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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140238/the-effects-of-malnutrition-and-diarrhea-type-on-the-accuracy-of-clinical-signs-of-dehydration-in-children-under-five-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-bangladesh
#1
Kelly Skrable, Saadiyah Bilal, Rashmi Sharma, Sarah Robertson, Yokabed Ashenafi, Sabiha Nasrin, Nur H Alam, Adam C Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140236/impact-of-childhood-nutritional-status-on-pathogen-prevalence-and-severity-of-acute-diarrhea
#2
Kirkby D Tickell, Patricia B Pavlinac, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Barbra A Richardson, Jaqueline M Naulikha, Ronald K Kirera, Brett E Swierczewski, Benson O Singa, Judd L Walson
Children with acute and chronic malnutrition are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality following a diarrheal episode. To compare diarrheal disease severity and pathogen prevalence among children with and without acute and chronic malnutrition, we conducted a cross-sectional study of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Kenyan children aged 6-59 months, who presented with acute diarrhea. Children underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and provided stool for bacterial and protozoal pathogen detection...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138957/the-most-important-recommended-times-of-hand-washing-with-soap-and-water-in-preventing-the-occurrence-of-acute-diarrhea-among-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#3
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Girmay Medhin, Helmut Kloos
Adequate hand washing with soap at five recommended times is particularly important in urban slums in developing countries, but which of the recommended times are the most important in the prevention of diarrhea among children under five years of age living in these areas remains unclear. To address this gap, a community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between September and November 2014. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138656/-hyperthyroidism-in-children-at-the-university-hospital-in-dakar-senegal
#4
Djibril Boiro, Demba Diédhiou, Babacar Niang, Djiby Sow, Mandiaye Mbodj, Anna Sarr, Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo, Aliou Thiongane, Modou Guèye, Lamine Thiam, Ndiogou Seck, Yaay Joor Dieng, Abou Ba, Idrissa Demba Ba, Ibrahima Mané Diallo, Ousmane Ndiaye, Said Nourou Diop
Introduction: Hyperthyroidism in children is rare and constitutes a problem because of its psychosomatic impact. This study aimed to present an overview of the state of knowledge on these aspects in children from Dakar. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, descriptive study over a period of 15 years. We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and etiologic aspects of hyperthyroidism in children. Results: 239 patients were included in the study with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128381/early-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-mozambique
#5
Nilsa de Deus, Jorfélia José Chilaúle, Marta Cassocera, Miguel Bambo, Jerónimo Sozinho Langa, Ezequias Sitoe, Assucênio Chissaque, Elda Anapakala, Júlia Sambo, Esperança Lourenço Guimarães, Diocreciano Matias Bero, Eva Dora João, Idalécia Cossa-Moiane, Jason M Mwenda, Goitom G Weldegebriel, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix, GSK Biologicals) in the National Immunization Program in September 2015 with the objective of reducing the burden of total diarrheal disease and specifically severe rotavirus disease. This study aimed to evaluate the early impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalizations. METHODS: We analysed stool specimens collected from children under five years old, between January 2014 and June 2017 within the National Surveillance for Acute Diarrhea...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122738/performance-of-a-mobile-phone-app-based-participatory-syndromic-surveillance-system-for-acute-febrile-illness-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-rural-guatemala
#6
Daniel Olson, Molly Lamb, Maria Renee Lopez, Kathryn Colborn, Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Alma Zacarias, Ricardo Zambrano-Perilla, Sergio Ricardo Rodríguez-Castro, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Edwin Jose Asturias
BACKGROUND: With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. OBJECTIVE: We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121534/public-health-regulation-and-mortality-evidence-from-early-20th-century-milk-laws
#7
Sarah Komisarow
In this paper, I estimate the impact of city-level public health regulations in the market for cow's milk on the mortality of infants and young children between 1900 and 1920. I find that the introduction of city-level dairy farm inspections reduced mortality from Diarrhea & Enteritis for one-year-old children by 1.3 annual deaths per thousand, a 14 percent effect relative to the baseline rate for this cause and a 3 percent effect relative to the baseline rate for all causes for this age group. Back-of-the-envelope calculations reveal that the benefits from these regulations exceeded costs by at least a factor of two...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120854/the-protective-effects-of-bacillus-licheniformis-preparation-on-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-inflammation-induced-by-radiotherapy-in-pediatric-with-central-nervous-system-tumor
#8
Shu-Xu Du, Yong-Rui Jia, Si-Qi Ren, Xiao-Jun Gong, Hong Tang, Wu Wan-Shui, Sun Li-Ming
PURPOSE: we studied the effect of Bacillus licheniformis preparation (ZCS) on CNST (central nervous system tumor) patients undergoing the gastrointestinal symptoms and inflammation induced by radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 160 CNST patients with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) treatment were divided into experiment and control group. The experiment group patients took one capsule per time of ZCS and three times a day until the end of radiotherapy, starting one day before radiotherapy...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119578/carotid-flow-time-test-performance-for-the-detection-of-dehydration-in-children-with-diarrhea
#9
David C Mackenzie, Sabiha Nasrin, Bita Atika, Payal Modi, Nur H Alam, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Unstructured clinical assessments of dehydration in children are inaccurate. Point-of-care ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that can help evaluate the volume status; the corrected carotid artery flow time has been shown to predict volume depletion in adults. We sought to determine the ability of the corrected carotid artery flow time to identify dehydration in a population of children presenting with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: Children presenting with acute diarrhea were recruited and rehydrated according to hospital protocols...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#10
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111140/genomics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-species
#11
REVIEW
Asis Khan, Jahangheer S Shaik, Michael E Grigg
Cryptosporidium is one of the most widespread protozoan parasites that infects domestic and wild animals and is considered the second major cause of diarrhea and death in children after rotavirus. So far, around 20 distinct species are known to cause severe to moderate infections in humans, of which Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the major causative agents. Currently, ssurRNA and gp60 are used as the optimal markers for differentiating species and subtypes respectively. Over the last decade, diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species at the genotype and subtype level have improved, but our understanding of the zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission potential of each species is less clear, largely because of the paucity of high resolution whole genome sequencing data for the different species...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110105/recent-issues-in-pediatric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
REVIEW
Jason A Clayton, Philip Toltzis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on two recent aspects of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children, namely the emergence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) and the incidence and prevention of recurrent CDI. RECENT FINDINGS: Current surveys suggest that a large proportion of all pediatric CDI is acquired in the community. Risk factors and frequency estimates of pediatric CA-CDI, however, are confounded in babies and toddlers by a high rate of asymptomatic excretion, whose detection likely is exaggerated by the wide use of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests...
November 7, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109019/quantifying-rotavirus-kinetics-in-the-reh-tumor-cell-line-using-in-vitro-data
#13
Gilberto González-Parra, Hana M Dobrovolny, Diego F Aranda, Benito Chen-Charpentier, Rafael Antonio Guerrero Rojas
Globally, rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age, however, a quantitative understanding of the infection dynamics is still lacking. In this paper, we present the first study to extract viral kinetic parameters for in vitro rotavirus infections in the REH cell tumor line. We use a mathematical model of viral kinetics to extract parameter values by fitting the model to data from rotavirus infection of REH cells. While accurate results for some of the parameters of the mathematical model were not achievable due to its global non-identifiability, we are able to quantify approximately the time course of the infection for the first time...
November 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107346/potential-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-afghanistan
#14
Palwasha Anwari, Frederic Debellut, Clint Pecenka, Sardar M Parwiz, Andrew Clark, Devin Groman, Najibullah Safi
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress made in child survival in the past 20 years, 5.9 million children under five years died in 2015, with 9% of these deaths due to diarrhea. Rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of diarrhea deaths. In 2013, rotavirus was estimated to cause 215,000 deaths among children under five years, including 89,000 in Asia. As of April 2017, 92 countries worldwide have introduced rotavirus vaccination in their national immunization program. Afghanistan has applied for Gavi support to introduce rotavirus vaccination nationally...
October 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106325/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-with-high-rate-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-production-two-predominant-etiological-agents-of-acute-diarrhea-in-shiraz-iran
#15
Maneli Aminshahidi, Amir Arastehfar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Esmayil Arman, Fereshteh Fani
This study was conducted to find the etiology of acute diarrhea in Iranian children and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The pathogenic bacteria were recovered from 110/269 (40.9%) diarrheal fecal samples with the following profiles: the most predominant pathogen was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (43.6%), comprising enteroaggregative E. coli (23.6%), enteropathogenic E. coli (10.9%), enteroinvasive E. coli (5.5%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (3.6%); Shigella spp. (37.3%), Salmonella spp...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104143/assessing-antigen-specific-hla-dr-antibody-secreting-cell-dr-asc-responses-in-whole-blood-in-enteric-infections-using-an-elispot-technique
#16
Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Naoshin Sharmin Nishat, Deena Al Mahbuba, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Kamrul Islam, Lazina Hossain, Jason B Harris, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Firdausi Qadri
Antibody secreting cells (ASCs) generate antibodies in an antigen-specific manner as part of the adaptive immune response to infections, and these cells increase their surface expression of HLA-DR. We have studied this parameter (HLA-DR+ ASC) in patients with recent diarrheal infection using immuno-magnetic cell sorting and an enzyme linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique that requires only one milliliter of blood. We validated this approach in adult patients with cholera (n = 15) or ETEC diarrhea (n = 30) on days 2, 7 and 30 after showing clinical symptom at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) hospital in Dhaka, and we compared responses to age-matched healthy controls (n = 7)...
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#17
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096340/non-traumatic-perforation-of-common-hepatic-duct-case-report-and-review-of-literature-hp
#18
Abdelaziz Atwez, Matthew Augustine, James M Nottingham
INTRODUCTION: Non-traumatic biliary perforation other than the gallbladder is extremely rare and most commonly seen in children in association with congenital biliary anomalies. We present a rare case of choledocholithiasis that progressed to spontaneous perforation of the common hepatic duct probably from ischemic necrosis caused by impaction of large biliary stones. CASEREPORT: A 62-year-old female presented with diarrhea and jaundice. She was found to have two 2...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095805/implementation-of-rotavirus-surveillance-and-vaccine-introduction-world-health-organization-african-region-2007-2016
#19
Jason M Mwenda, Rachel M Burke, Keith Shaba, Richard Mihigo, Mable Carole Tevi-Benissan, Mutale Mumba, Joseph Nsiari-Muzeyi Biey, Dah Cheikh, Alain Poy MSc, Felicitas R Zawaira, Negar Aliabadi, Jacqueline E Tate, Terri Hyde, Adam L Cohen, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe pediatric diarrhea globally, estimated to have caused 120,000 deaths among children aged <5 years in sub-Saharan Africa in 2013 (1). In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended rotavirus vaccination for all infants worldwide (2). Two rotavirus vaccines are currently licensed globally: the monovalent Rotarix vaccine (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline; 2-dose series) and the pentavalent RotaTeq vaccine (RV5, Merck; 3-dose series). This report describes progress of rotavirus vaccine introduction (3), coverage (using estimates from WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]) (4), and impact on pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in the WHO African Region...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091726/are-there-synergies-from-combining-hygiene-and-sanitation-promotion-campaigns-evidence-from-a-large-scale-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-tanzania
#20
Bertha Briceño, Aidan Coville, Paul Gertler, Sebastian Martinez
SUMMARY: The current evidence on handwashing and sanitation programs suggests limited impacts on health when at-scale interventions have been tested in isolation. However, no published experimental evidence currently exists that tests the interaction effects between sanitation and handwashing. We present the results of two large-scale, government-led handwashing and sanitation promotion campaigns in rural Tanzania, with the objective of tracing the causal chain from hygiene and sanitation promotion to changes in child health outcomes and specifically testing for potential interaction effects of combining handwashing and sanitation interventions...
2017: PloS One
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