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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329758/real-time-rt-pcr-a-necessary-tool-to-support-the-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-rotavirus-in-mexico
#1
Sergio Isaac De La Cruz Hernández, Yazmin Anaya Molina, Fabián Gómez Santiago, Heidi Lizbeth Terán Vega, Elda Monroy Leyva, Héctor Méndez Pérez, Herlinda García Lozano
Rotavirus produces diarrhea in children under 5 years old. Most of those conventional methods such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have been used for rotavirus detection. However, these techniques need a multi-step process to get the results. In comparison with conventional methods, the real-time RT-PCR is a highly sensitive method, which allows getting the results in only one day. In this study a real-time RT-PCR assay was tested using a panel of 440 samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, and characterized by PAGE and RT-PCR...
December 14, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329299/multi-drug-resistant-non-typhoidal-salmonella-associated-with-invasive-disease-in-western-kenya
#2
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320556/care-seeking-patterns-among-families-that-experienced-under-five-child-mortality-in-rural-rwanda
#3
Daniel M Kagabo, Catherine M Kirk, Benjamin Bakundukize, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Neil Gupta, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Willy C Ingabire, Dominique Rouleau, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Catherine Mugeni, Felix Sayinzoga, Cheryl L Amoroso
BACKGROUND: Over half of under-five deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and appropriate, timely, quality care is critical for saving children's lives. This study describes the context surrounding children's deaths from the time the illness was first noticed, through the care-seeking patterns leading up to the child's death, and identifies factors associated with care-seeking for these children in rural Rwanda. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a verbal and social autopsy study of caregivers who reported the death of a child between March 2013 to February 2014 that occurred after discharge from the child's birth facility in southern Kayonza and Kirehe districts in Rwanda...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315643/characterization-of-unusual-ds-1-like-g3p-8-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-diarrhea-in-japan
#4
Satoshi Komoto, Tomihiko Ide, Manami Negoro, Takaaki Tanaka, Kazutoyo Asada, Masakazu Umemoto, Haruo Kuroki, Hiroaki Ito, Shigeki Tanaka, Mitsue Ito, Saori Fukuda, Shigeru Suga, Hajime Kamiya, Takashi Nakano, Koki Taniguchi
The emergence and rapid spread of novel DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses having the equine-like G3 genotype (DS-1-like G3P[8] strains) have been recently reported from several countries. During rotavirus surveillance in Japan in 2015-2016, three DS-1-like G3P[8] strains were identified from children with severe diarrhea. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the full genomes of these three strains. On full-genomic analysis, all three strains showed a unique genotype constellation including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311037/relationships-among-dietary-intakes-and-persistent-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-enzyme-treatment-for-genetic-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#5
Anne Boney, Heather E Elser, Heidi J Silver
BACKGROUND: Sucrose-isomaltase deficiency (SID) remains underdiagnosed. Absent or reduced enzyme activity promotes diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and flatulence from undigested and malabsorbed disaccharides. Frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms may be associated with the type of carbohydrates consumed. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the dietary intakes of patients treated with sacrosidase (Sucraid; QOL Medical) for SID and determine relationships between type of carbohydrates, sacrosidase dose, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306770/development-of-a-new-enzyme-immunoassay-for-improved-detection-of-rotavirus-in-fecal-specimens-of-vaccinated-infants
#6
Houping Wang, Merry Liu, Ken Sugata, Yuhuan Wang, Jennifer Hull, Kimberly Foytich, Baoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. A simple and rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been commonly used to detect rotavirus infection and evaluate rotavirus vaccines. Currently licensed commercial EIA kits have low sensitivity. A more sensitive detection of rotavirus can improve rotavirus diagnostics and vaccine efficacy studies. OBJECTIVE: A biotin-avidin based sandwich EIA was developed and compared with commercial EIA kits for improved detection of viral shedding in fecal samples from infants who received human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix in Mexico...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300333/atomic-resolution-structures-of-human-bufaviruses-determined-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#7
Maria Ilyas, Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Elina Väisänen, Mengxiao Luo, Paul Chipman, J Kennon Smith, Justin Kurian, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
Bufavirus strain 1 (BuV1), a member of the Protoparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae, was first isolated from fecal samples of children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Since this initial discovery, BuVs have been isolated in several countries, including Finland, the Netherlands, and Bhutan, in pediatric patients exhibiting similar symptoms. Towards their characterization, the structures of virus-like particles of BuV1, BuV2, and BuV3, the current known genotypes, have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to 2...
January 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299895/community-acquired-escherichia-coli-enteritis-in-korean-children-the-clinical-application-of-a-stool-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay
#8
Youie Kim, Hyo Jin Kim, Sooyeon Lim, Kil Seong Bae, Seung Beom Han, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Gook Jae Shin, Gun Dong Lee, Yeon Joon Park
BACKGROUND: Although Escherichia coli is a common cause of bacterial enteritis in Korea, reports on community-acquired E. coli enteritis in Korean children are scarce. This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and pathotype distribution of community-acquired E. coli enteritis diagnosed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in Korean children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of children aged 18 years or less who were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis by the attending physician between 2013 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290232/antibiotic-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Y Gillet, M Lorrot, R Cohena, I Hau, E Grimprel, C Gras-Le Guen
Bacterial skin and soft tissues infections are common in children and frequently do not require systemic antibiotics, especially if lesions are superficial. Careful washing is always indicated in superficial lesions and is often sufficient. Careful evaluation of symptoms (which may be difficult despite the accessibility of the lesions) should be performed before prescription. Therefore, the need for drainage (spontaneous or surgical) should be assessed considering that antibiotics are mostly useless if purulent lesions are drained...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290231/antimicrobial-treatment-of-diarrhea-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#10
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290097/challenges-in-developing-mucosal-vaccine-and-antibodies-against-infectious-diarrhea-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Daisuke Tokuhara
Infectious diarrhea in children can be life-threatening and imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems, therefore more effective prophylactic and therapeutic drugs are needed urgently. Because most of the pathogens responsible for childhood diarrhea infect the gastrointestinal mucosa, providing protective immunity at the mucosal surface is an ideal way to control pathogen invasion and toxic activity. Mucosal (e.g., oral, nasal) vaccines are superior to systemic (subcutaneous or intramuscular) vaccination for conferring both mucosal and systemic pathogen-specific immune responses...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282610/trends-of-foodborne-diseases-in-china-lessons-from-laboratory-based-surveillance-since-2011
#12
REVIEW
Jikai Liu, Li Bai, Weiwei Li, Haihong Han, Ping Fu, Xiaochen Ma, Zhenwang Bi, Xiaorong Yang, Xiuli Zhang, Shiqi Zhen, Xiaoling Deng, Xiumei Liu, Yunchang Guo
Foodborne disease is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. China faces various and unprecedented challenges in all aspects of the food chain. Data from laboratory-based foodborne disease surveillance systems from 2013 to 2016, as well as different regions and ages, can be found along with differences in the patterns of pathogens detected with diverse characteristics. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in China, especially among adults in coastal regions...
December 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273891/pedsql-neurofibromatosis-type-1-module-for-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-feasibility-reliability-and-validity
#13
Kavitha Nutakki, James W Varni, Nancy L Swigonski
The objective of the present study was to report on the measurement properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Module for pediatric patients ages 5-25 from the perspectives of patients and parents. The 104-item PedsQL NF1 Module and 23-item PedsQL Generic Core Scales were completed in a multi-site national study by 323 patients and 335 parents (343 families). Patients were diagnosed with NF1 using the National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria. In addition to a Total Scale Score, 18 unidimensional scales were derived measuring skin itch bother, skin sensations, pain, pain impact, pain management, cognitive functioning, speech, fine motor, balance, vision, perceived physical appearance, communication, worry, treatment anxiety, medicines, stomach discomfort, constipation, and diarrhea...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262494/-epidemiological-and-etiological-surveillance-study-of-infectious-diarrhea-in-shanghai-in-2013-2015
#14
J Li, H Pan, W J Xiao, X H Gong, Y Zhuang, X Z Kuang, H Y Wu, Z A Yuan
Objective: To analyze the pathogen spectrum and epidemiological characters of infectious diarrhea cases in Shanghai from July 2013 to June 2015. Methods: From July 2013 to June 2015, using multi-stage sampling to select 22 hospitals as adult diarrhea surveillance sentinels, and 3 district central hospitals together with Shanghai municipal children's hospital as children diarrhea surveillance sentinels. A total of 6 267 diarrhea cases were sampled. The demographic characters, main clinical manifestations and signs of cases were investigated, and stool specimens were collected to conduct the bacteria culture and virus nucleic acid detection...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262475/-clinical-analysis-of-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-in-47-children
#15
S Guo, L Song, D X Guan, T L Mei, J Zhou, F H Yu, G L Wang, J Zhang, H Q Shen, X W Xu
Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) in children in order to improve the skills of diagnosis and treatment of IL. Method: Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, gastroscopic findings, histopathological examinations and lymphatic radionuclide imaging assessments were analyzed retrospectively among 47 IL patients who were hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Department of Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from June 2007 to December 2015...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262469/-association-between-behavioral-problems-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
J Zhu, M Guo, T Yang, X Lai, Y Y Lei, M L He, J Chen, T Y Li
Objective: To investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal disorders (GID) and core symptoms or behavioral problems among the children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) . Method: Totally 328 children with ASD and 202 normal controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from August 2013 to October 2016. The information about the gastrointestinal disorders, behavioral and emotional problems was collected by using questionnaires. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261680/determinants-of-stunting-among-children-aged-6-59-months-at-kindo-didaye-woreda-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#17
Bancha Batiro, Tsegaye Demissie, Yoseph Halala, Antehun Alemayehu Anjulo
BACKGROUND: Stunting is a well-established risk marker of poor child development. Globally in 2017, 155 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted. While different activities are being done to reduce the burden of stunted growth, the problem is overwhelming in Africa; it was increased by 24%. Therefore, identifying determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 would help to set priorities for action and to the design of stunting reduction plan at a grassroots level. METHODS: The unmatched case-control study was conducted in randomly selected 8 rural kebeles of Kindo Didaye woreda, Ethiopia from February to April, 2016 to identify the determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260749/-difficulties-in-the-diagnosis-of-diarrhea-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-adults
#18
V A Malov, V V Maleev, N L Kozlovskaya, N A Tsvetkova, S V Smetanina, A N Gorobchenko, V V Serova, V B Chentsov, A G Volkov, A P Faller
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare, but menacing condition registered mainly in children. The paper gives a detailed description and analysis of a clinical case of HUS with a favorable outcome in an adult woman who developed the syndrome in the presence of bloody diarrhea. It considers an update on the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of HUS associated with diarrheal syndrome and discusses differential diagnostic features, diagnostic problems, and characteristics of management tactics for patients...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260646/epidemiology-of-campylobacter-infections-among-children-in-egypt
#19
Rebecca Sainato, Atef ElGendy, Frédéric Poly, Janelle Kuroiwa, Patricia Guerry, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Campylobacter is a frequently isolated bacterial pathogen among children with diarrhea. Data are lacking on the distribution and spectrum of disease associated with Campylobacter species and Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types. This information is essential because current vaccine research seeks to target specific CPS types. An effective CPS-conjugate vaccine will need to cover CPS types that are both common and associated with severe disease. The US Naval Medical Research Unit-3 conducted several prospective cohort studies researching diarrheal disease in Egypt from 1995 to 2003...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260483/prophylactic-potential-of-synbiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-inulin-in-malnourished-murine-giardiasis-an-immunological-and-ultrastructural-study
#20
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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