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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721656/circrna-a-novel-type-of-biomarker-for-cancer
#1
REVIEW
He-da Zhang, Lin-Hong Jiang, Da-Wei Sun, Jun-Chen Hou, Zhen-Ling Ji
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long, non-coding RNAs molecules that shape a covalently closed continuous loop which have no 5'-3' polarity and contain no polyA tail. CircRNAs also possess relatively jarless framework and are highly tissue-specific expressed in the eukaryotic transcriptome. Emerging evidences have discovered that thousands of endogenous circRNAs are present in mammalian cells and they mediate gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level by binding to microRNAs or other molecules and then inhibit their function...
July 18, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721157/micrornas-and-metabolic-disorders-where-are-we-heading
#2
Agnieszka Sliwinska, Marta A Kasinska, Jozef Drzewoski
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are short, non-coding molecules engaged in normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, as negative regulators of gene expression. Since the first discovery of miRNA in the early 1990s, hundreds of different miRNAs and their targets have been identified. A growing number of studies have aimed to search for microRNAs which have a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and metabolic homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that dysregulation of miRNA expression is involved in the development of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and cardiovascular diseases...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720757/integrative-analyses-of-translatome-and-transcriptome-reveal-important-translational-controls-in-brown-and-white-adipose-regulated-by-micrornas
#3
David W Reid, Dan Xu, Peng Chen, Hongyuan Yang, Lei Sun
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes has markedly spurred the research interest in adipocyte biology. Brown adipocytes are specialized for energy expenditure and of therapeutic interest for treatment of metabolic diseases, but how brown adipocytes are distinguished from white adipocytes at the level of translational regulation remains poorly understood. To systemically determine the translational control of gene expression in adipose tissue, we performed ribosome profiling and RNA-seq in parallel to depict the translatome and transcriptome changes during primary brown and white adipogenesis, and between brown and white adipose tissue...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713945/mir%C3%A2-433-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-growth-in-high%C3%A2-glucose-conditions
#4
Min Wang
Pancreatic β cell dysfunction is a key characteristic in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to serve a role in DM pathogenesis, but how specific miRNAs regulate glucose‑stimulated β cell functions remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of miR‑433 on cell growth under high‑glucose culture conditions and to determine the possible mechanisms involved. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miRNAs in Min‑6 pancreatic β cells cultured in high‑glucose medium, which revealed that miR‑433 was significantly downregulated...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713160/pathogenic-roles-of-microvesicles-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, Song Chen, Ming-Lin Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and has been recognized as the leading cause of blindness in adults. Several interrelated molecular pathways are involved in the development of DR. Microvesicles (MVs) are cell membrane vesicles, which carry many biologic molecules, such as mRNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors, membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and other proteins. They may be involved in intercellular communication that can promote inflammation, angiogenesis, and coagulation...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710412/exosomes-derived-from-pancreatic-cancer-cells-induce-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotube-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-foxo1-pathway
#6
Lantian Wang, Bo Zhang, Wen Zheng, Muxing Kang, Qing Chen, Wenjie Qin, Chao Li, Yuefeng Zhang, Yingkuan Shao, Yulian Wu
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently suggested that pancreatic cancer-associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) represents a potential platform for early diagnose of pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite the studies performed, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains ambiguous. In this study, we explored the effects of two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer and ductal epithelial cells on murine skeletal muscle cells. The results show that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, triggering lipidosis and glucose intake inhibition...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709769/exploring-the-mitochondrial-microrna-import-pathway-through-polynucleotide-phosphorylase-pnpase
#7
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Shruthi Sreekumar, Kristen M Hughes, Seth M Stine, Ivan Martinez, John M Hollander
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the diabetic condition, cardiovascular dysfunction can be partially attributed to molecular changes in the tissue, including alterations in microRNA (miRNA) interactions. MiRNAs have been reported in the mitochondrion and their presence may influence cellular bioenergetics, creating decrements in functional capacity. In this study, we examined the roles of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a protein associated with cytosolic and mitochondrial miRNAs, and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase), a protein found in the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion, to determine their role in mitochondrial miRNA import...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706953/differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-the-development-of-early-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Qiaoyun Gong, Jia'nan Xie, Yang Liu, Ying Li, Guanfang Su
The pathological mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness in adults with diabetes mellitus, remain incompletely understood. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) represent effective DR therapeutic targets, we identified aberrantly expressed miRNAs associated with cellular dysfunction in early DR and detected their potential targets. We exposed human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and a cell line of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to high glucose (25 mmol/L, 1-7 days) to mimic DR progression and used streptozotocin-injected rats (4-8 weeks) for an in vivo diabetes model...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704935/entrainment-of-breast-cell-lines-results-in-rhythmic-fluctuations-of-micrornas
#9
Rafael Chacolla-Huaringa, Jorge Moreno-Cuevas, Victor Trevino, Sean-Patrick Scott
Circadian rhythms are essential for temporal (~24 h) regulation of molecular processes in diverse species. Dysregulation of circadian gene expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, depression, and cancer. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical modulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally, and perhaps involved in circadian clock architecture or their output functions. The aim of the present study is to explore the temporal expression of miRNAs among entrained breast cell lines...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702332/dysregulation-of-a-novel-mir-23b-27b-p53-axis-impairs-muscle-stem-cell-differentiation-of-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Tora I Henriksen, Peter K Davidsen, Maria Pedersen, Heidi S Schultz, Ninna S Hansen, Therese J Larsen, Allan Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as fine-tuning regulators of metabolism, and are dysregulated in several disease conditions. With their capacity to rapidly change gene expression, miRNAs are also important regulators of development and cell differentiation. In the current study, we describe an impaired myogenic capacity of muscle stem cells isolated from humans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and assess whether this phenotype is regulated by miRNAs. METHODS: We measured global miRNA expression during in vitro differentiation of muscle stem cells derived from T2DM patients and healthy controls...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701356/reciprocal-expression-of-mir-214-and-pten-by-high-glucose-regulates-glomerular-mesangial-and-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cell-hypertrophy-and-matrix-expansion
#11
Amit Bera, Falguni Das, Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury, Meenalakshmi M Mariappan, Balakuntalam S Kasinath, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) contributes to diabetic renal complications including renal hypertrophy and matrix protein accumulation. Reduced expression of PTEN by hyperglycemia contributes to these processes. We considered involvement of microRNA in the downregulation of PTEN. In the renal cortex of type 1 diabetic mice, we detected increased expression of miR-214 in association with decreased levels of PTEN and, enhanced Akt phosphorylation and fibronectin expression. Mesangial and proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to high glucose showed augmented expression of miR-214...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698800/metformin-induced-ablation-of-microrna-21-5p-releases-sestrin-1-and-cab39l-antitumoral-activities
#12
Claudio Pulito, Federica Mori, Andrea Sacconi, Frauke Goeman, Maria Ferraiuolo, Patrizia Pasanisi, Carlo Campagnoli, Franco Berrino, Maurizio Fanciulli, Rebecca J Ford, Massimo Levrero, Natalia Pediconi, Ludovica Ciuffreda, Michele Milella, Gregory R Steinberg, Mario Cioce, Paola Muti, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
Metformin is a commonly prescribed type II diabetes medication that exhibits promising anticancer effects. Recently, these effects were found to be associated, at least in part, with a modulation of microRNA expression. However, the mechanisms by which single modulated microRNAs mediate the anticancer effects of metformin are not entirely clear and knowledge of such a process could be vital to maximize the potential therapeutic benefits of this safe and well-tolerated therapy. Our analysis here revealed that the expression of miR-21-5p was downregulated in multiple breast cancer cell lines treated with pharmacologically relevant doses of metformin...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698281/mir-27b-augments-bone-marrow-progenitor-cell-survival-via-suppressing-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Hainan Li, Jenney Liu, Yihan Wang, Zhiyao Fu, Maik Huttemann, Terrence J Monks, Alex F Chen, Jie-Mei Wang
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) are potential candidates for autologous cell therapy in tissue repair because of their high angiogenic potential. However, increased progenitor cell apoptosis in diabetes directly limits their success in the clinic. MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, but their roles in BMPC-mediated angiogenesis are incompletely understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the pro-angiogenic miR-27b inhibits BMPC apoptosis in type 2 diabetes...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695984/triptolide-prevents-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-in-experimental-diabetic-kidney-disease-by-targeting-microrna-137-notch1-pathway
#14
Fei Han, Shanshan Wang, Yunpeng Chang, Chunjun Li, Juhong Yang, Zhe Han, Baocheng Chang, Bei Sun, Liming Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in multiple biological functions via suppressing target genes. Triptolide is a monomeric compound isolated from a traditional Chinese herb, which exerts protective roles in many kinds of glomerular diseases. However, our understanding of the triptolide effect on miRNAome is still limited. In this study, we found that triptolide significantly decreased albuminuria and improved glomerulosclerosis in rats with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). And triptolide also inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) protein accumulation and the notch1 pathway activation under diabetic conditions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693796/regulatory-effects-of-berberine-on-micrornome-in-cancer-and-other-conditions
#15
REVIEW
Seyed Hasan Ayati, Badrieh Fazeli, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Arrigo F G Cicero, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in different plant families such as Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Papaveraceae. BBR is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, lipid-modifying, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antiparasitic and fungicide activities. Multiple pharmacological actions of BBR stem from different molecular targets of this phytochemical. MicroRNAs (miRs) are single-stranded, evolutionary conserved, small non-coding RNA molecules with a length of 19-23 nucleotides that are involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNA...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693142/microrna-4530-promotes-angiogenesis-by-targeting-vash1-in-breast-carcinoma-cells
#16
Tao Zhang, Li Jing, Hong Li, Linchao Ding, Dongdong Ai, Jianxin Lyu, Lianjin Zhong
The results of our previous study revealed that microRNA (miRNA/miR)-4530 was upregulated in the serum of patients with diabetic retinopathy. The TargetScan miRNA database was used to identify potential targets of miR-4530 and vasohibin-1 (VASH1) was predicted as one of the targets. The results of our previous study demonstrated that miR-4530 was able to promote angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Therefore, suppressing miR-4530 may be a potentially novel approach towards inhibiting tumor angiogenesis...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688216/molecular-aspects-of-diabetes-mellitus-resistin-microrna-and-exosome
#17
Mohammad Javad Saeedi Borujeni, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Gholamreza Taheripak, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Eulalia Alonso-Iglesias, Hamed Mirzaei
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known as one of important common endocrine disorders which could due to deregulation of a variety of cellular and molecular pathways. A large numbers studies indicated that various pathogenesis events including mutation, serin phosphorylation and increasing/decreasing expression of many genes could contribute to initiation and progression of DM. Insulin resistance is one of important factors which could play critical roles in DM pathogenesis. It has been showed that insulin resistance via targeting a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways (e...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685672/micrornas-mediated-mmp-regulation-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies-for-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Sharad Saxena, Aditi Jain, Vibha Rani
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a global socioeconomic problem rapidly progressing in accordance with increasing body mass index (BMI) and age. It is a consortium of risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, reduced adiponectin, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. Collectively, these factors accelerate the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain cancers such as breast, liver pancreatic, and colon cancer. Extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane remodeling play a central role during pathogenesis of MS as they regulate diverse cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration...
July 7, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685508/diabetes-related-cardiac-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Lamario J Williams, Brenna G Nye, Adam R Wende
The proposal that diabetes plays a role in the development of heart failure is supported by the increased risk associated with this disease, even after correcting for all other known risk factors. However, the precise mechanisms contributing to the condition referred to as diabetic cardiomyopathy have remained elusive, as does defining the disease itself. Decades of study have defined numerous potential factors that each contribute to disease susceptibility, progression, and severity. Many recent detailed reviews have been published on mechanisms involving insulin resistance, dysregulation of microRNAs, and increased reactive oxygen species, as well as causes including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683566/inhibition-of-mir-92a-suppresses-oxidative-stress-and-improves-endothelial-function-by-upregulating-heme-oxygenase-1-in-db-db-mice
#20
Lingshan Gou, Lei Zhao, Wencong Song, Li Wang, Jian Liu, Hongsong Zhang, Yuhong Huang, Chi Wai Lau, Xiaoqiang Yao, Xiaoyu Tian, Wing Tak Wong, Jiang-Yun Luo, Yu Huang
AIMS: Inhibition of microRNA-92a (miR-92a) is reported to suppress endothelial inflammation and delay atherogenesis. We hypothesize that miR-92a inhibition protects endothelial function through suppressing oxidative stress in diabetic db/db mice. RESULTS: In this study, we found elevated expression of miR-92a in aortic endothelium from db/db mice and in renal arteries from diabetic subjects. Endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) express higher level of miR-92a...
July 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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