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Prolonged fasting

Yiming Zhang, Mandan Liu, Qingwei Liu
Clustering, as an essential part in an hierarchy protocol that can prolong the network lifetime, is influenced by the cluster head selection and clustering scheme. A new clustering algorithm called clustering by fast search and finding of density peaks (CFSFDP) based on local density and distance is implementable and efficient. In this paper, we combine this clustering algorithm with a hierarchy protocol in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, energy consumption in each round is unbalanced only considering these two variables during the clustering phase, which leads to the early death of the first node...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Lucia Romero, Jordi Cano, Julio Gomis-Tena, Beatriz Trenor, Ferran Sanz, Manuel Pastor, Javier Saiz
Drug-induced proarrhythmicity is a major concern for regulators and pharmaceutical companies. For novel drug candidates, the standard assessment involves the evaluation of the potassium hERG channels block and the in vivo prolongation of the QT interval. However, this method is known to be too restrictive and to stop the development of potentially valuable therapeutic drugs. The aim of this work is to create an in silico tool for early detection of drug-induced proarrhythmic risk. The system is based on simulations of how different compounds affect the action potential duration (APD) of isolated endocardial, midmyocardial, and epicardial cells as well as the QT prolongation in a virtual tissue...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Fei Li, Zhiguo Xia, Caofeng Pan, Yue Gong, Lin Gu, Quanlin Liu, Jin Z Zhang
The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that, benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr2 and preformed CsPb1-xCl3:xMn NCs can be used to obtain high Br content Cs(Pb1-x-zZnz)(ClyBr1-y)3:xMn2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn2+ emission, and Mn2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhenyun Lin, Binbin Zhu, Xiuming Jin
RATIONALE: The association between human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) with its associated diseases is far from complete. The role of HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility is still not known, although many suggestions have been proposed. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 46-year-old policeman with a history of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. He was a Shaolin lay disciple who fasted at the Shaolin temple for at least 1 week each year since 2014. DIAGNOSES: The patient suffered three different HLA-B27-associated diseases including acute anterior uveitis, ulcerative colitis, and ankylosing spondylitis, from 2014 to 2016 because of prolonged fasting...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christopher H Mullens, David A Brown
Individuals who have experienced a stroke often demonstrate inappropriate muscle activity phasing in the paretic leg during locomotion. Past research has demonstrated that inappropriate paretic phasing varies between behavioral contexts, and is reduced during unilateral pedaling with the non-paretic leg inactive. We investigated whether individuals could voluntarily alter activity in a target muscle of the paretic limb in a consistent behavioral context, and whether this voluntary change differed between bilateral and unilateral pedaling...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
I M Côté, N S Smith
This review revisits the traits thought to have contributed to the success of Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois sp. as an invader in the western Atlantic Ocean and the worst-case scenario about their potential ecological effects in light of the more than 150 studies conducted in the past 5 years. Fast somatic growth, resistance to parasites, effective anti-predator defences and an ability to circumvent predator recognition mechanisms by prey have probably contributed to rapid population increases of lionfish in the invaded range...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Claudia Conte, Francesca Mastrotto, Vincenzo Taresco, Aleksandra Tchoryk, Fabiana Quaglia, Snjezana Stolnik, Cameron Alexander
In the treatment of lung cancer, there is an urgent need of innovative medicines to optimize pharmacological responses of conventional chemotherapeutics while attenuating side effects. Here, we have exploited some relatively unexplored subtle differences in reduction potential, associated with cancer cell microenvironments in addition to the well-known changes in intracellular redox environment. We report the synthesis and application of novel redox-responsive PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) -PEG (polyethylene glycol) nanoparticles (RR-NPs) programmed to change surface properties when entering tumor microenvironments, thus enhance cell internalization of the particles and their drug cargo...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Sarah L Pownder, Kei Hayashi, Brian G Caserto, Mary Lou Norman, Hollis G Potter, Matthew F Koff
OBJECTIVES:  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional differences of canine stifle articular cartilage using the quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique of T2 mapping. METHODS:  Fourteen stifle joints from seven juvenile male Beagle dogs with no evidence or prior history of pelvic limb lameness were imaged ex vivo using standard of care fast spin echo MRI and quantitative T2 mapping protocols. Regions of interest were compared between the femoral, patellar and tibial cartilages, as well as between the lateral and medial femorotibial compartments...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Farzad Seidi, Ratchapol Jenjob, Daniel Crespy
Incorporating labile bonds inside polymer backbone and side chains yields interesting polymer materials that are responsive to change of environmental stimuli. Drugs can be conjugated to various polymers through different conjugation linkages and spacers. One of the key factors influencing the release profile of conjugated drugs is the hydrolytic stability of the conjugated linkage. Generally, the hydrolysis of acid-labile linkages, including acetal, imine, hydrazone, and to some extent β-thiopropionate, are relatively fast and the conjugated drug can be completely released in the range of several hours to a few days...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Reviews
F Strollo, C Macchi, I Eberini, M A Masini, M Botta, G Vassilieva, I Nichiporuk, M Monici, D Santucci, F Celotti, P Magni, M Ruscica
PURPOSE: The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. METHODS: The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Joshua L Chan, Justin G Miller, Mandy Murphy, Ann Greenberg, Peggy Iraola, Keith A Horvath
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intubation following cardiac surgery is associated with significant morbidity. A fast-track extubation protocol primarily driven by bedside providers was instituted for all postoperative cardiac surgery patients to facilitate safe and expeditious extubation. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1581 cardiac surgery patients over an 8-year period was performed. Prior to 2011, non-protocolized standard perioperative management was utilized (n=807)...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Hassan Saad, Khaled M Krisht, Wei-Hsun Yang, Emad Aboud, Ali F Krisht
BACKGROUND: The vascular closure staple clips have been studied in animal models and shown to have comparable results with sutured repair when it comes to the healing process, degree of vessel narrowing, and risk of thrombosis. However, they are clearly superior when the speed of application is taken into account, and they were clinically used in many vascular repair processes. Nevertheless, their usefulness in intracranial vascular surgery has not been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe the usefulness of hemoclips in fast and efficient repair of medium-sized and large intracranial vessels...
February 26, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Roland W J Hangelbroek, Peter J Joris, Casper G Schalkwijk, Diederik Esser, Lydia Afman, Thomas Hankemeier, Doris M Jacobs, Velitchka V Mihaleva, Sander Kersten, John van Duynhoven, Mark V Boekschoten
Introduction: The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced shifts in metabolic phenotype. Objectives: We examined whether the response to a mixed-meal challenge could provide a readout for a weight loss (WL)-induced phenotype shift in abdominally obese male subjects...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Mónika Bakonyi, Attila Gácsi, Anita Kovács, Mária-Budai Szűcs, Szilvia Berkó, Erzsébet Csányi
The application of local anesthetics, usually administered by subcutaneous injection, is common in the course of diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic dermatology procedures. The effective dermal delivery of lidocaine could offer a solution to many adverse effects caused by needle insertion, such as pain, local reactions or toxicity, and additionally, it avoids the disruption of anatomical landmarks. Therefore, novel dermal formulations of local anesthetics are needed to overcome the barrier function of the skin and provide sufficient and prolonged anesthesia...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Natalee J Smith, Katarina Rohlfing, Lisa A Sawicki, Prathamesh M Kharkar, Samantha J Boyd, April M Kloxin, Joseph M Fox
A method of cysteine alkylation using cyclopropenyl ketones is described. Due to the significant release of cyclopropene strain energy, reactions of thiols with cyclopropenyl ketones are both fast and irreversible and give rise to stable conjugate addition adducts. The resulting cyclopropenyl ketones have a low molecular weight and allow for simple attachment of amides via N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-esters. While cyclopropenyl ketones do display slow background reactivity toward water, labeling by thiols is much more rapid...
March 9, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Junma Xu, Jie Zhao, Xiaomin Jia, Gang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of early continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in bundle treatment of severe pneumonia. METHODS: Seventy severe pneumonia patients admitted to respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Second Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from January 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into routine treatment group and CRRT treatment group, with 35 patients in each group. All patients were treated with bundle therapy, and those in CRRT treatment group was treated with CRRT daily on the basis of conventional bundle therapy...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Enni-Maria Hietavala, Johanna K Ihalainen, Lynda A Frassetto, Moritz Schumann, Daniela Eklund, Hannu Pitkänen, Keijo Häkkinen, Antti A Mero
Prolonged effects of dietary acid intake on acid-base status and kidney function have not yet been studied in an intervention study in healthy subjects. Dietary acid load can be estimated by calculating the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of foods. Effects of low-PRAL and moderate-PRAL diets on acid-base status and kidney function were investigated during a 12-week exercise training period. Healthy, 20-50-year-old men ( n = 21) and women ( n = 25) participated in the study and were randomly divided into low-PRAL and moderate-PRAL groups...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
David Darevsky, Thomas Michael Gill, Katherine Rose Vitale, Bing Hu, Scott Andrew Wegner, Frederic Woodward Hopf
Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake persists regardless of adverse consequences, plays a major role in the substantial costs of alcohol use disorder. However, the processes that promote aversion-resistant drinking remain poorly understood. Compulsion-like responding has been considered automatic and reflexive and also to involve higher motivation, since drinking persists despite adversity. Thus, we used lickometry, where microstructural behavioral changes can reflect altered motivation, to test whether conflict-resistant intake [quinine-alcohol (QuiA)] reflected greater automaticity or motivation relative to alcohol-only drinking (Alc)...
March 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Mohammad A Shafiee, Mehdi Aarabi, Pouyan Shaker, Amir M Ghafarian, Pouyan Chamanian, Mitchell L Halperin
PURPOSE: Intermittent fasting and curtailing water intake for extended periods of time was likely to be common in Paleolithic times. Nowadays, it occurs for religious and dietary reasons. This restriction in intake should cause a decrease in urine flow rate (UFR), while raising the concentrations of certain substances in the urine to the point of precipitation. In this study, we measured the risk of calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) precipitation following 18 hours of food and water deprivation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Urology
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
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