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Malabsorption children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216964/intraepithelial-lymphocytes-scores-mimickers-and-challenges-in-diagnosing-gluten-sensitive-enteropathy-celiac-disease
#1
REVIEW
Consolato Sergi, Fan Shen, Gerd Bouma
The upper digestive tract is routinely scoped for several causes of malabsorption, and the number of duodenal biopsy specimens has increased notably in the last 10 years. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is an autoimmune disease, which shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and requires a joint clinico-pathological approach. The classical histopathology of GSE with partial or total villous blunting is well recognized, but the classification of GSE is not straightforward. Moreover, several mimickers of GSE with intraepithelial lymphocytosis have been identified in the last 20 years, with drug interactions and medical comorbidities adding to the conundrum...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197149/treatment-of-infantile-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmunity-by-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-lps-responsive-beige-like-anchor-deficiency
#2
Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Laura Gámez-Díaz, Andrea Jarisch, Jan Soerensen, Bodo Grimbacher, Bernd Belohradsky, Klaus-Michael Keller, Christoph Rietschel, Thomas Klingebiel, Sibylle Koletzko, Michael H Albert, Peter Bader
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192499/vitamin-d-status-in-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Louise Maranda, Ninfa Candela
IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. AIM: To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167344/unexpected-widespread-hypophosphatemia-and-bone-disease-associated-with-elemental-formula-use-in-infants-and-children
#4
Luisa F Gonzalez Ballesteros, Nina S Ma, Rebecca J Gordon, Leanne Ward, Philippe Backeljauw, Halley Wasserman, David R Weber, Linda A DiMeglio, Julie Gagne, Robert Stein, Declan Cody, Kimber Simmons, Paul Zimakas, Lisa Swartz Topor, Sungeeta Agrawal, Andrew Calabria, Peter Tebben, Ruth Faircloth, Erik A Imel, Linda Casey, Thomas O Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: Hypophosphatemia occurs with inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased renal excretion, or shifts between intracellular and extracellular compartments. We noticed the common finding of amino-acid based elemental formula [EF] use in an unexpected number of cases of idiopathic hypophosphatemia occurring in infants and children evaluated for skeletal disease. We aimed to fully characterize the clinical profiles in these cases. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children with unexplained hypophosphatemia was performed as cases accumulated from various centres in North America and Ireland...
February 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#5
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147476/role-of-restrictive-endoscopic-procedures-in-obesity-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Hang Lak Lee
It is well recognized that obesity is a big problem and it can induce large economic burden. Obesity affects about 40% people in the America alone and obesity also is the worldwide problem, with about 400 million obese adults. Moreover, another problem of obesity is the increasing prevalence of overweight children. Though bariatric surgery remains the gold treatment modality in the obesity treatment, endoluminal approaches may have the meaningful role for weight control. Endoscopists should have a role in the management of obesity because endoluminal therapies demonstrate their safety and efficacy over the coming years...
January 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097735/autoimmune-enteropathy-and-hepatitis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipient
#7
Kimberly Lewis, Ryan Butts, J Antonio Quiros, Michelle Hudspeth, Katherine Twombley, Andrew Savage, Sally Self, Ali Burnette, Shaoli Sun
AIE is a rare disorder in children that presents with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, caused by immune-mediated damage to intestinal mucosa. AIE is often associated with various syndromes of immunodeficiency including IPEX syndrome (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked). Dysfunctional T regulatory cells are the source of pathology in both IPEX syndrome and AIE as they are essential in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive B cells. This case report describes a 10-year-old cardiac transplant and total thymectomy patient on chronic immunosuppression with tacrolimus that presented with AIE and extraintestinal manifestations of cyclical hepatitis...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940670/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-growth-failure-stunting-in-global-child-health
#8
REVIEW
Victor Owino, Tahmeed Ahmed, Michael Freemark, Paul Kelly, Alexander Loy, Mark Manary, Cornelia Loechl
Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938595/-two-cases-with-generalized-intracranial-calcification-due-to-hereditary-folate-malabsorption-and-literature-review
#9
Y Zhang, Q Wang, D X Li, Y P Liu, J Q Song, M Q Li, Y P Qin, Y L Yang
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical, biochemical and genetic features of two Chinese children with hereditary folate malabsorption. Method: Clinical features, laboratory examinations, treatment and SLC46A1 gene of two cases were studied. Reports on hereditary folate malabsorption utill September of 2016 were searched and the clinical and genetic characteristics of reported cases were summarized. Result: The two patients presented with megaloblastic anemia from their infant period and seizures, psychomotor retardation and regression...
December 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935157/coeliac-patients-detected-during-type-1-diabetes-surveillance-had-similar-issues-to-those-diagnosed-on-a-clinical-basis
#10
Anna U Laitinen, Daniel Agardh, Laura Kivelä, Heini Huhtala, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Katri Kaukinen, Kalle Kurppa
AIM: Screening children with type 1 diabetes for coeliac disease is controversial, because they often appear asymptomatic. Our aim was to establish whether active screening should be recommended. METHODS: This study focused on 22 children whose coeliac disease was detected by serological screening during diabetes surveillance and 498 children diagnosed because of a clinical suspicion. We compared the clinical and histological data at diagnosis and the children's adherence and responses to a gluten-free diet...
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916649/new-horizons-for-cystic-fibrosis-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Isabelle Fajac, Kris De Boeck
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited multi-system disease associated with chronic lung infection, malabsorption, salt loss syndromes, male infertility and leading to numerous comorbidities. The landscape in cystic fibrosis care has changed markedly with currently more adult patients than children in many countries. Over 2000 different mutations in the CFTR gene have been reported and the majority are extremely rare. Understanding how CFTR mutations translate to disturbed synthesis or function of the CFTR protein has opened the way to 'personalized' treatments to correct the basic defect...
February 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849236/treatment-of-short-bowel-syndrome-in-children-value-of-the-intestinal-rehabilitation-program
#12
Uenis Tannuri, Fabio de Barros, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri
The main cause of acute intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, generally as a result of resection of extensive segments of small intestine. As a result, the main symptoms are watery diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome, chronic malnutrition, and death, if the patient is not properly treated. If the length of the remaining intestine is greater than 30 cm, complete adaptation is possible and the patient may not require parenteral nutrition. The currently recommended treatment includes the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition, always aimed at constant weight gain, in conjunction with surgeries aimed at elongating the dilated bowel...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830928/oral-iron-absorption-test-with-ferrous-bisglycinate-chelate-in-children-with-celiac-disease-preliminary-results
#13
Giuseppe A Mazza, Luisa Pedrelli, Elisabetta Battaglia, Laura Giancotti, Roberto Miniero
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immunologically-mediated enteropathy resulting in small-bowel mucosal villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia. Iron malabsorption is usually observed in CD. Only few studies investigated oral iron absorption in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA), using the oral iron absorption test (OIAT). We considered useful to investigate the OIAT, using Ferrous Bisglycinate Chelate (FBC), in patients with CD at diagnosis or on Gluten Free Diet (GFD) from at least 1 year...
November 10, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811623/analysis-of-the-duodenal-microbiome-in-autistic-individuals-association-with-carbohydrate-digestion
#14
Rafail I Kushak, Harland S Winter, Timothy M Buie, Stephen B Cox, Caleb D Phillips, Naomi L Ward
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that symptoms of maldigestion or malabsorption in autistic individuals are related to changes in the indigenous microbiota. Analysis of colonic bacteria has revealed microbial dysbiosis in children with autism; however, characteristics of the duodenal microbiome are not well described. In this study the microbiome of the duodenal mucosa of subjects with autism was evaluated for dysbiosis, bacteria overgrowth and microbiota associated with carbohydrate digestion...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784959/endocrine-manifestations-in-celiac-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hugh James Freeman
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714440/celiac-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-bone-mineral-density-and-increased-frax-scores-in-the-us-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#16
E Kamycheva, T Goto, C A Camargo
: We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies...
March 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690005/oral-supplementation-with-a-special-additive-of-retinyl-palmitate-and-alpha-tocopherol-reduces-growth-retardation-in-young-pancreatic-duct-ligated-pigs-used-as-a-model-for-children-suffering-from-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#17
Anne Mößeler, Marion Schmicke, Martin Höltershinken, Martin Beyerbach, Josef Kamphues
Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is a disease of diverse aetiology-e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL) pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574929/lactose-breath-test-in-children-relationship-between-symptoms-during-the-test-and-test-results
#18
Miguel Glatstein, Shimon Reif, Dennis Scolnik, Liat Rom, Anat Yerushalmy-Feler, Margalit Dali-Levy, Shlomi Cohen
BACKGROUND: Lactose malabsorption affects 70% of the world population. The hydrogen breath test (HBT) is used clinically to test for this condition. The aim of our study was to describe the relationship between symptoms experienced before and during the HBT and test results. METHODS: We included children who underwent the HBT in the pediatric gastroenterology unit at Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital during a 6-month period. Previous symptoms and those experienced before and after the HBT were assessed using a questionnaire and a validated pain scale...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574563/update-on-diagnostic-value-of-breath-test-in-gastrointestinal-and-liver-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Imran Siddiqui, Sibtain Ahmed, Shahab Abid
In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540710/correction-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-with-intravenous-iron-sucrose-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Istvan Danko, Marcy Weidkamp
OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting their cognitive development and school performance. Oral iron supplementation has serious limitations including poor adherence and iron malabsorption related to chronic inflammation. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of periodic intravenous (IV) iron treatments for correction of IDA in children with IBD. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in 24 children with IBD treated with infliximab (IFX)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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