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microRNA, diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433754/mir-146a-suppresses-stat3-vegf-pathways-and-reduces-apoptosis-through-il-6-signaling-in-primary-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-high-glucose-conditions
#1
Eun-Ah Ye, Jena J Steinle
microRNA (miRNA) play critical roles in the pathological processes of diabetic retinopathy, including inflammatory responses, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis. In addition to their regulatory functions on gene expression, miRNA is considered as a potential therapeutic target, as well as a diagnostic marker for many diseases. Our understanding on the pathological mechanisms underlying diabetic retinopathy is still incomplete and additional investigations are required to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
April 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#2
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431855/relationship-between-long-noncoding-rnas-and-physiological-risk-factors-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Moshen Mazidi, Peter Penson, Anna Gluba-Brzozka, Jacek Rysz, Maciej Banach
Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are an important category of noncoding RNAs that play crucial roles in controlling the expression of genes in health and in a range of illnesses including cardiovascular disease. A large body of genetic, experimental, and epidemiologic evidence suggests roles for an increasing number of lncRNAs in the regulation of metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation, and glucose metabolism in type II diabetes. Importantly, it has been suggested that lncRNAs can regulate chromatin alteration, messenger RNA stability, microRNA action, and can control transcription factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428964/micrornas-mediated-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-glut4-expression-and-translocation-in-insulin-resistance
#4
REVIEW
João Victor Esteves, Francisco Javier Enguita, Ubiratan Fabres Machado
The solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in the insulin-induced glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues. In prediabetes and diabetes, GLUT4 expression/translocation has been detected as reduced, participating in mechanisms that impair glycemic control. Recently, a class of short endogenous noncoding RNAs named microRNAs (miRNAs) has been increasingly described as involved in the posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The present review focuses on miRNAs potentially involved in the expression of GLUT4 expression, and proteins related to GLUT4 and translocation in skeletal muscle, seeking to correlate them with insulin resistance and diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426428/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#5
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412046/the-epigenetic-mechanism-for-discordance-of-autoimmunity-in-monozygotic-twins
#6
REVIEW
Zhongyuan Xiang, Yuanqing Yang, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
Monozygotic twins share an identical DNA sequence but are not truly "identical". In fact, when it comes to health and disease, they may often display some level of phenotypic discordance. The cause of this discordance is often unknown. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs-mediated regulation regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli. These modifications may be seen to bridge the gap between genetics and the environment. Over the years, the importance of epigenetics as a primary mechanism for the role that the environment plays in defining phenotype has been increasingly appreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404597/altered-mirna-29-expression-in-type-2-diabetes-influences-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Julie Massart, Rasmus J O Sjögren, Leonidas S Lundell, Jonathan M Mudry, Niclas Franck, Donal J O'Gorman, Brendan Egan, Juleen R Zierath, Anna Krook
MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in several tissues, however, their role in skeletal muscle remains poorly characterized. We determined the effects of the miR-29 family on glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that miR-29a and miR-29c are increased in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients and decreased following endurance training in healthy young men and in rats. In primary human skeletal muscle cells, inhibition and overexpression strategies demonstrate that miR-29a and miR-29c regulate glucose uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism...
April 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397402/micrornas-can-effectively-induce-formation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Chunyu Bai, Yuhua Gao, Xiangchen Li, Kunfu Wang, Hui Xiong, Zhiqiang Shan, Ping Zhang, Wenjie Wang, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
MicroRNAs regulate insulin secretion, pancreatic development and beta cell differentiation. However, the function of microRNAs in the formation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from adult stem cells is poorly understood. We examine the microRNA expression profile in nestin-positive umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (N-UCMSCs) and nestin-positive pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells using a deep sequencing approach. We also selected specific microRNAs for overexpression in N-UCMSCs and found that miR-375 and miR-26a induced IPCs differentiation from N-UCMSCs by downregulating target genes including mtpn, sox6, bhlhe22 and ccnd1...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397233/-analysis-of-association-of-genetic-polymorphisms-of-micrornas-with-ischemic-stroke
#9
Haogang Zhu, Hongjin Zhang, Ligang Bao, Meifen Dai
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of hsa-miR-196a2, hsa-miR-149, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-499 with susceptibility to ischemic stroke. METHODS: Taqman-PCR and DNA sequencing assays were employed to determine the genotypes of the 4 loci among 510 patients and 523 controls. And their association with the disease was assessed. RESULTS: Analysis showed that smoking, diabetes, hypertension, BMI index and abnormal serum lipid metabolism were significantly associated with ischemic stroke, and that rs2910164 was significantly associated with the disease in codominant (CG vs...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389999/effects-of-microrna-21-on-nerve-cell-regeneration-and-neural-function-recovery-in-diabetes-mellitus-combined-with-cerebral-infarction-rats-by-targeting-pdcd4
#10
Yun-Bao Guo, Tie-Feng Ji, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jin-Lu Yu
We aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on nerve cell regeneration and nerve functional recovery in diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction (DM + CI) rats by targeting PDCD4. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were selected for DM + CI rat model construction and assigned into the blank, miR-21 mimics, mimics control, miR-21 inhibitor, inhibitor control, miR-21 inhibitor + si-PDCD4 and si-PDCD4 groups. And, 20 healthy rats were selected for the normal group. Triphenylterazolium chloride (TTC) staining and HE staining were used for determination of the area of CI and pathological changes, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382439/plasma-level-of-mir-93-is-associated-with-higher-risk-to-develop-type-2-diabetic-retinopathy
#11
Hui-Ling Zou, Yan Wang, Qiang Gang, Ying Zhang, Yu Sun
PURPOSE: MicroRNA-93 (miR-93) usually acts as a promoter of tumor progression in several human carcinomas. It has been found distinctly high in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). The present study aims to investigate the role of plasma miR-93 in the progression of type 2 diabetic retinopathy (T2DR). METHODS: Our study subjects were made up of 140 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were assigned into DR (DR patients, n = 75), NDR (non-DR patients, n = 65), and control (healthy individuals, n = 127) groups...
April 5, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379027/regulatory-rnas-and-cardiovascular-disease-with-a-special-focus-on-circulating-micrornas
#12
D Dlouhá, J A Hubáček
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding regulatory RNA molecules which play an important role in intracellular communication and cell signaling and which influence cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cellular death. Over the past two decades, the crucial role of microRNAs in controlling tissue homeostasis and disease in cardiovascular systems has become widely recognized. By controlling the expression levels of their targets, several miRNAs have been shown to modulate the function of endothelial cells (miR-221/222 and -126), vascular smooth muscle cells (miR-143/145) and macrophages (miR-33, -758, and -26), thereby regulating the development and progression of atherosclerosis...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379021/-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Peter Ponťuch
The number of type 2 diabetic patients is increasing world-wide and a prediction of prevalence of chronic kidney disease up to 2025 in European diabetic population is alarming. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate are cardinal biochemical parameters in diagnostics of diabetic nephropathy. Following diagnostic methods are also used: renal ultrasonography, ophthalmoscopy and in not clarified cases renal biopsy. Long-term optimal glycemic control, efficient antihypertensive treatment by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker and recommended protein intake is a cornerstone of therapy...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378294/micrornas-in-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-emerging-role-in-maternal-metabolic-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Cédrik Poirier, Véronique Desgagné, Renée Guérin, Luigi Bouchard
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as metabolic and developmental regulators in pregnancy and their role in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MiRNAs are short and stable RNA sequences that repress protein synthesis through interference with messenger RNA translation. RECENT FINDINGS: The placenta produces numerous miRNAs with some of them being released in the maternal circulation. These miRNA genes are encoded into specific clusters and expressed preferentially by placental cells, in a time-dependent manner...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374806/resveratrol-protects-podocytes-against-apoptosis-via-stimulation-of-autophagy-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Shan-Shan Huang, Da-Fa Ding, Sheng Chen, Cheng-Long Dong, Xiao-Long Ye, Yang-Gang Yuan, Ya-Min Feng, Na You, Jia-Rong Xu, Heng Miao, Qiang You, Xiang Lu, Yi-Bing Lu
Podocyte apoptosis coincides with albuminuria onset and precedes podocytopenia in diabetic nephropathy. However, there is a lack of effective therapeutic drugs to protect podocytes from apoptosis. Here, we demonstrated that resveratrol relieved a series of indicators of diabetic nephropathy and attenuated apoptosis of podocytes in db/db diabetic model mice. In addition, resveratrol induced autophagy in both db/db mice and human podocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and autophagy gene 5 (Atg5) short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reversed the protective effects of resveratrol on podocytes...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364255/microrna-184-is-a-downstream-effector-of-albuminuria-driving-renal-fibrosis-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Cristina Zanchi, Daniela Macconi, Piera Trionfini, Susanna Tomasoni, Daniela Rottoli, Monica Locatelli, Michael Rudnicki, Jo Vandesompele, Pieter Mestdagh, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni, Carlamaria Zoja
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Renal fibrosis is a common complication of diabetic nephropathy and is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Despite the suggested link between renal fibrosis and microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in diabetic nephropathy, the identification of the specific miRNAs involved is still incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA profiles in the diabetic kidney and to identify potential downstream targets implicated in renal fibrosis. METHODS: miRNA expression profiling was investigated in the kidneys of 8-month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats during overt nephropathy...
March 31, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357065/role-of-micrornas-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#17
Xinyu Liu, Shixue Liu
The morbidity of diabetes mellitus has been increasing annually. As a progressive metabolic disorder, chronic complications occur in the late stage of diabetes. In addition, cardiovascular diseases account for the major cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic population worldwide. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of diabetic heart disease. Patients with DCM show symptoms and signs of heart failure while no specific cause, such as coronary disease, hypertension, alcohol consumption, or other structural heart diseases has been identified...
February 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353063/the-microrna-7-mediated-reduction-in-epac-1-contributes-to-vascular-endothelial-permeability-and-enos-uncoupling-in-murine-experimental-retinopathy
#18
Veronica Garcia-Morales, Julian Friedrich, Lysanne M Jorna, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Hans-Peter Hammes, Martina Schmidt, Guido Krenning
AIMS: To investigate the consequences of oxidative stress and hypoxia on EPAC-1 expression during retinopathy. METHODS: Oxygen-induced retinopathy was induced in mice and EPAC-1 expression investigated by immunofluorescence. In silico analyses were used to identify a link between EPAC-1 expression and microRNA-7-5p in endothelial cells and confirmed by western blot analyses on cells expressing microRNA-7-5p. In vitro, endothelial cells were either incubated at 2% oxygen or transfected with microRNA-7-5p, and the effects of these treatments on EPAC-1 expression, endothelial hyperpermeability and NO production were assessed...
March 28, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346520/downregulation-of-mir-139-5p-contributes-to-the-antiapoptotic-effect-of-liraglutide-on-the-diabetic-rat-pancreas-and-ins-1-cells-by-targeting-irs1
#19
Jin Li, Lei Su, Ying-Ying Gong, Mei-Lin Ding, Shu-Bin Hong, Shuang Yu, Hai-Peng Xiao
Liraglutide is administered as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for diabetic patients and can protect pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting their apoptosis. MicroRNA-139-5p (miRNA-139-5p) participates in the regulation of cancer cell apoptosis. However, it is not clear whether miR-139-5p contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of liraglutide in β-cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-139-5p on apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells. MicroRNA levels in pancreatic tissue from diabetic rats and INS-1 cells treated with liraglutide were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344345/gastric-bypass-surgery-with-exercise-alters-plasma-micrornas-that-predict-improvements-in-cardiometabolic-risk
#20
Y O N Lopez, P M Coen, B H Goodpaster, A A Seyhan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight-loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate at least some of the regulatory processes driving such mechanisms. Consequently, this work aimed at profiling plasma miRNAs in participants of the Physical Activity Following Surgery Induced Weight Loss study (clinicaltrials...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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