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Alexander Baraniskin, Monika Chomiak, Guido Ahle, Thomas Gress, Malte Buchholz, Michael Turewicz, Martin Eisenacher, Michelle Margold, Uwe Schlegel, Wolff Schmiegel, Stephan Hahn, Roland Schroers
Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSL) are highly aggressive tumors affecting exclusively the CNS, meninges, and eyes. PCNSL must be separated from secondary spread of systemic lymphoma to the CNS (SCNSL), which may occur at diagnosis or relapse of systemic lymphomas. At present, there are no valid methods to distinguish PCNSL from SCNSL based on tumor biopsy because of similar histological presentation. However, SCNSL and PCNSL are different in terms of prognosis and adequate therapy protocols...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
P Sankar Ganesh, V Ravishankar Rai
Pseudomonas aeruginosa use small signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which play an important role in release virulence factors and toxin for further establishment of host infection. Thus, involving with the QS system would provide alternative ways of preventing the pathogenicity. In the present study, totally six medicinal plants (Terminalia bellerica, Celastrus paniculatus, Kingiodendron pinnatum, Schleichera oleosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Garcinia gummi-gutta) were screened for anti-QS activity using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Marion Nicol, Stéphane Alexandre, Jean-Baptiste Luizet, Malena Skogman, Thierry Jouenne, Suzana P Salcedo, Emmanuelle Dé
The increasing threat of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is mainly due to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains that are associated with the real problem of its eradication from hospital wards. The particular ability of this pathogen to form biofilms contributes to its persistence, increases antibiotic resistance, and promotes persistent/device-related infections. We previously demonstrated that virstatin, which is a small organic compound known to decrease virulence of Vibrio cholera via an inhibition of T4-pili expression, displayed very promising activity to prevent A...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Manoj Kushwaha, Shreyans K Jain, Nisha Sharma, Vidushi Abrol, Sundeep Jaglan, Ram A Vishwakarma
Targeting the main three networking systems viz. Las, RhI and PQS via natural quenchers is a new ray of hope for combating the persistent behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the bacterial chemical vocabulary pyocyanin, N-AHLs and rhamnolipids are the main keywords, which are responsible for the social and nomadic behavior of P. aeruginosa. In the present work LCMS-based real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyocyanin, green phenazine, N-AHLs, and rhamnolipids were performed. The quantitative analysis indicates that the production of pyocyanin and NHSLs increases with time while the production of rhamnolipids discontinued after 16 Hrs...
January 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Elke Stein, Adam Schikora
Bacterial cells use the quorum sensing system to communicate with each other. The gram-negative species very often use N-acyl homoserine lactones for this purpose. One of the easiest ways to detect these molecules is the use of particular reporter strains, which possess different kinds of reporter genes under the control of AHL-responsive promoters. Here we present some of the possibilities available today, even for not specialized researchers.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hilke Bruns, Jennifer Herrmann, Rolf Müller, Hui Wang, Irene Wagner Döbler, Stefan Schulz
The marine bacterium Roseovarius tolerans EL-164 (Rhodobacteraceae) can produce unique N-acylalanine methyl esters (NAMEs) besides strucutrally related N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), bacterial signaling compounds widespread in the Rhodobacteraceae. The structures of two unprecedented NAMEs carrying a rare terminally oxidized acyl chain are reported here. The compounds (Z)-N-16-hydroxyhexadec-9-enoyl-l-alanine methyl ester (Z9-16-OH-C16:1-NAME, 3) and (Z)-N-15-carboxypentadec-9-enoyl-l-alanine methyl ester (16COOH-C16:1-NAME, 4) were isolated, and the structures were determined by NMR and MS experiments...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Ana Carolina Del V Leguina, Carolina Nieto, Hipólito M Pajot, Elisa V Bertini, Walter Mac Cormack, Lucía I Castellanos de Figueroa, Carlos G Nieto-Peñalver
The inactivation of quorum sensing signals, a phenomenon known as quorum quenching, has been described in diverse microorganisms, though it remains almost unexplored in yeasts. Beyond the well-known properties of these microorganisms for the industry or as eukaryotic models, the role of yeasts in soil or in the inner tissues of a plant is largely unknown. In this report, the wider survey of quorum quenching activities in yeasts isolated from Antarctic soil and the inner tissues of sugarcane, a tropical crop, is presented...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Diby Paul, Judy Gopal, Manish Kumar, Muthu Manikandan
Communication is the sole means by which effective networking and co-existence is accomplished amongst living beings. Microbes have their own chit-chats. Science has overheard these microbial gossips and have concluded that these aren't just informal communications, but carefully coordinated signals that plan their effective strategies. Tracking one such signal molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), led to a fundamental understanding to microbial quorum sensing (QS). Furtherance of research sought for ways to cut off communication between these virulent forms, so as to hinder their combinatorial attacks through quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs)...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Simranjit Kaur, Mahesh Kulharia
Biofilms are bacteria living in micro-colonies with a protective coating in sessile form. The biofilm protects bacteria from harsh surroundings as well as help in antibiotics resistance using a semi-fluid substance. Cellulose is the major component of biofilm, which provides the sticky appearance to bacteria for attaching to the substratum. The bacteria communicate in biofilm with the help of quorum sensing hormones Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHL's). In Komagataeibacter xylinus the four genes Bcs A, Bcs B, Bcs C, Bcs D are associated with cellulose biosynthesis...
2017: Bioinformation
Servane Le Guillouzer, Marie-Christine Groleau, Eric Déziel
The genome of the bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis encodes three complete LuxI/LuxR-type quorum sensing (QS) systems: BtaI1/BtaR1 (QS-1), BtaI2/BtaR2 (QS-2), and BtaI3/BtaR3 (QS-3). The LuxR-type transcriptional regulators BtaR1, BtaR2, and BtaR3 modulate the expression of target genes in association with various N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules produced by the LuxI-type synthases BtaI1, BtaI2, and BtaI3. We have systematically dissected the complex QS circuitry of B. thailandensis strain E264...
December 5, 2017: MBio
Karin A Ziegler, Andrea Ahles, Timo Wille, Julia Kerler, Deepak Ramanujam, Stefan Engelhardt
Aims: Cardiac inflammation has been suggested to be regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, due to the lack of methodology to surgically eliminate the myocardial SNS in mice, neuronal control of cardiac inflammation remains ill defined. Here, we report a procedure for local cardiac sympathetic denervation in mice and tested its effect in a mouse model of heart failure post myocardial infarction. Methods and Results: Upon preparation of the carotid bifurcation the right and left superior cervical ganglion were localized and their pre- and postganglionic branches dissected before removal of the ganglion...
November 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Sizhe Li, Julien Wawrzyniak, Yves Queneau, Laurent Soulère
The ability of the 2-substituted aniline motif to serve as a scaffold for designing potential LuxR-regulated quorum sensing (QS) modulators has been investigated, using docking experiments and biological evaluation of a series of 15 specially synthesized compounds. Aniline, 2-acetyl-aniline and 2-nitroaniline were considered, as well as their N-acylated derivatives. Docking experiments showed that the 2-substituted aniline motif fits within the LuxR binding site at the place of the lactone moiety of AHL, and the biological evaluation revealed QS antagonisitic activity for several compounds, validating the hypothesis that this scaffold acts on QS...
November 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jin-Cheng Ma, Yun-Qi Wu, Dan Cao, Wen-Bin Zhang, Hai-Hong Wang
The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS) and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Donglei Jiang, Yan Liu, Hui Jiang, Shengqi Rao, Wu Fang, Mangang Wu, Limin Yuan, Weiming Fang
A novel screen-printed cell-based electrochemical sensor was developed to assess bacterial quorum signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which possesses excellent properties such as low-cost, disposable and energy-efficient, was modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to improve electrochemical signals and enhance the sensitivity. Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells encapsulated in alginate/graphene oxide (NaAgl/GO) hydrogel were immobilized on the MWNTs/SPCE to serve as recognition element...
November 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shahin Mohseni, Jeremy Holzmacher, Gabriel Sjolin, Rebecka Ahl, Babak Sarani
BACKGROUND: High-grade traumatic pancreatic injuries are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Non-resection management is associated with fewer complications in pediatric patients. The present study evaluates outcomes following resection versus non-resection management of severe pancreatic injury caused by penetrating trauma. METHODS: A retrospective study of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database was performed from 1/2010 to 12/2014...
November 21, 2017: Injury
Shanna L Burke, Tammy Bresnahan, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Albert Rizzo, Mary Partin, Robert M Ahlness, Matthew Trimmer
Conversational virtual human (VH) agents are increasingly used to support role-play experiential learning. This project examined whether a Virtual Interactive Training Agent (ViTA) system would improve job interviewing skills in individuals with autism and developmental disabilities (N = 32). A linear mixed model was employed to evaluate adjusted least square mean differences of means scores on the Marino Interview Assessment Scale (MIAS) across different time points. The mean score of MIAS over all questions increased between the first ViTA session and the final face-to-face interview...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jialu Wang, Kenji Hanada, Dean P Staus, Michael A Makara, Giri Raj Dahal, Qiang Chen, Andrea Ahles, Stefan Engelhardt, Howard A Rockman
The β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR) is recognized as a classical Gαs-coupled receptor. Agonist binding not only initiates G protein-mediated signaling but also signaling through the multifunctional adapter protein β-arrestin. Some βAR ligands, such as carvedilol, stimulate βAR signaling preferentially through β-arrestin, a concept known as β-arrestin-biased agonism. Here, we identify a signaling mechanism, unlike that previously known for any Gαs-coupled receptor, whereby carvedilol induces the transition of the β1AR from a classical Gαs-coupled receptor to a Gαi-coupled receptor stabilizing a distinct receptor conformation to initiate β-arrestin-mediated signaling...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Soumya Palliyil
A number of bacteria use a class of chemical compounds called acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signals to coordinate their behavior at the population level, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Blocking QS using antibodies is an attractive strategy for infection control as this process takes a central role in P. aeruginosa infections. Here the methods involved in the generation of high sensitivity anti-QS monoclonal antibodies from an immunized sheep phage display antibody library are described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kaihao Tang, Xiao-Hua Zhang
Although it has been more than a decade since the first discovery of AHL lactonase AiiA in Bacillus sp. 240B1, we are only beginning to understand the diversity of quorum quenching (QQ) enzymes. Most of the previously identified QQ enzymes are derived from nonmarine microorganisms. A novel marine-derived secretory AHL lactonase, MomL, was found in Muricauda olearia in our previous work and represents a novel type of AHL lactonase widespread in the ocean. Herein, we describe a culture-dependent method for the identification of microbial QQ enzymes, especially the high-throughput method for screening QQ bacteria from cultivable bacterial strains...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Louise Dahl Hultqvist, Maria Alhede, Tim Holm Jakobsen, Michael Givskov, Thomas Bjarnsholt
In order to study N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing in vivo, we present a protocol using an Escherichia coli strain equipped with a luxR-based monitor system, which in the presence of exogenous AHL molecules expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lungs from mice challenged intratracheally with alginate beads containing both a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain together with the E. coli monitor strain can be investigated at different time points postinfection. Epifluorescent or confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is used to detect the GFP-expressing E...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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