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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926866/expression-of-imprinted-genes-kcnq1-and-cdkn1c-during-the-course-of-differentiation-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-islet-like-cells-in-vitro
#1
Feng Liu, Peng Yu-Huan, Li Qiang, Liu Chanchan
To study the effects of inducement on the expression of mouse embryonic stem cells SF1-G imprinted genes, Kcnq1 and Cdkn1c during the course of differentiation into islet-like cells in vitro. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated from pregnant mice embryos and fibroblast feeder cells were prepared by treating 3-5th generations MEFs with Mitomycin C. Moreover, mouse embryonic stem cells were induced to differentiate into islet-like cells directly. RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence staining were used to test the expression of islet cell-specific markers...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926842/pharmacotherapy-with-thymoquinone-improved-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-integrity-and-functional-activity-enhanced-islets-revascularization-and-alleviated-metabolic-and-hepato-renal-disturbances-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#2
Adel Galal El-Shemi, Osama Adnan Kensara, Aiman Alsaegh, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
AIMS: This study is aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats, and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared STZ (65 mg/kg). After disease induction, 42 rats were equally assigned to: controls, STZ-diabetic group, and STZ-diabetic group treated with oral TQ (35 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924486/expression-of-transcription-factors-in-men1-associated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#3
Yasutaka Takeda, Yukihiro Fujita, Kentaro Sakai, Tomoe Abe, Tomonobu Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Yanagimachi, Hidemitsu Sakagami, Jun Honjo, Atsuko Abiko, Yuichi Makino, Masakazu Haneda
MEN1-associated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) may potentially express distinct hormones, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. Transcription factors such as MafA and Pdx1 have been identified to lead to beta cell differentiation, while Arx and Brn4 to alpha cell differentiation in developing pancreas. We hypothesized those transcription factors are important to produce specific hormones in pNETs, similarly to developing pancreas, and examined the expression of transcription factors in a case of MEN1 who showed immunohistological coexistence of several hormone-producing pNETs including insulinoma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922976/transient-impairment-of-islet-architectural-development-in-pancreas-specific-bmpr1a-deleted-prenatal-mice-involves-reduced-expression-of-e-cadherin
#4
Fang-Xu Jiang, Leonard Charles Harrison
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays critical roles on the development of a large array of embryonic organs and promotes the in vitro formation of pancreatic cystoid colonies containing insulin-producing cells. However, this signaling and its underlying mechanism on in vivo development of prenatal pancreas have not been clearly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed with a variety of techniques the prenatal mouse pancreas after Pdx1 (the pancreas and duodenal homeobox factor 1 gene)-driving deletion of the BMP receptor type 1a gene (Bmpr1a)...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921392/resveratrol-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-mediation-of-store-operated-calcium-entry
#5
Ting Lu, Dayan Zhou, Pan Gao, Liangyi Si, Qiang Xu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of resveratrol on HG-induced calcium entry in islet microvascular (MS-1) endothelial cells. MS-1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol or 2-APB (an inhibitor of store-operated calcium entry) and then incubated with high glucose. Cell viability was determined using the cell counting kit-8 method. Reactive oxygen species, endothelial apoptosis, and NO production were detected by DHE probe, TUNEL detection, and nitrate reductase assay kit. Protein levels of SOCE were detected by western blotting...
September 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921001/c3ar-and-c5ar1-act-as-key-regulators-of-human-and-mouse-%C3%AE-cell-function
#6
Patricio Atanes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Attilio Pingitore, Ross Hawkes, Bo Liu, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Shanta J Persaud, Stefan Amisten
AIMS: Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and mouse islet mRNAs encoding key elements of the complement system were quantified by qPCR and distribution of C3 and C5 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry...
September 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920919/age-dependent-human-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-induced-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-calcineurin-signaling
#7
Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E Levy, Dale L Greiner, Leonard D Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K Kim, Alvin C Powers
Inadequate pancreatic β cell function underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to expand functional cells have focused on discovering and controlling mechanisms that limit the proliferation of human β cells. Here, we developed an engraftment strategy to examine age-associated human islet cell replication competence and reveal mechanisms underlying age-dependent decline of β cell proliferation in human islets. We found that exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), stimulates human β cell proliferation in juvenile but not adult islets...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919426/improving-glycemic-control-in-model-mice-with-type-2-diabetes-by-increasing-superoxide-dismutase-sod-activity-using-silk-fibroin-hydrolysate-sfh
#8
Harry Jung, Yoo Yeon Kim, Boyoung Kim, Hajin Nam, Jun Gyo Suh
Islet cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is primarily attributed to the increased apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Silk fibroin hydrolysate (SFH) has an effect on blood in type 2 diabetes model mice (C57BL/KsJ-db/db). However, its exact mechanism is unknown. The type 2 diabetes model mice were randomly divided into non-diabetic mice (ND), diabetic mice (DB), and diabetic mice treated with silk fibroin hydrolysate (DB-SFH). The results showed that SFH significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919263/single-cell-gene-expression-analysis-of-a-human-esc-model-of-pancreatic-endocrine-development-reveals-different-paths-to-%C3%AE-cell-differentiation
#9
Maja Borup Kjær Petersen, Ajuna Azad, Camilla Ingvorsen, Katja Hess, Mattias Hansson, Anne Grapin-Botton, Christian Honoré
The production of insulin-producing β cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro represents a promising strategy for a cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. To explore the cellular heterogeneity and temporal progression of endocrine progenitors and their progeny, we performed single-cell qPCR on more than 500 cells across several stages of in vitro differentiation of hESCs and compared them with human islets. We reveal distinct subpopulations along the endocrine differentiation path and an early lineage bifurcation toward either polyhormonal cells or β-like cells...
September 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918929/vitamin-d-receptor-targeted-treatment-to-prevent-pathological-dedifferentiation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-under-hyperglycaemic-stress
#10
A Neelankal John, Z Iqbal, S Colley, G Morahan, M Makishima, F-X Jiang
Dedifferentiation has been identified as one of the causes of β-cell failure resulting in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study tested whether increasing vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression prevents dedifferentiation of β cells in a high-glucose state in vitro. Culturing a mouse insulinoma cell line (MIN6) in a high-glucose environment decreased VDR expression. However, increased VDR following vitamin D3 (VD3) treatment improved insulin release of early-passage MIN6 and insulin index of db/- (heterozygous) islets to levels seen in normal functional islets...
September 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918509/effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-phosphate-on-pancreatic-islet-microcirculation-in-sd-rats
#11
X Xu, L Wu, Z Q Lu, P Xia, X P Zhu, X Gao
PURPOSES: Abnormal islet microcirculation impetus the insulin production and accelerates progression of Type 1 and 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP), a vasoactive substance, could regulate the islet microcirculation and insulin concentration and improve glycaemia in SD rats. METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into two groups, the control and TMPP groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the intravenous injection of either saline, 15 or 30% glucose...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918023/repression-of-coup-tfi-improves-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-into-insulin-producing-cells
#12
Tao Zhang, Xiao-Hang Li, Dian-Bao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Feng Zhao, Xue-Wen Lin, Rui Wang, Hong-Xin Lang, Xi-Ning Pang
Identifying molecular mechanisms that regulate insulin expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can provide clues on how to stimulate the differentiation of bmMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which can be used as a therapeutic approach against type 1 diabetes (T1D). As repression factors may inhibit differentiation, the efficiency of this process is insufficient for cell transplantation. In this study, we used the mouse insulin 2 (Ins2) promoter sequence and performed a DNA affinity precipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the transcription factor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor I (COUP-TFI)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917147/combined-in-silico-approaches-for-the-identification-of-novel-inhibitors-of-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-hiapp-fibrillation
#13
Palak Patel, Krupali Parmar, Vivek K Vyas, Dhaval Patel, Mili Das
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a natively unfolded polypeptide hormone of glucose metabolism, which is co-secreted with insulin by the β-cells of the pancreas. In patients with type 2 diabetes, IAPP forms amyloid fibrils because of diabetes-associated β-cells dysfunction and increasing fibrillation, in turn, lead to failure of secretory function of β-cells. This provides a target for the discovery of small organic molecules against protein aggregation diseases. However, the binding mechanism of these molecules with monomers, oligomers and fibrils to inhibit fibrillation is still an open question...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916910/encompassing-atp-dna-insulin-and-protein-content-for-quantification-and-assessment-of-human-pancreatic-islets
#14
Meirigeng Qi, Shiela Bilbao, Elena Forouhar, Fouad Kandeel, Ismail H Al-Abdullah
Islet transplantation has made major progress to treat patients with type 1 diabetes. Islet mass and quality are critically important to ensure successful transplantation. Currently, islet status is evaluated using insulin secretion, oxygen consumption rate, or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurement. These parameters are evaluated independently and do not effectively predict islet status post-transplant. Therefore, assessing human pancreatic islets by encompassing ATP, DNA, insulin, and protein content from a single tissue sample would serve as a better predictor for islet status...
September 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915137/xenoislets-porcine-pancreatic-islets-for-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes
#15
Nizar I Mourad, Pierre Rene Gianello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Porcine islets are being extensively investigated as alternative sources of insulin-secreting cells for transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The present review focuses on recent advances in porcine islet transplantation with particular emphasis on new transgenic pig models, islet encapsulation, and biosafety considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic modifications aimed to reduce islet cell immunogenicity, to prolong their survival, and to improve their secretory function have been reported...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912863/a-novel-mutation-in-the-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1%C3%AE-gene-in-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-5-with-multiple-renal-cysts-and-pancreas-hypogenesis-a-case-report
#16
You Lv, Zhuo Li, Kan He, Ying Gao, Xianchao Xiao, Yujia Liu, Guixia Wang
A 17-year-old Chinese male was hospitalized exhibiting hyperglycemia and increased serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in addition to weight loss. The patient was treated with gliclazide. The patient was 150 cm tall, weighed 35 kg and had no family history of diabetes or kidney disease. Physical examination revealed cephalus quadratus, rachitic rosary and a visible toe-out gait. Laboratory examinations revealed that the patient's fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were markedly increased, fasting plasma C-peptide level was slightly increased and no peak 2 h postprandial was observed...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#17
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912603/novel-insight-into-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-from-the-protein-misfolding-perspective
#18
Edgar Leyva-García, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Liborio Morán-Zanabria, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Norma Oviedo, Chiharu Murata, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
Protein folding is a process of self-assembly defined by the sequence of the amino acids of the protein involved. Additionally, proteins tend to unfold, misfold and aggregate due to both intrinsic and extrinsic causes. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is an early step in diabetes mellitus. However, the aggregation of rat IAPP (rIAPP) remains an open question. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-250 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group (streptozotocin [STZ]) (n = 21) received an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 40 mg/kg STZ...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911868/central-and-peripheral-expression-sites-of-phoenixin-14-immunoreactivity-in-rats
#19
Philip Prinz, Sophie Scharner, Tiemo Friedrich, Martha Schalla, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Phoenixin is a pleiotropic peptide involved in reproduction, anxiety and recently also implicated in the control of food intake. Besides the 20-amino acid phoenixin, the 14-amino acid phoenixin-14 also shows bioactive properties. However, the expression sites of phoenixin-14 in the brain and peripheral tissues are not yet described in detail. Therefore, a mapping of the brain and peripheral tissues from male and female Sprague-Dawley rats with a specific phoenixin-14 antibody was performed using western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911248/single-synchronous-delivery-of-fk506-loaded-polymeric-microspheres-with-pancreatic-islets-for-the-successful-treatment-of-streptozocin-induced-diabetes-in-mice
#20
Shiva Pathak, Shobha Regmi, Biki Gupta, Bijay K Poudel, Tung Thanh Pham, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim, Jae-Ryong Kim, Min Hui Park, Young Kyung Bae, Simmyung Yook, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Jee-Heon Jeong
Immune rejection after transplantation is common, which leads to prompt failure of the graft. Therefore, to prolong the survival time of the graft, immunosuppressive therapy is the norm. Here, we report a robust immune protection protocol using FK506-loaded microspheres (FK506M) in injectable hydrogel. Pancreatic islets were codelivered with the FK506M into the subcutaneous space of streptozocin-induced diabetic mice. The islets codelivered with 10 mg/kg FK506M maintained normal blood glucose levels during the study period (survival rate: 60%)...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
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