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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944092/mefa-multiepitope-fusion-antigen-novel-technology-for-structural-vaccinology-proof-from-computational-and-empirical-immunogenicity-characterization-of-an-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-adhesin-mefa
#1
Qiangde Duan, Kuo Hao Lee, Rahul M Nandre, Carolina Garcia, Jianhan Chen, Weiping Zhang
Vaccine development often encounters the challenge of virulence heterogeneity. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria producing immunologically heterogeneous virulence factors are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Currently, we do not have licensed vaccines against ETEC bacteria. While conventional methods continue to make progress but encounter challenge, new computational and structure-based approaches are explored to accelerate ETEC vaccine development. In this study, we applied a structural vaccinology concept to construct a structure-based multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) to carry representing epitopes of the seven most important ETEC adhesins [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1-CS3), CFA/IV (CS4-CS6)], simulated antigenic structure of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA with computational atomistic modeling and simulation, characterized immunogenicity in mouse immunization, and examined the potential of structure-informed vaccine design for ETEC vaccine development...
August 2017: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941619/an-ensemble-approach-to-predicting-the-impact-of-vaccination-on-rotavirus-disease-in-niger
#2
Jaewoo Park, Joshua Goldstein, Murali Haran, Matthew Ferrari
Recently developed vaccines provide a new way of controlling rotavirus in sub-Saharan Africa. Models for the transmission dynamics of rotavirus are critical both for estimating current burden from imperfect surveillance and for assessing potential effects of vaccine intervention strategies. We examine rotavirus infection in the Maradi area in southern Niger using hospital surveillance data provided by Epicentre collected over two years. Additionally, a cluster survey of households in the region allows us to estimate the proportion of children with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939442/association-of-cytolethal-distending-toxin-ii-gene-positive-escherichia-coli-with-escherichia-albertii-an-emerging-enteropathogen
#3
Atsushi Hinenoya, Noritomo Yasuda, Natsuko Mukaizawa, Sikander Sheikh, Yuko Niwa, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Teizo Tsukamoto, Akira Nagita, M John Albert, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli have been isolated from patients with diarrhea, sepsis and urinary tract infection. CDT of E. coli is divided into five types (CDT-I through CDT-V) based on differences in amino acid sequences and its genomic location. However, in our recent studies, a few strains of cdt-II gene-positive bacteria, initially identified as atypical E. coli, were re-identified as Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen, by extensive characterization including multilocus sequence (MLS) analysis and sugar utilization tests...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939438/comparative-whole-genome-analysis-of-three-consecutive-salmonella-diarizonae-isolates
#4
Roman G Gerlach, Steffi Walter, Michael McClelland, Christiane Schmidt, Matthias Steglich, Rita Prager, Jennifer K Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Christoph Schoerner, Wolfgang Rabsch, Werner Lang, Jonathan Jantsch
Infections of very young children or immunocompromised people with Salmonella of higher subspecies are a well-known phenomenon often associated with contact to cold-blooded animals. We describe the molecular characterization of three S. enterica subsp. diarizonae strains, isolated consecutively over a period of several months from a hospital patient suffering from diarrhea and sepsis with fatal outcome. With the initial isolate the first complete genome sequence of a member of subsp. diarizonae is provided and based on this reference we revealed the genomic differences between the three isolates by use of next-generation sequencing and confirmed by phenotypical tests...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938260/cryptosporidium-species-are-frequently-present-but-rarely-detected-in-clinical-samples-from-children-with-diarrhea-in-a-developed-country
#5
Daniel M Skovgaards, Gitte N Hartmeyer, Marianne N Skov, Silje V Hoegh, Michael Kemp
Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015 Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study PCR detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1,3%) of 304 children. Cryptosporidium species is as frequent as other intestinal pathogens in childhood diarrhea. Testing is relevant.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934198/-koko-et-les-lunettes-magiques-an-educational-entertainment-tool-to-prevent-parasitic-worms-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#6
Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Abel Kouamé, Kouassi Dongo, Richard B Yapi, Honorine M Moro, Christiane A Kouakou, Marta S Palmeirim, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932313/serum-zinc-level-and-its-correlation-with-vesikari-system-scoring-in-acute-pediatric-diarrhea
#7
Ayman E Eskander, Lobna S Sherif, Mohammad Nabih, Nevine R El Baroudy, Ghobrial C Marcos, Ehsan A Badawy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Zinc has been studied extensively recently for its potential effect on prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhoea. AIM: This study was designed to correlate the level of zinc with the severity of pediatric diarrhoea estimated by Vesikari Scoring System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 80 children aged two months to 30 months from those suffering from the acute diarrheal episode and admitted to Pediatric Hospital "Abo El Rish" Cairo University...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923093/effects-of-improved-sanitation-on-diarrheal-reduction-for-children-under-five-in-idiofa-dr-congo-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#8
Seungman Cha, JaeEun Lee, DongSik Seo, Byoung Mann Park, Paul Mansiangi, Kabore Bernard, Guy Jerome Nkay Mulakub-Yazho, Honore Minka Famasulu
BACKGROUND: The lack of safe water and sanitation contributes to the rampancy of diarrhea in many developing countries. METHODS: This study describes the design of a cluster-randomized trial in Idiofa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, seeking evidence of the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhea for children under four. Of the 276 quartiers, 18 quartiers were randomly allocated to the intervention or control arm. Seven hundred and-twenty households were sampled and the youngest under-four child in each household was registered for this study...
September 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922261/the-effect-of-gluten-free-diet-on-clinical-symptoms-and-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-patients-with-potential-celiac-disease
#9
Roberta Mandile, Valentina Discepolo, Serena Scapaticci, Maria Rosaria Del Vecchio, Maria Antonia Maglio, Luigi Greco, Riccardo Troncone, Renata Auricchio
In this prospective study, we evaluated the effect of gluten free diet (GFD) in a cohort of 65 children with potential celiac disease (PCD). Patients received GFD for signs/symptoms (N = 47) or parents' choice (N = 18). Most frequent signs/symptoms were low Body Mass Index (BMI) (36%), recurrent abdominal pain (34%) and diarrhea (19%). Of the 35/47 patients followed-up on GFD, only 54% (19/35) showed a complete clinical response. In 9/65 patients an intestinal biopsy was also performed after at least one year of GFD...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916577/evaluation-of-nutrition-interventions-in-children-in-conflict-zones-a-narrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Grace J Carroll, Sonam D Lama, Josefa L Martinez-Brockman, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912970/knowledge-practice-and-associated-factors-of-home-based-management-of-diarrhea-among-caregivers-of-children-attending-under-five-clinic-in-fagita-lekoma-district-awi-zone-amhara-regional-state-northwest-ethiopia-2016
#11
Bogale Kassahun Desta, Nega Tezera Assimamaw, Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafi
INTRODUCTION: In Ethiopia, it is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess knowledge, practice, and associated factors of home-based management of diarrhea among caregivers of children attending the under-five clinic. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out from March 1, 2016, to April 22, 2016. RESULTS: Two hundred eight (56...
2017: Nursing Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910371/surveillance-of-norovirus-among-children-with-diarrhea-in-four-major-hospitals-in-bhutan-replacement-of-gii-21-by-gii-3-as-a-dominant-genotype
#12
Sonam Wangchuk, Takashi Matsumoto, Hidekatsu Iha, Kamruddin Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Bhutanese children. The etiology of diarrhea is not well known due to the challenges of conducting routine surveillance with Bhutan's modest research facilities. Establishing an etiology is crucial toward generating evidence that will contribute to policy discussions on a diarrheal disease control program. Our previous study, during 2010-2012, revealed that norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of diarrhea among Bhutanese children, and that GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906253/latest-insights-on-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-an-emerging-medical-condition
#13
REVIEW
L Vila Sexto
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity, characterized by profuse vomiting, frequently associated to pallor or/and lethargy that appears within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the offending food. There is a less frequent chronic form of FPIES, presenting with protracted vomiting, diarrhea or both, accompanied by poor growth. Although FPIES is considered a rare allergic disorder, in the last few years there have been an increasing number of reports about it indicating if not a real increase in incidence, at least an increased awareness of this condition by pediatricians...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893243/impact-of-pharmacy-worker-training-and-deployment-on-access-to-essential-medicines-for-children-under-five-in-malawi-a-cluster-quasi-experimental-evaluation
#14
Joseph B Babigumira, Solomon J Lubinga, Alisa M Jenny, Erin Larsen-Cooper, Jessica Crawford, Charles Matemba, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892173/prevalence-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-a-genotypes-cirulating-in-turkey-during-a-two-year-sentinel-surveillance-period-2014-2016
#15
Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Ozlem Unaldi, Alper Karagoz, Gulay Korukluoglu, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Sumeyra Acar, Selcuk Kilic
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a two-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#16
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Background Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide, and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890396/mir-525-3p-mediates-antiviral-defense-to-rotavirus-infection-by-targeting-nonstructural-protein-1
#17
Zhiqiang Tian, Ji Zhang, Haiyang He, Jintao Li, Yuzhang Wu, Zigang Shen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by controlling mRNA stability or translation. They play critical roles in intricate networks of host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of cellular miRNAs during RV (human Wa RV or Rhesus RV) strain infection. Twenty-nine differentially regulated miRNAs were identified during RV infection, and miR-525-3p was downregulated and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889146/celiac-disease-in-saudi-children-evaluation-of-clinical-features-and-diagnosis
#18
Anjum Saeed, Asaad Assiri, Hebah Assiri, Anhar Ullah, Mohsin Rashid
 Objectives: To characterize the clinical presentations and diagnosis including serological tests and histopathological findings in children with celiac disease. Methods: All children (less than 18 years) with confirmed celiac disease diagnosed over a 6 year period at a private tertiary care health care center in Riyadh,  Saudi Arabia were studied retrospectively. Information collected included demographics, clinical presentation and diagnostic modalities with serology and small intestinal histology reported by Marsh grading...
September 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888898/duodenal-pathologies-in-children-a-single-center-experience
#19
Ulas Emre Akbulut, Sami Fidan, Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz, Orhan Polat Ors
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have been performed concerning pathologies of the stomach and esophagus in the pediatric age group. However, there have been very few studies of duodenal pathologies in children. The authors aimed to examine the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological characteristics, as well as the etiology of duodenal pathologies in children. METHOD: Patients aged between 1 and 17 years undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) during two years at this unit, were investigated retrospectively...
September 7, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885460/potential-diarrheal-pathogens-common-also-in-healthy-children-in-angola
#20
Tuula Pelkonen, Mauro Dias Dos Santos, Irmeli Roine, Elisabete Dos Anjos, César Freitas, Heikki Peltola, Sanna Laakso, Juha Kirveskari
BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1,500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. METHODS: 194 stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The median age of children was 10...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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