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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785241/an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model-for-interrogating-ros-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-injury-response-and-prevention
#1
Abhishek A Kulkarni, Abass M Conteh, Cody A Sorrell, Anjali Mirmira, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann, Ryan M Anderson
It is well known that a chronic state of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β -cells impairs their ability to release insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. Moreover, at its extreme, unmitigated ROS drives regulated cell death. This dysfunctional state of ROS buildup can result both from genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as obesity and overnutrition. Importantly, excessive ROS buildup may underlie metabolic pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ability to monitor ROS dynamics in β -cells in situ and to manipulate it via genetic, pharmacological, and environmental means would accelerate the development of novel therapeutics that could abate this pathology...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784660/interleukin-6-reduces-%C3%AE-cell-oxidative-stress-by-linking-autophagy-with-the-antioxidant-response
#2
Michelle R Marasco, Abass M Conteh, Christopher A Reissaus, John E Cupit V, Evan M Appleman, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response to reduce β-cell and human islet ROS. β cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death by the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784651/immune-recognition-of-%C3%AE-cells-neoepitopes-as-key-players-in-the-loss-of-tolerance
#3
Eddie A James, Massimo Pietropaolo, Mark J Mamula
Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis...
June 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782833/insights-into-stabilizing-forces-in-amyloid-fibrils-of-differing-sizes-from-polarizable-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#4
Darcy S Davidson, Anne M Brown, Justin A Lemkul
Pathological aggregation of amyloid-forming proteins is a hallmark of a number of human diseases, including Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes, Parkinson's, and more. Despite having very different primary amino acid sequences, these amyloid proteins form similar supramolecular, fibril structures that are highly resilient to physical and chemical denaturation. To better understand the structural stability of disease-related amyloids and to gain a greater understanding of factors that stabilize functional amyloid assemblies, insights into tertiary and quaternary interactions are needed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782054/assessment-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-transmission-across-an-alginate-barrier-used-for-the-encapsulation-of-porcine-islets
#5
Claire Crossan, Nizar I Mourad, Karen Smith, Pierre Gianello, Linda Scobie
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantation of a macroencapsulated patch containing human allogenic islets has been successfully used to alleviate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a human recipient without the need for immunosuppression. The use of encapsulated porcine islets to treat T1DM has also been reported. Although no evidence of pathogen transfer using this technology has been reported to date, we deemed it appropriate to determine if the encapsulation technology would prevent the release of virus, in particular, the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV)...
May 21, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782007/intraportal-transplantation-of-pancreatic-islets-in-mouse-model
#6
Rahul Khatri, Birte Hussmann, Divya Rawat, Ali Osman Gürol, Thomas Linn
Pancreatic islet transplantation to reduce hyperglycemia is highly successful in rodents with chemically-induced diabetes. The most common transplantation site in experimental islet transplantation is the kidney capsule. However, as less is known about the interaction of pancreatic islets with blood constituents, it also makes sense to utilize the portal vein approach in experimental islet transplantation. This protocol demonstrates an intraportal islet transplantation technique in NMRI nude mice. Streptozotocin (180 mg/kg) is injected intraperitoneally to induce hyperglycemia in recipient mice...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781952/optimizing-temperature-and-oxygen-supports-long-term-culture-of-human-islets
#7
Hirotake Komatsu, Jeffrey Rawson, Leonard Medrano, Colin A Cook, Alyssa Barriga, Nelson Gonzalez, Mayra Salgado, Keiko Omori, Fouad Kandeel, Yu-Chong Tai, Yoko Mullen
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type-1 diabetes; however, donor shortage is a concern. Even when a pancreas is available, low islet yield limits the success of transplantation. Islet culture enables pooling of multiple low-yield isolations into an effective islet mass, but isolated islets rapidly deteriorate under conventional culture conditions. Oxygen depletion in the islet core, which leads to central necrosis and volume loss, is one of the major reasons for this deterioration...
May 16, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781951/t-bet-or-ifn%C3%AE-neutralization-for-blocking-islet-allograft-rejection
#8
Alain Le Moine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781950/report-of-the-key-opinion-leaders-meeting-on-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells
#9
Jon Odorico, James Markmann, Douglas Melton, Julia Greenstein, Albert Hwa, Cristina Nostro, Alireza Rezania, Jose Oberholzer, Daniel Pipeleers, Luhan Yang, Chad Cowan, Danwei Huangfu, Dieter Egli, Uri Ben-David, Ludovic Vallier, Shane T Grey, Qizhi Tang, Bart Roep, Camilo Ricordi, Ali Naji, Giuseppe Orlando, Daniel G Anderson, Mark Poznansky, Barbara Ludwig, Alice Tomei, Dale L Greiner, Melanie Graham, Melissa Carpenter, Giovanni Migliaccio, Kevin D'Amour, Bernhard Hering, Lorenzo Piemonti, Thierry Berney, Mike Rickels, Thomas Kay, Ann Adams
Beta cell replacement has the potential to restore euglycemia in patients with insulin dependent diabetes. While great progress has been made in establishing allogeneic islet transplantation from deceased donors as the standard of care for those with the most labile diabetes, it is also clear that the deceased donor organ supply cannot possibly treat all those who could benefit from restoration of a normal beta cell mass, especially if immunosuppression were not required. Against this background, the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) in collaboration with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI), the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), and the Helmsley Foundation held a 2-day Key Opinion Leaders Meeting in Boston in 2016 to bring together experts in generating and transplanting beta cells derived from stem cells...
April 30, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779835/concerns-and-hopes-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-prior-to-islet-cell-transplantation-a-content-analysis
#10
Queena F Luu, Celine J Villareal, Cynthia Fritschi, Rebecca S Monson, Jose Oberholzer, Kirstie K Danielson
AIMS: Islet cell transplantation can functionally cure type 1 diabetes complicated by hypoglycemia unawareness (HU), but requires immunosuppression. This study identified the lived experiences and risk/benefit considerations of patients pre-transplant. METHODS: Content analysis identified themes from four open-ended questions pre-transplant in an islet transplant clinical trial. The sample included 23 (19 female) patients, with a mean age = 48.3 and diabetes duration = 29...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779584/imaging-endocrinology-in-animal-models-of-endocrine-disease
#11
REVIEW
Patrice Mollard, Marie Schaeffer
Endocrine organs secrete a variety of hormones involved in the regulation of a multitude of body functions. Although pancreatic islets were discovered at the turn of the 19th century, other endocrine glands remained commonly described as diffuse endocrine systems. Over the last two decades, development of new imaging techniques and genetically-modified animals with cell-specific fluorescent tags or specific hormone deficiencies have enabled in vivo imaging of endocrine organs and revealed intricate endocrine cell network structures and plasticity...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779190/therapeutic-strategies-for-modulating-the-extracellular-matrix-to-improve-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-after-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra M Smink, Paul de Vos
PURPOSES OF REVIEW: Extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate the interaction between pancreatic islet cells. During the islet isolation prior to transplantation as treatment for type 1 diabetes, the ECM is disrupted impacting functional graft survival. Recently, strategies for restoring ECM have shown to improve transplantation outcomes. This review discusses the current therapeutic strategies to modulate ECM components to improve islet engraftment. RECENT FINDINGS: Approaches applied are seeding islets in ECM of decellularized organs, supplementation of specific ECM components in polymeric scaffolds or immunoisolating capsules, and stimulating islet ECM production with specific growth factors or ECM-producing cells...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778407/the-current-status-of-coral-reefs-and-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change-and-multiple-human-stresses-in-the-comoros-archipelago-western-indian-ocean
#13
B Cowburn, M A Samoilys, D Obura
Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha...
May 16, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778021/the-homing-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-subsequent-modulation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#14
Yaqi Yin, Haojie Hao, Yu Cheng, Jieqing Gao, Jiejie Liu, Zongyan Xie, Qi Zhang, Li Zang, Weidong Han, Yiming Mu
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs), with both immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative properties, are promising for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As efficient cell therapy largely relies on appropriate homing to target tissues, knowing where and to what extent injected UC-MSCs have homed is critically important. However, bio-distribution data for UC-MSCs in T2DM subjects are extremely limited. Beneficial effects of UC-MSCs on T2DM subjects are associated with increased M2 macrophages, but no systemic evaluation of M2 macrophages has been performed in T2DM individuals...
May 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777831/microcystis-bloom-containing-microcystin-lr-induces-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Qiong Zhang, Wendi Qin, Liuyan Yang, Jing An, Xuxiang Zhang, Hao Hong, Lizhi Xu, Yaping Wang
Epidemiological data from Lake Taihu showed significantly higher incidences of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in other areas of China. This may be related to the occurrence of a Microcystis bloom in Lake Taihu in the summer and autumn every year. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the contaminated water from the Microcystis bloom and the derivative pollutant microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can explain the higher incidences of T2DM. Healthy male mice were fed with water from different regions of Lake Taihu, and were either acutely or chronically exposed to MC-LR through oral administration or intraperitoneal injection...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777589/low-adhesive-ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-based-packaging-to-xenogeneic-islets-encapsulation-for-type-1-diabetes-treatment
#16
Kai-Chiang Yang, Goichi Yanai, Sin-Yu Yang, Priyadarshini Canning, Yoshio Satou, Masako Kawagoe, Shoichiro Sumi
Transplantation of encapsulated porcine islets is proposed to treat type 1 diabetes. However, envelopment of fibrous tissue and infiltration of immune cells impair islets function and eventually cause implant failure. It is known that hemodialysis using an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) membrane results in minor tissue responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that using a low adhesive EVOH membrane for encapsulation may prevent host cell accumulation and fibrous capsule formation. In this study, rat islets suspended in chitosan gel were encapsulated in bags made from highly porous EVOH membranes, and their in vitro insulin secretion function as well as in vivo performance were evaluated...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777263/folate-treatment-of-pregnant-rat-dams-abolishes-metabolic-effects-in-female-offspring-induced-by-a-paternal-pre-conception-unhealthy-diet
#17
Jian Li, Yong-Ping Lu, Oleg Tsuprykov, Ahmed A Hasan, Christoph Reichetzeder, Mei Tian, Xiao Li Zhang, Qin Zhang, Guo-Ying Sun, Jingli Guo, Mohamed M S Gaballa, Xiao-Ning Peng, Ge Lin, Berthold Hocher
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Paternal high-fat diet prior to mating programmes impaired glucose tolerance in female offspring. We examined whether the metabolic consequences in offspring could be abolished by folate treatment of either the male rats before mating or the corresponding female rats during pregnancy. METHODS: Male F0 rats were fed either control diet or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diet (HFSSD), with or without folate, before mating. Male rats were mated with control-diet-fed dams...
May 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776896/islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-moving-forward
#18
Shareen Forbes, Peter A Senior, A M James Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776895/islet-transplantation-versus-insulin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-with-severe-hypoglycaemia-or-poorly-controlled-glycaemia-after-kidney-transplantation-trimeco-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Sandrine Lablanche, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Laurence Kessler, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sophie Borot, Charles Thivolet, Sophie Girerd, Domenico Bosco, Jean-Luc Bosson, Cyrille Colin, Rachel Tetaz, Sophie Logerot, Julie Kerr-Conte, Eric Renard, Alfred Penfornis, Emmanuel Morelon, Fanny Buron, Kristina Skaare, Gwen Grguric, Coralie Camillo-Brault, Harald Egelhofer, Kanza Benomar, Lionel Badet, Thierry Berney, François Pattou, Pierre-Yves Benhamou
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is indicated for patients with type 1 diabetes with severe hypoglycaemia or after kidney transplantation. We did a randomised trial to assess the efficacy and safety of islet transplantation compared with insulin therapy in these patients. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with type 1 diabetes at 15 university hospitals to receive immediate islet transplantation or intensive insulin therapy (followed by delayed islet transplantation)...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775636/epithelial-proliferation-in-inflammatory-skin-disease-is-regulated-by-ttc7-in-fibroblasts-and-lymphocytes
#20
Ursina Nüesch, Andrea A Mauracher, Lennart Opitz, Benjamin Volkmer, Katarzyna Michalak-Mićka, Jivko Kamarachev, Tom Hartwig, Ernst Reichmann, Burkhard Becher, Stefano Vavassori, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid
BACKGROUND: Mutations in tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A) and its mouse orthologue Ttc7 result in a multisystemic disease, mostly affecting epithelial barriers and the immune system. Despite successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, ongoing progression of gastrointestinal manifestations can be life-threatening in TTC7A-deficient patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether TTC7A mutations dysregulate epithelial cells only, or whether a cell-intrinsic defect in lymphocytes or other cells contributes to disease manifestations...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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