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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786169/bangladeshi-children-with-acute-diarrhea-show-fecal-microbiomes-with-increased-streptococcus-abundance-irrespective-of-diarrhea-etiology
#1
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784471/rotavirus-gastroenteritis-surveillance-in-azerbaijan-2011-2016
#2
Nazifa Mursalova, Nazim Shugayev, Javahir Suleymanova, Danni S Daniels, Annemarie Wasley, Adam L Cohen, Negar Aliabadi
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and mortality among children worldwide but data describing rotavirus disease in Azerbaijan are lacking. This analysis describes the rotavirus disease burden in Baku, the largest city in Azerbaijan. METHODS: We conducted active, prospective, sentinel hospital surveillance with laboratory confirmation for rotavirus among children under 5 years of age hospitalized at a large pediatric hospital in Baku during 2011-2016...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784467/epidemiology-of-acute-diarrhea-caused-by-rotavirus-in-sentinel-surveillance-sites-of-vietnam-2012-2015
#3
Dang Thi Thanh Huyen, Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Tran Thi Nguyen Hoa, Nguyen Kieu Oanh, Ho Vinh Thang, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Do Manh Hung, Makiko Iijima, Kimberley Fox, Varja Grabovac, James Heffelfinger, Nyambat Batmunkh, Dang Duc Anh
A prospective, multicentre study was conducted in four sentinel surveillance hospitals to assess the trend and epidemiology of acute diarrhea caused by Rotavirus in Vietnam. During the period 2012-2015, a total 8,889 children under 5 years of age were enrolled in the surveillance, and 8689 stool samples were collected. Of these cases, Rotavirus was most common pathogen 46.7% (4054 cases); in which 26.6% (1117) rotavirus-positive stool samples were evaluated to identify genotypes. The proportion of rotavirus positive specimens decreased annually from 54...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782464/use-of-probiotics-in-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-infections
#4
Ivana Trivić, Iva Hojsak
Nosocomial, hospital-acquired or health care-associated infections occur worldwide, affecting both developed and developing countries. This results in a prolonged hospital stay, increased antimicrobial resistance, increased mortality rate, and significant financial burden on the health care system. Routine preventive measures have led to the decrease in infection spreading; however, it cannot successfully prevent all of them, making a place for the development of new strategies, including probiotics. The aim of this review was to summarize available evidence of the role of probiotics in the prevention of nosocomial infections in children...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779802/feasibility-of-initiating-early-enteral-nutrition-after-congenital-heart-surgery-in-neonates-and-infants
#5
Rajat Kalra, Rohit Vohra, Malti Negi, Reena Joshi, Neeraj Aggarwal, Mridul Aggarwal, Raja Joshi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of initiating enteral nutrition support with first 24 h of congenital heart repairs in neonates and Infants and its impact on outcomes following surgery. DESIGN: It is a prospective randomized control single blind study. SETTING: It is a single centre prospective study carried out in a tertiary care centre at Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PATIENTS: All patients with the cyanotic congenital heart disease with increase pulmonary blood flow, weighing less than 5 kg and undergoing congenital heart repair during the study period were included in the study...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779228/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-rotavirus-a-infection-among-diarrheal-children-and-phylogenetic-analysis-with-vaccine-strains-in-chengdu-west-china-2009-2014
#6
Yu-Hang Chen, Fan Chen, Tao Zhou, Jia-Yi Chen, Tian-Li Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVES: Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. However, little is known about the epidemiological and clinical profile of rotavirus A (RVA) in diarrheal children or the efficacy of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) in Chengdu, China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical profile of RVA in diarrheal children and provide gene analysis information for RVA vaccination programs. METHODS: 1121 fecal samples were collected from outpatient children with diarrhea between 2009 and 2014...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775772/occurrence-genotyping-and-health-risk-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-recreational-lakes-in-tianjin-china
#7
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768428/socio-environmental-factors-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-under-five-year-old-children-in-the-state-of-tocantins-brazil
#8
Volmar Morais Fontoura, Iolanda Graepp-Fontoura, Floriacy Stabnow Santos, Marcelino Santos Neto, Hanari Santos de Almeida Tavares, Maria Onice Lopes Bezerra, Marcela de Oliveira Feitosa, Adriano Figuerêdo Neves, Jesuane Cavalcante Melo de Morais, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a waterborne disease that affects children, especially those under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial patterns of distribution of diarrheal disease in under 5-year-old children in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2008 to 2013. METHODS: Geoprocessing tools were used to carry out an epidemiological study, to prepare thematic maps in the TerraView 4.2.2 software based on secondary data. General indicators of the disease, presence of spatial dependence through the Global Moran's Index (I) and the Spatial Association Index (LISA) were described...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768152/effect-of-cannabidiol-on-drop-seizures-in-the-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#9
Orrin Devinsky, Anup D Patel, J Helen Cross, Vicente Villanueva, Elaine C Wirrell, Michael Privitera, Sam M Greenwood, Claire Roberts, Daniel Checketts, Kevan E VanLandingham, Sameer M Zuberi
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol has been used for treatment-resistant seizures in patients with severe early-onset epilepsy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol added to a regimen of conventional antiepileptic medication to treat drop seizures in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 30 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (age range, 2 to 55 years) who had had two or more drop seizures per week during a 28-day baseline period to receive cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of either 20 mg per kilogram of body weight (20-mg cannabidiol group) or 10 mg per kilogram (10-mg cannabidiol group) or matching placebo, administered in two equally divided doses daily for 14 weeks...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765579/antagonistic-effect-of-isolated-probiotic-bacteria-from-natural-sources-against-intestinal-escherichia-coli-pathotypes
#10
Sahar Karimi, Ehsan Rashidian, Mehdi Birjandi, Leila Mahmoodnia
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are beneficial bacteria that are normal flora of the digestive system which, in determined amounts, show beneficial effects on host health, and can balance gastrointestinal microflora. Digestive tract diseases such as diarrhea are one of the major causes of child mortality in developing countries. Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause diarrhea that affects children, therefore reduction of these colonization strains in humans or animals can decline gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762380/clinical-characteristics-of-disaccharidase-deficiencies-among-children-undergoing-upper-endoscopy
#11
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede, Benjamin D Gold, Aminu Mohammed, Heather E Elser
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology and clinical significance of disaccharidase deficiencies have not been thoroughly characterized. Recent work suggests at least genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is more prevalent than previously believed. Because lactase deficiency (LD) is well described, the present study focuses on the clinical characteristics of children with disaccharidase deficiencies determined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. METHODS: Endoscopic records were reviewed from patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies assayed for disaccharidase activity performed by 13 pediatric gastroenterologists during 5 years (2010-2014)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757148/mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-a-reversible-splenial-lesion-in-children
#12
Adalet Elçin Yıldız, Hülya Maraş Genç, Esra Gürkaş, Havva Akmaz Ünlü, İbrahim Halil Öncel, Alev Güven
PURPOSE: We aimed to present clinical and radiologic characteristics of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in children. METHODS: Eight children (5 boys and 3 girls; median age, 5.9 years; age range, 8 months to 14.1 years) diagnosed with MERS between September 2015 and June 2017 were included in the study. We reviewed the patient's data, including demographic characteristics, prodromal and neurologic symptoms, neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography findings, laboratory findings, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754701/impact-of-routine-rotavirus-vaccination-on-all-cause-and-rotavirus-hospitalizations-during-the-first-four-years-following-vaccine-introduction-in-rwanda
#13
Hassan Sibomana, Celse Rugambwa, Jason M Mwenda, Felix Sayinzoga, Gisele Iraguha, Jeanine Uwimana, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Rwanda introduced pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program in 2012. To determine the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine on disease burden in a high burden setting, we examined trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations in the first four years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. METHODS: We used data from an active surveillance system, from a review of pediatric ward registries, and from the Health Management Information System to describe trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations from January 2009 through December 2016...
May 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752026/safety-of-a-heat-stable-rotavirus-vaccine-among-children-in-niger-data-from-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Matthew E Coldiron, Ousmane Guindo, Rockyath Makarimi, Issaka Soumana, Amadou Matar Seck, Souna Garba, Emilie Macher, Sheila Isanaka, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749331/colonoscopic-decompression-of-childhood-sigmoid-and-cecal-volvulus
#15
Iraj Shahramian, Ali Bazil, Danial Ebadati, Karim Rostami, Mojtaba Delaramnasab
Cases of colonic volvulus in children are infrequently described in the literature. Here we describe the case of three patients with colonic volvulus. The first patient was a 10-year-old girl with abdominal dilation and pain and no bowel movement for 48 h. Her abdominal X-ray showed the coffee bean sign adjacent to the diaphragm, which was compatible with a diagnosis of cecal volvulus. The second patient was a 4-year-old boy with a history of chronic constipation during the past year and with no bowel movement for 24 h...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749329/is-celiac-disease-misdiagnosed-in-children-with-functional-constipation
#16
Sezin Akman, Özlem Şahaloğlu, Ceyhun Dalkan, Nerin Nadir Bahçeciler, Çiğdem Arıkan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Functional constipation is one of the common problems in childhood, and it comprises approximately 5% of the pediatric outpatient clinical applications. On the other hand, celiac disease (CD) is an immune enteropathy with the prevalence between 1/150 and 1/200. In addition to the classical symptoms of the disease such as diarrhea and weight loss, the incidence of atypical symptoms is increasing. This study aims to determine the prevalence of CD in patients with chronic constipation...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739715/rotavirus-diarrhea-in-hospitalized-children-under-5-years-of-age-in-vientiane-lao-pdr-2009-2015
#17
Douangdao SoukAloun, Vannida Douangbouphaa, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Bountoy Sibounheuang, Manivanh Vongsouvat, Keomany Chanmala, Thonglay Vongphachanh, Soudalinh Maniphonh, Inhpanh Phouangsouvanh, Kimberley Fox, Josephine Logronio, Varja Grabovac, James Heffelfinger, Hyesook Jeong, Kisang Kim, Batmunkh Nyambat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of death in children <5 years worldwide, causing an estimated 215,000 deaths in 2013. This evaluation tracks the epidemiologic patterns and most common rotavirus genotypes among hospitalized children in this age group with acute gastroenteritis in Lao PDR. METHODS: Children <5 years in a central tertiary hospital in the capital city were prospectively enrolled into the surveillance platform during January 2009-December 2015...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738080/molecular-detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-parechovirus-in-individuals-with-acute-diarrhea-and-healthy-controls-in-guangzhou-china
#18
Xuejiao Chen, Tingli Shi, Jianhua Huang, Gang Xiao, Jing Huang, Yiquan Xiong, Xiufen Li, Huifang Chen, Xueyan Zheng, Shouyi Yu, Qing Chen
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children; however, their effects are incompletely understood. We investigated the prevalence, genotype distribution, and phylogeny of HPeVs in individuals with diarrhea (n=430) and healthy controls (n=93), by analysis of stool specimens collected from July 2013 to December 2014; 51 (11.86%) and 6 (6.45%) specimens were HPeV-positive, respectively. HPeV1A occurred in 28 (6.51%) and 6 (6.45%) individuals with diarrhea and controls, respectively, whereas HPeV1B (3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737796/pancreatic-enzyme-replacement-therapy-pert-in-children-with-persistent-diarrhea-avoidance-of-elemental-diet-need-accessibility-and-costs
#19
Ariani Dewi Widodo, Rianto Setiabudy, Ina S Timan, Saptawati Bardosono, Widdy Winarta, Agus Firmansyah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Persistent diarrhea has been proven to cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, due to decreased stimulation to the pancreas caused by prolonged mucosal injury. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) given in conjunction to regular treatment is thought to be beneficial in replacing this pancreatic enzyme deficiency, avoiding the need of elemental diet. This study aims to evaluate the benefit of PERT in chil-dren with persistent diarrhea. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a randomized, two double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in persistent diar-rhea...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732026/-cryptosporidium-spp-infection-in-iranian-children-and-immunosuppressive-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Narges Kalantari, Salman Ghaffari, Masomeh Bayani
Background: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immunosuppressive patients. The current study was intended to evaluate the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection and clarify the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in both children and immunosuppressive patients in Iran. Methods: Five English electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus and Cochrane, and two Persian language databases Magiran and Scientific Information Database were searched...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
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