate anti-HCV prevalence in Stockholm County among individuals receiving blood transfusions 1965-1991. The secondary aim was to study the effect of age at transfusion on the development of liver disease and treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of individuals found to be anti-HCV tested positive in Stockholm County during a national screening campaign in Sweden 2008-2010...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909559/a-successful-treatment-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-osler-rendu-weber-disease-using-radiofrequency-ablation-under-laparoscopy
#8
Yoshinari Takaoka, Naoki Morimoto, Kouichi Miura, Hiroaki Nomoto, Kozue Murayama, Takuya Hirosawa, Shunji Watanabe, Takeshi Fujieda, Mamiko Ttsukui, Hirotoshi Kawata, Toshiro Niki, Norio Isoda, Makoto Iijima, Hironori Yamamoto
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be difficult to diagnose and treat in patients with Osler-Rendu-Weber disease due to vascular malformation and regenerative nodular hyperplasia. In addition, percutaneous liver puncture should be avoided for the diagnosis and treatment as the procedure carries a high risk of bleeding. We herein report the successful treatment of HCC in a patient with Osler-Rendu-Weber disease using radiofrequency ablation (RFA) under laparoscopy. A 71-year-old man with Osler-Rendu-Weber disease was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of HCC...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909165/-hepatic-and-extra-hepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#9
Hélène Blasco-Perrin, Jean-Marie Péron
All patients with elevated transaminases in France should be tested for HEV infection. HEV can cause severe hepatitis, in particular in patients with chronic liver disease, pregnant women and the elderly. Extra-hepatic manifestations including a number of neurologic syndromes, thrombopenia and renal injury have been described. HEV can cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed patients, in particular in organ-transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancies and individuals with HIV. In patients with hematological malignancies, viral clearance can occur at the time of remission, with a risk of acute cytolysis and acute liver failure...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908364/non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-is-the-fastest-growing-cause-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-liver-transplant-candidates
#10
Zobair Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Janus P Ong, Ira M Jacobson, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Ajay Duseja, Yuichiro Eguchi, Vincent W Wong, Francesco Negro, Yusuf Yilmaz, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Jacob George, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert Wong, Issah Younossi, Mariam Ziayee, Arian Afendy
BACKGROUND: While hepatitis B and C have been the main drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has recently become an important cause of HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the causes of HCC among liver transplant (LT) candidates in the U.S. METHODS: The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (2002-2016) was used to estimate the trends in prevalence of HCC in LT candidates with the most common types of chronic liver disease: alcoholic liver disease (ALD), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C, and NASH...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908067/effects-of-type-i-interferons-in-malaria
#11
REVIEW
Ismail Sebina, Ashraful Haque
Type I interferons are a family of cytokines with a wide range of biological activities including anti-viral and immune-regulatory functions. Here, we focus on the protozoan parasitic disease, malaria, and examine the effects of type I IFN-signalling during Plasmodium infection of humans and experimental mice. Since the 1960's, there have been many studies in this area, but a simple explanation for the role of type I IFN has not emerged. Although epidemiological data are consistent with roles for type I IFN in influencing malaria disease severity, functional proof of this remains sparse in humans...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908040/dual-energy-ct-for-noninvasive-staging-of-liver-fibrosis-accuracy-of-iodine-density-measurements-from-contrast-enhanced-data
#12
Keitaro Sofue, Masakatsu Tsurusaki, Achille Mileto, Tomoko Hyodo, Kosuke Sasaki, Tatsuya Nishii, Takaaki Chikugo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Kudo, Kazuro Sugimura, Takamichi Murakami
AIM: To investigate whether iodine density measurements from contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT data can noninvasively stage liver fibrosis. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study was approved by our IRB with written informed consent. Forty-seven consecutive patients (26 men and 21 women; mean age, 63.1 years) with chronic liver disease underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT of the liver (noncontrast, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase images), followed by liver biopsy...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908011/pretransplant-increases-in-left-ventricular-volume-and-mass-are-associated-with-qt-prolongation-during-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#13
Hyun-Seok Cho, Wook-Jong Kim, Byungdoo Andrew Lee, Junki Cho, Won-Jung Shin, Gyu-Sam Hwang
Structural alterations in the cirrhotic heart may contribute to electromechanical abnormalities, represented by QT prolongation. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in QTc according to the operative stage during pediatric LT and to identify which baseline echocardiographic parameters were associated with intraoperative QTc prolongation. Data were evaluated from 39 children undergoing LT for chronic liver disease (median age 9 months). In 19 patients (48.7%), baseline QTc was prolonged ≥440 ms (462 ± 19 ms)...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907443/apoa-1milano-muteins-orally-delivered-via-genetically-modified-rice-show-anti-atherogenic-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-vitro-and-in-apoe-atherosclerotic-mice
#14
Gabriele Romano, Serena Reggi, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Amanda Facoetti, Elisa Chisci, Mariateresa Pettinato, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Federica Vecchio, Silvia Leoni, Marco De Giorgi, Federica Avezza, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Crippa, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Ilaria Rivolta, Donatella Barisani, Ryszard Tomasz Smolenski, Roberto Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907129/a-pivotal-role-of-bex1-in-liver-progenitor-cell-expansion-in-mice
#15
Yuting Gu, Weiting Wei, Yiji Cheng, Bing Wan, Xinyuan Ding, Hui Wang, Yanyun Zhang, Min Jin
BACKGROUND: The activation and expansion of bipotent liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are indispensable for liver regeneration after severe or chronic liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating LPCs and LPC-mediated liver regeneration remain elusive. METHODS: Hepatic brain-expressed X-linked 1 (BEX1) expression was evaluated using microarray screening, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. LPC activation and liver injury were studied following a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet in wild-type (WT) and Bex1-/- mice...
June 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906725/chronic-exposure-to-fungicide-propamocarb-induces-bile-acid-metabolic-disorder-and-increases-trimethylamine-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Sisheng Wu, Ting Luo, Siyu Wang, Jicong Zhou, Yingchun Ni, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide that affects lipid biosynthesis in fungi. In this study, we explored the effects of PM on mouse metabolism and gut microbiota-related pathways by exposing C57BL/6J mice to 1, 3, and 10 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 10 weeks. We found that hepatic bile acids (BAs) were considerably increased in the PM-treated group. The transcription of genes related to BA synthesis and transportation were also markedly altered in the liver and the ileum; accordingly, serous BA profiles were changed...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906416/bioactive-lipid-species-and-metabolic-pathways-in-progression-and-resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
REVIEW
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Elena Paschetta, Roberto Gambino
The prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments. A decade has passed since initial lipidomic analyses of liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We have learned that liver cells from patients with NASH have an abnormal lipid composition, and the accumulation of lipids leads to organelle dysfunction, cell injury and death, and chronic inflammation, called liptoxicity. We review the lipid species and metabolic pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of NASH, as well as potential therapeutic targets, including enzymes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, bioactive sphingolipids and polyunsaturated-derived eicosanoids and specialized proresolving lipid mediators...
June 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906247/a-critical-role-for-abc-transporters-in-persistent-lung-inflammation-in-the-development-of-emphysema-after-smoke-exposure
#18
Jarrod Sonett, Monica Goldklang, Piotr Sklepkiewicz, Adam Gerber, Jordis Trischler, Tina Zelonina, Marit Westerterp, Vincent Lemaître, Yasunori Okada, Jeanine D'Armiento
Macrophage infiltration is common to both emphysema and atherosclerosis, and cigarette smoke down-regulates the macrophage cholesterol efflux transporter ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1. This decreased cholesterol efflux results in lipid-laden macrophages. We hypothesize that cigarette smoke adversely affects cholesterol transport via an ABCA1-dependent mechanism in macrophages, enhancing TLR4/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) signaling and resulting in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) up-regulation and exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905956/population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analyses-of-avatrombopag-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-optimal-dose-adjustment-guide-with-concomitantly-administered-cyp3a-and-cyp2c9-inhibitors
#19
Maiko Nomoto, Jim Ferry, Ziad Hussein
Avatrombopag, a c-Mpl agonist, has been developed to provide an alternative therapy to standard platelet transfusion care for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. The main objectives of this article were to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of avatrombopag, to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship between plasma avatrombopag concentrations and platelet count, and to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting PK or PK/PD in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905848/uraemic-symptom-burden-and-clinical-condition-in-women-and-men-of-%C3%A2-65-years-of-age-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-equal-study
#20
Moniek W M van de Luijtgaarden, Fergus J Caskey, Christoph Wanner, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Maurizio Postorino, Cynthia J Janmaat, Anirudh Rao, Claudia Torino, Marian Klinger, Christiane Drechsler, Olof Heimburger, Maciej Szymczak, Marie Evans, Friedo W Dekker, Kitty J Jager
Background: The epidemiology and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) differ by sex. We aimed to compare symptom prevalence and the clinical state in women and men of ≥65 years of age with advanced CKD receiving routine nephrology care. Methods: The European QUALity study on treatment in advanced chronic kidney disease (EQUAL) study follows patients from six European countries of ≥65 years of age  years whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dropped to ≤20 mL/min/1...
June 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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