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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549291/antidiabetogenic-efficiency-of-menthol-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-attenuates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-experimental-rats-through-ameliorating-glucose-metabolic-enzymes
#1
Udaiyar Muruganathan, Subramani Srinivasan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
The phytochemical, menthol, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, there is no detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis. The present study, we investigated to explore the role of menthol, on the glucose metabolic enzymes and pancreatic islet cell apoptosis of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (50mg/kg/b.w.) and NA (110mg/kg/b.w.). Diabetic rats were treated with different dose of menthol (25, 50, and 100mg/kg/b...
May 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547133/hsf1-acetylation-decreases-its-transcriptional-activity-and-enhances-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-and-human-beta-cells
#2
Indri Purwana, Jun J Liu, Bernard Portha, Jean Buteau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of key molecular chaperones, thereby orchestrating the cellular response to stress. This system was recently implicated in the control of insulin sensitivity and is therefore being scrutinised as a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes. However, the regulation and biological actions of HSF1 in beta cells remain elusive. Herein, we sought to investigate the regulation of HSF1 in pancreatic beta cells and to study its potential role in cell survival...
May 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546444/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-the-prediction-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#3
Zhengda Pang, Akifumi Kushiyama, Jiao Sun, Takako Kikuchi, Hiroki Yamazaki, Yasuhiko Iwamoto, Hiroshi Koriyama, Shota Yoshida, Munehisa Shimamura, Masayoshi Higuchi, Tomohiro Kawano, Yoichi Takami, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita, Hironori Nakagami
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in peri-islet Schwann cells as well as in glia cells and has been reported to be an autoantigen candidate for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We confirmed that the production of the autoantibodies GFAP and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) was increased and inversely correlated with the concentration of secreted C peptide in female nonobese diabetic mice (T1DM model). Importantly, the development of T1DM in female nonobese diabetic mice at 30 wk of age was predicted by the positive GFAP autoantibody titer at 17 wk...
May 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546423/overexpression-of-kinase-dead-mtor-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-by-regulating-insulin-secretion-and-not-%C3%AE-cell-mass
#4
Emilyn U Alejandro, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Michelle Ann Wasan, Lynda Elghazi, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Leslie Satin, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Regulation of glucose homeostasis by insulin depends on β-cell growth and function. Nutrients and growth factors stimuli converge on the conserved protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in two complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. To understand the functional relevance of mTOR enzymatic activity in β-cell development and in glucose homeostasis, we generated mice overexpressing either one or two copies of a kinase-dead mTOR mutant (KD-mTOR) transgene exclusively in β-cells. We examined glucose homeostasis and β-cell function of these mice in control chow and in high-fat diet (HFD)...
May 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544245/ghrelin-receptor-inverse-agonists-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-obesity-related-metabolic-disease
#5
Kathrin Abegg, Lara Bernasconi, Melanie Hutter, Lynda Whiting, Claudio Pietra, Claudio Giuliano, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
AIMS: Ghrelin is implicated in the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The ghrelin receptor exhibits ligand independent constitutive activity, which can be pharmacologically exploited to induce inverse ghrelin actions. Since ghrelin receptor inverse agonists (GHSR-IA) might be effective for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disease, we tested two novel synthetic compounds GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In functional cell assays, electrophysiogical and immunohistochemical experiments, we demonstrated inverse agonist activity for GHSR-IA1 and GHSR-IA2...
May 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544229/clinical-heterogeneity-of-type-1-diabetes-t1d-found-in-asia
#6
REVIEW
Yongsoo Park, Kupper A Wintergerst, Zhiguang Zhou
Diabetes mellitus among young patients in Asia is caused by a complex set of factors. Although T1D remains the most common form of diabetes in children, the recent unabated increase in obesity has resulted in the emergence of T2D as a new type of diabetes at adolescent and young adult age. In addition to the typical autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1aD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, there is a variable incidence of cases of non-autoimmune types of T1D associated with insulin deficiency (T1bD). Additional forms have been described, including fulminant T1D (FT1D)...
May 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542568/nesfatin-1-like-peptide-is-a-novel-metabolic-factor-that-suppresses-feeding-and-regulates-whole-body-energy-homeostasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#7
Kavishankar Gawli, Naresh Ramesh, Suraj Unniappan
Nucleobindin-1 has high sequence similarity to nucleobindin-2, which encodes the anorectic and metabolic peptide, nesfatin-1. We previously reported a nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP), anorectic in fish and insulinotropic in mice islet beta-like cells. The main objective of this research was to determine whether NLP is a metabolic regulator in male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NLP (100 μg/kg BW) decreased food intake and increased ambulatory movement, without causing any change in total activity or energy expenditure when compared to saline-treated rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542303/differential-dna-methylation-of-msi2-and-its-correlation-with-diabetic-traits
#8
Jae-Pil Jeon, In-Uk Koh, Nak-Hyun Choi, Bong-Jo Kim, Bok-Ghee Han, Suman Lee
Differential DNA methylation with hyperglycemia is significantly associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Longtime extended exposure to high blood glucose levels can affect the epigenetic signatures in all organs. However, the relevance of the differential DNA methylation changes with hyperglycemia in blood with pancreatic islets remains unclear. We investigated differential DNA methylation in relation to glucose homeostasis based on the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in a population-based cohort. We found a total of 382 differential methylation sites from blood DNA in hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes subgroups using a longitudinal and cross-sectional approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542222/differential-expression-of-islet-glutaredoxin-1-and-5-with-high-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabesity
#9
Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Heinrich Sauer, Thomas Linn
The onset and progression of diabetes mellitus type 2 is highly contingent on the amount of functional beta-cell mass. An underlying cause of beta-cell decay in diabetes is oxidative stress, which markedly affects the insulin producing pancreatic cells due to their poor antioxidant defence capacity. Consequently, disturbances of cellular redox signaling have been implicated to play a major role in beta-cell loss in diabetes mellitus type 2. There is evidence suggesting that the glutaredoxin (Grx) system exerts a protective role for pancreatic islets, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542139/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-2-is-a-key-regulator-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-function
#10
H Dong, Y Zhang, J Wang, D S Kim, H Wu, B Sjögren, W Gao, L Luttrell, H Wang
Pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine whether the regulator of G protein signaling protein 2 (RGS2), a multifunctional inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, impacts β-cell death and function. Metabolic phenotypes, β-cell secretory function, and glucose and insulin tolerance were measured in RGS2 knockout (RGS2(-/-)) mice and their wild-type (RGS2(+/+)) littermate controls. β-Cell death was evaluated in RGS2-knockdown and -overexpressing β cells and RGS2(-/-) islets by flow cytometry, western blot, ELISA, TUNEL staining, and apoptosis RT(2) profiler PCR array analysis...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540689/involvement-of-micrornas-in-diabetes-and-its-complications
#11
Bin Wu, Daniel Miller
Diabetes is a severe condition worldwide. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and is caused by defects in insulin production, secretion, and action. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The pathogenesis of diabetes is complex and the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a fundamental role in diabetes and its complications. This chapter focuses on the dysregulation of miRNAs involved in the regulation of pancreatic islet insulin production and secretion as well as action and signaling in peripheral tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540469/a-3d-microfluidic-perfusion-system-made-from-glass-for-multiparametric-analysis-of-stimulus-secretioncoupling-in-pancreatic-islets
#12
Torben Schulze, Kai Mattern, Eike Früh, Lars Hecht, Ingo Rustenbeck, Andreas Dietzel
Microfluidic perfusion systems (MPS) are well suited to perform multiparametric measurements with small amounts of tissue to function as an Organ on Chip device (OOC). Such microphysiolgical characterization is particularly valuable in research on the stimulus-secretion-coupling of pancreatic islets. Pancreatic islets are fully functional competent mini-organs, which serve as fuel sensors and transduce metabolic activity into rates of hormone secretion. To enable the simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and oxygen consumption we designed a microfluidic perfusion system from borosilicate glass by 3D femtosecond laser ablation...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539593/identification-of-the-matricellular-protein-fibulin-5-as-a-target-molecule-of-glucokinase-mediated-calcineurin-nfat-signaling-in-pancreatic-islets
#13
Tomoko Okuyama, Jun Shirakawa, Hiromi Yanagisawa, Mayu Kyohara, Shunsuke Yamazaki, Kazuki Tajima, Yu Togashi, Yasuo Terauchi
Glucokinase-mediated glucose signaling induces insulin secretion, proliferation, and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrated that glucokinase activation using a glucokinase activator (GKA) significantly upregulated the expression of Fibulin-5 (Fbln5), a matricellular protein involved in matrix-cell signaling, in isolated mouse islets. The islet Fbln5 expression was induced by ambient glucose in a time- and dose-dependent manner and further enhanced by high-fat diet or the deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), whereas the GKA-induced increase in Fbln5 expression was diminished in Irs-2-deficient islets...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539297/-efficacy-of-two-bariatric-surgeries-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-a-body-mass-index-of-25-27-5
#14
Hao Yu, Xiao-Jiang Dai, Hong-Bing Zhang, Yong-Tao Huang, Dong-Zhi Ran, Yuan Yang, Song-Hua Zeng, Zhi-Gao Song, Liang-Ping Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADJB-SG) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a low body mass index (BMI) of 25-27.5. METHODS: Thirty-one type 2 diabetic patients with a BMI of 25-27.5 underwent bariatric surgeries in the General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command between August, 2013 and August, 2015. The patients receiving LRYGB (17 cases) and SADJB-SG (14 cases) were compared for physical indexes, glucose metabolism and of pancreatic islet function at 1 year after the surgeries...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539272/selenium-nanoparticles-as-versatile-carriers-for-oral-delivery-of-insulin-insight-into-the-synergic-antidiabetic-effect-and-mechanism
#15
Wenji Deng, Qian Xie, Huan Wang, Zhiguo Ma, Baojian Wu, Xingwang Zhang
Oral insulin delivery has been plagued by limited bioavailability. This work reports selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) for oral insulin delivery to overcome the absorption barrier. Insulin-loaded SeNPs (INS-SeNPs) were fabricated by ionic cross-linking/in situ reduction and characterized by particle size and drug entrapment. The resultant INS-SeNPs were 120nm around in particle size with high drug loading. INS-SeNPs exhibited controllable insulin release and outstanding stability in the digestive fluids. INS-SeNPs caused a significant hypoglycemic effect in both normal and diabetic rats...
May 21, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535431/partial-ablation-of-the-pancreas-of-sprague-dawley%C3%A2-rats-by-focused-ultrasound-reveals-no-significant-adverse-effects-on-glycometabolism-function
#16
Lan Ao, Na Hu, Hai Xia Hu, Qing Liu, Zi Hao Zhao, Long Xing Liu, Jun Ru Wu, Fa Qi Li, Liao Qiong Fang
To investigate the safety of focused ultrasound (FUS) partial ablation on the pancreas of Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats by histopathological examination of the outcome and investigation of glycometabolism function changes after local ablation. A total of 135 healthy SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=45 of each): FUS ½ group, FUS ¼ group, and control group. Levels of serum amylase was measured using the enzyme dynamics method, fasting blood glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, fasting serum insulin was measured by direct chemiluminescence assay, and an ELISA was used to measure fasting serum glucagon immediately after treatment, and at 2h, 3days, 1, 2, 3 and 4weeks, 3 and 6months after FUS ablation...
May 11, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535085/characterization-of-an-encapsulated-insulin-secreting-human-pancreatic-beta-cell-line-in-a-modular-microfluidic-device
#17
Argia Acarregui, Jesús Ciriza, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Haritz Gurruchaga, José Yeste, Xavier Illa, Gorka Orive, Rosa M Hernández, Rosa Villa, Jose Luis Pedraz
Type I diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of the insulin producing beta cells within the pancreas by the immune system. After the success of Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has shown to be a promising therapy, but with the Achilles´ heel of the need of using immunosuppressive drugs. Currently, cell encapsulation technology represents a real alternative to protect transplanted islets from the host´s immune attack. Although preliminary in vitro studies with encapsulated cells have been traditionally performed under static conditions in terms of viability and efficiency, these static cultures do not represent a close approach to in vivo environments...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534310/combination-immunotherapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Robert N Bone, Carmella Evans-Molina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease marked by β-cell destruction. Immunotherapies for T1D have been investigated since the 1980s and have focused on restoration of tolerance, T cell or B cell inhibition, regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, suppression of innate immunity and inflammation, immune system reset, and islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and lessons learned from single immunotherapy trials, describe recent and ongoing combination immunotherapy trials, and provide perspectives on strategies for future combination clinical interventions aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534257/a-systematic-survey-on-the-diagnosis-strategy-and-patient-management-of-type-1-diabetes-by-chinese-physicians
#19
Yong Gu, Hsiang-Ting Hsu, Jing Zhu, Xuqin Zheng, Hemin Jiang, Hongqi Fan, Tao Yang
The qualification of physicians is a key factor in controlling type 1 diabetes (T1D) since they provide crucial information to their patients about self-management. To investigate whether Chinese physicians' medical strategies influence the control of T1D in their patients, we designed a questionnaire to survey Chinese physicians, which covered their diagnosis and patient-management strategies for T1D. A total of 442 completed questionnaires were received from 35 public hospitals in 12 cities. The results showed Chinese physicians mainly diagnosed T1D based on the clinical features and islet dysfunction...
May 17, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534098/effect-of-the-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-and-thiamine-for-the-management-of-diabetes-in-alloxan-induced-mice-a-stereological-and-biochemical-study
#20
Abdolrahman Amiri, Rahmat Allah Fatahian Dehkordi, Mohamad Saeed Heidarnejad, Mohsen Jafarian Dehkordi
This research was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and thiamine following experimental diabetes. Fifty-six 6-week-old female mice were used and divided into seven groups of eight animals. Diabetes was induced in fasted mice by using intraperitoneal (IP) injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg). Groups included (I) non-diabetic control, (II) thiamine (30 mg/l, IP), (III) alloxan-induced diabetic mice, (IV) diabetes + ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg IP), (V) diabetes + ZnO NPs (0...
May 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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