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Malabsorption children

Nashwa M Samra, Shaimaa Emad El Abrak, Hanaa H El Dash, Mona El Said El Raziky, Manal A El Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption is thought to develop in children with cholestatic liver disease leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism and rickets or osteomalacia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental and bone mineral densities and the serum level of vitamin D in cholestatic infants and children and to correlate this process with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that include 50 patients presenting with cholestasis...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Veronika Hammer, Katharina Hammer, Nima Memaran, Wolf-Dietrich Huber, Karin Hammer, Johann Hammer
BACKGROUND: Limited valid data are available regarding the association of fructose-induced symptoms, fructose malabsorption, and clinical symptoms. AIM: To develop a questionnaire for valid symptom assessment before and during a carbohydrate breath test and to correlate symptoms with fructose breath test results in children/adolescents with functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A Likert-type questionnaire assessing symptoms considered relevant for hydrogen breath test in children was developed and underwent initial validation...
March 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Yujiro Tanaka, Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida
Total esophagogastric dissociation (TED) is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after failed fundoplication in neurologically impaired patients. It is now performed for some otherwise healthy patients with severe GER. In this procedure, the gastrointestinal tract is reconstructed in a non-physiological way with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunal anastomosis and jejuno-jejunostomy. Although TED eliminates almost all GER, some patients experience late complications. In this review, we investigated the long-term outcomes after TED to determine the best indications...
February 12, 2018: Surgery Today
Johanna Uusimaa, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Teija Paakkola, Hannu Tuominen, Minna K Karjalainen, Javad Nadaf, Teppo Varilo, Meri Uusi-Mäkelä, Maria Suo-Palosaari, Ilkka Pietilä, Anniina E Hiltunen, Lloyd Ruddock, Heli Alanen, Ekaterina Biterova, Ilkka Miinalainen, Annamari Salminen, Raija Soininen, Aki Manninen, Raija Sormunen, Mika Kaakinen, Reetta Vuolteenaho, Riitta Herva, Päivi Vieira, Teija Dunder, Hannaleena Kokkonen, Jukka S Moilanen, Heikki Rantala, Lawrence M Nogee, Jacek Majewski, Mika Rämet, Mikko Hallman, Reetta Hinttala
A novel multi-organ disease that is fatal in early childhood was identified in three patients from two non-consanguineous families. These children were born asymptomatic but at the age of 2 months they manifested progressive multi-organ symptoms resembling no previously known disease. The main clinical features included progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic haemolytic anaemia and transient liver dysfunction. In the affected children, neuropathology revealed increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical and superficial white matter vascularisation and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration...
February 8, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Oana Belei, Andreea Dobrescu, Rodica Heredea, Emil Radu Iacob, Vlad David, Otilia Marginean
Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is defined by gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy, affecting approximately 1% of the genetically predisposed population. The immunologic response to gluten causes characteristic intestinal alterations with gradual development. Histologic recovery of intestinal architecture was reported to occur within 6-12 months after starting a gluten-free diet, simultaneously with clinical remission. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and timing of histologic recovery among children with CD on a gluten-free diet, diagnosed and followed in an academic referral pediatric center during a 10-year period...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Katarzyna Pawłowska, Rafał Seredyński, Wioleta Umławska, Barbara Iwańczak
Introduction: Lactose malabsorption arises from lactase deficiency and may lead to lactose intolerance - gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion. Occurrence and severity of the symptoms are influenced by many factors, including the dose of lactose and the intensity of its colonic fermentation to short chain fatty acids and gases. Material and methods: The hydrogen breath test (HBT) after 30 g or 50 g of lactose was performed in 387 children. Further analysis included children who had a positive HBT result...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Susana Matamouros, Hillary S Hayden, Kyle R Hager, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Kristina Lachance, Eli J Weiss, Christopher E Pope, Anne-Flore Imhaus, Colin P McNally, Elhanan Borenstein, Lucas R Hoffman, Samuel I Miller
The mature human gut microbiota is established during the first years of life, and altered intestinal microbiomes have been associated with several human health disorders. Escherichia coli usually represents less than 1% of the human intestinal microbiome, whereas in cystic fibrosis (CF), greater than 50% relative abundance is common and correlates with intestinal inflammation and fecal fat malabsorption. Despite the proliferation of E. coli and other Proteobacteria in conditions involving chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation, little is known about adaptation of specific characteristics associated with microbiota clonal expansion...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Eyad Altamimi
Purpose: Celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by exposure to gluten, is not uncommon in South Jordan. However, its prevalence is underestimated due to lack of physician awareness of the diversity of disease presentation. The clinical spectrum includes classic gastrointestinal manifestations, as well as rickets, iron-deficiency anemia, short stature, elevated liver enzymes, and edema. Our goal was to evaluate celiac disease presentation in clinically diagnosed children. Methods: Retrospective study included all children diagnosed with celiac disease between September 2009 and September 2015...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Raghav Chandra, Anil Kesavan
Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition which occurs in children with congenital or acquired reduction in length of the small intestine. SBS results in excessive fluid loss, nutrient malabsorption, electrolyte abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infections, parenteral nutrition associated complications and affects weight gain and growth. In children, SBS is debilitating and uniformly fatal without treatment. The primary goal of treatment is to restore enteral autonomy and reduce long-term dependence on parenteral support by increasing the absorptive potential of the remnant intestine...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Andrew C Argent, Rakhi Balachandran, Balu Vaidyanathan, Amina Khan, R Krishna Kumar
Poor growth with underweight for age, decreased length/height for age, and underweight-for-height are all relatively common in children with CHD. The underlying causes of this failure to thrive may be multifactorial, including innate growth potential, severity of cardiac disease, increased energy requirements, decreased nutritional intake, malabsorption, and poor utilisation of absorbed nutrition. These factors are particularly common and severe in low- and middle-income countries. Although nutrition should be carefully assessed in all patients, failure of growth is not a contraindication to surgical repair, and patients should receive surgical repair where indicated as soon as possible...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom, Manuel A Franco, Harry B Greenberg, Miguel O'Ryan, Gagandeep Kang, Ulrich Desselberger, Mary K Estes
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age. Despite the global introduction of vaccinations for rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Roberto Koity Fujihara Ozaki, Patrícia da Graça Leite Speridião, Ana Cristina Fontenele Soares, Mauro Batista de Morais
OBJECTIVE: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. METHODS: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain)...
October 28, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Atifete Ramosaj-Morina, A Keka-Sylaj, V Hasbahta, A Baloku-Zejnullahu, M Azemi, R Zunec
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder elicited by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. This disorder is characterized by specific histological changes of the small intestine mucosa resulting in malabsorption. This case was written up as it was an unusual and dramatic presentation of celiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 3-year-old Albanian girl who presented at our clinic with carpal spasms and hand paresthesia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Natalia Drabińska, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta
BACKGROUND: A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is regarded as the only proven and accepted therapy for coeliac disease (CD). However, even patients who strictly follow a GFD often suffer from intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Selective modulation of intestinal microbiota with prebiotics could remedy various symptoms associated with CD. The use of prebiotics in the treatment of intestinal diseases remains insufficiently investigated. To our knowledge, this study makes the first attempt to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional status of children with CD...
August 22, 2017: Nutrition Journal
Vanitha A Jagannath, Vidhu Thaker, Anne B Chang, Amy I Price
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michele Arigliani, Francesca Rech Morassutti, Martina Fabris, Paola Melli, Elio Tonutti, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: The onset of coeliac disease (CD) in the first year of life is uncommon and the diagnosis can be challenging due to the suboptimal sensitivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG) at this age and the many other possible causes of malabsorption in infants. Antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGPs), especially IgG, may appear earlier than IgA anti-tTG in very young children with CD. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here on an 8-month-old child who was evaluated for failure to thrive, constipation and developmental delay...
August 10, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Benjamin Lebwohl, David S Sanders, Peter H R Green
Coeliac disease occurs in about 1% of people in most populations. Diagnosis rates are increasing, and this seems to be due to a true rise in incidence rather than increased awareness and detection. Coeliac disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unknown environmental factors, develop an immune response that is subsequently triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The disease has many clinical manifestations, ranging from severe malabsorption to minimally symptomatic or non-symptomatic presentations...
January 6, 2018: Lancet
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