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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102097/familiar-auditory-sensory-training-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#1
Emily Galassi Sullivan, Ann Guernon, Brett Blabas, Amy A Herrold, Theresa L-B Pape
PURPOSE: The evaluation and treatment for patients with prolonged periods of seriously impaired consciousness following traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as a vegetative or minimally conscious state, poses considerable challenges, particularly in the chronic phases of recovery. METHOD: This blinded crossover study explored the effects of familiar auditory sensory training (FAST) compared with a sham stimulation in a patient seven years post severe TBI. Baseline data were collected over 4 weeks to account for variability in status with neurobehavioral measures, including the Disorders of Consciousness scale (DOCS), Coma Near Coma scale (CNC), and Consciousness Screening Algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099133/association-between-screen-time-and-snack-consumption-in-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#2
Roya Kelishadi, Nafiseh Mozafarian, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Saeid Safiri, Gelayol Ardalan, Hamid Asayesh, Fatemeh Rezaei, Ramin Heshmat
BACKGROUND: The relationship between screen time (ST) and the frequency of snack consumption in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents was assessed. The present nationwide survey was conducted on 14,880 school students living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Trained healthcare providers conducted the physical examination and completed the questionnaire of the World Health Organization - Global School-Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS). METHODS: The association between ST (total time spent watching TV and using a computer in leisure time) and the frequency of snack consumption was determined using ordinal logistic regression analysis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094665/fdg-pet-reproducibility-in-tumor-bearing-mice-comparing-a-traditional-suv-approach-with-a-tumor-to-brain-tissue-ratio-approach
#3
Morten Busk, Ole L Munk, Steen Jakobsen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Jens Overgaard, Michael R Horsman
BACKGROUND: Current [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) procedures in tumor-bearing mice typically includes fasting, anesthesia, and standardized uptake value (SUV)-based quantification. Such procedures may be inappropriate for prolonged multiscan experiments. We hypothesize that normalization of tumor FDG retention relative to a suitable reference tissue may improve accuracy as this method may be less susceptible to uncontrollable day-to-day changes in blood glucose levels, physical activity, or unnoticed imperfect tail vein injections...
January 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091348/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism...
January 16, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087555/associations-of-reallocating-sitting-time-into-standing-or-stepping-with-glucose-insulin-and-insulin-sensitivity-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Charlotte L Edwardson, Joe Henson, Danielle H Bodicoat, Kishan Bakrania, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
OBJECTIVE: To quantify associations between sitting time and glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity by considering reallocation of time into standing or stepping. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Leicestershire, UK, 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 30-75 years at high risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or type 2 diabetes. 435 adults (age 66.8±7.4 years; 61.7% male; 89.2% white European) were included. METHODS: Participants wore an activPAL3 monitor 24 hours/day for 7 days to capture time spent sitting, standing and stepping...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076307/evaluation-of-the-greiner-bio-one-serum-separator-bca-fast-clot-tube
#6
Goce Dimeski, Julie Johnston, Paul P Masci, Kong-Nan Zhao, Nigel Brown
BACKGROUND: Current commercial tubes have difficulties in producing "true" serum from all blood samples even within the recommended clotting times. Hence, Becton Dickinson (BD) and now Greiner have produced tubes containing thrombin as the procoagulant to reduce the clotting time and increase the possibility of producing serum from anticoagulated blood samples. METHODS: The Greiner BCA Fast Clot (GBBCAFC) tube was evaluated in a hospital environment using 40 participants, (30 healthy and 10 undergoing renal dialysis) for 32 analytes against the Greiner lithium heparin tube and the BD Rapid Serum Tubes (BD RST) tube measured on Beckman DxC 800 and DxI 800 analyzers...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075022/the-mechanistic-basis-for-photobiomodulation-therapy-of-neuropathic-pain-by-near-infrared-laser-light
#7
Vanessa Milanesi Holanda, Maria Cristina Chavantes, Xingjia Wu, Juanita J Anders
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various irradiances have been reported to be beneficial for the treatment of neuropathic pain with near infrared light. However, the mechanistic basis for the beneficial outcomes may vary based on the level of irradiance or fluence rate used. Using in vivo and in vitro experimental models, this study determined the mechanistic basis of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for the treatment of neuropathic pain using a high irradiance. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro experiments: Cultured, rat DRG were randomly assigned to control or laser treatment (LT) groups with different irradiation times (2, 5, 30, 60, or 120 seconds)...
January 11, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073063/self-assembled-micelles-based-on-chondroitin-sulfate-poly-d-l-lactideco-glycolide-block-copolymers-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#8
Hui Zhang, Jiangkang Xu, Liang Xing, Jianbo Ji, Aihua Yu, Guangxi Zhai
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most common chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers, but its clinical usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. We have recently synthesized a series of Chondroitin sulfate/poly (d,l-lactideco-glycolide) block copolymers (Chs-b-PLGA) with different length of hydrophobic block by an end-to-end coupling strategy. The structure of the amphiphilic block copolymers with low critical micelle concentration (∼28mg/L) were confirmed by (1)H NMR. The copolymers could self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous environment with homogeneous size distribution and negative zeta potential...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070056/a-case-of-idiopathic-type-1-diabetes-with-subsequent-recovery-of-endogenous-insulin-secretion-despite-initial-diagnosis-of-fulminant-type-1-diabetes
#9
Keizo Kaneko, Chihiro Satake, Junpei Yamamoto, Hironori Takahashi, Shojiro Sawada, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Fulminant type 1 diabetes is characterized by remarkably rapid and complete β-cell destruction. The established diagnostic criteria include the occurrence of diabetic ketosis soon after the onset of hyperglycemic symptoms, elevated plasma glucose with relatively low HbA1c at the first visit, and extremely low C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels remain extremely low over a prolonged period. A 26-year-old-man with diabetic ketosis was admitted to our hospital. His relatively low HbA1c (7.6 %), despite marked hyperglycemia (593 mg/dL) with marked ketosis, indicated abrupt onset...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069811/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway-targets-pp2a-ampk-foxo1-to-regulate-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#10
Hariom Yadav, Samir Devalaraja, Stephanie Chung, Sushil G Rane
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia or diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions amongst various organs, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site for endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068408/pharmacokinetics-of-lidocaine-hydrochloride-administered-with-or-without-adrenaline-for-the-paravertebral-brachial-plexus-block-in-dogs
#11
Amélie Choquette, Eric Troncy, Martin Guillot, France Varin, Jérôme R E Del Castillo
Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline's impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065871/targeted-glioma-chemotherapy-by-cyclic-rgd-peptide-functionalized-reversibly-core-crosslinked-multifunctional-poly-ethylene-glycol-b-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-micelles
#12
Ya Fang, Yu Jiang, Yan Zou, Fenghua Meng, Jian Zhang, Chao Deng, Huanli Sun, Zhiyuan Zhong
: Cyclic RGD peptide-functionalized reversibly core-crosslinked biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) micelles (cRGD-RCCMs) were designed and developed for highly potent and targeted glioma chemotherapy. To achieve crosslinkable core, dithiolane-functionalized trimethylene carbonate (DTC) was incorporated into PCL block. Interestingly, cRGD-RCCMs displayed a high doxorubicin (DOX) loading content of ∼18 wt.%, small hydrodynamic size of ∼50 nm, and excellent colloidal stability with minimum drug leakage under physiological conditions whilst fast DOX release under cytoplasmic-mimicking reductive environments...
January 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060942/white-cgmp-interaction-promotes-fast-locomotor-recovery-from-anoxia-in-adult-drosophila
#13
Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
Increasing evidence indicates that the white (w) gene in Drosophila possesses extra-retinal functions in addition to its classical role in eye pigmentation. We have previously shown that w+ promotes fast and consistent locomotor recovery from anoxia, but how w+ modulates locomotor recovery is largely unknown. Here we show that in the absence of w+, several PDE mutants, especially cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific PDE mutants, display wildtype-like fast locomotor recovery from anoxia, and that during the night time, locomotor recovery was light-sensitive in white-eyed mutant w1118, and light-insensitive in PDE mutants under w1118 background...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060256/synthesis-of-cationized-magnetoferritin-for-ultra-fast-magnetization-of-cells
#14
Sara Correia Carreira, James P K Armstrong, Mitsuhiro Okuda, Annela M Seddon, Adam W Perriman, Walther Schwarzacher
Many important biomedical applications, such as cell imaging and remote manipulation, can be achieved by labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Achieving sufficient cellular uptake of SPIONs is a challenge that has traditionally been met by exposing cells to elevated concentrations of SPIONs or by prolonging exposure times (up to 72 hr). However, these strategies are likely to mediate toxicity. Here, we present the synthesis of the protein-based SPION magnetoferritin as well as a facile surface functionalization protocol that enables rapid cell magnetization using low exposure concentrations...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051943/previous-repeated-exposure-to-food-limitation-enables-rats-to-spare-lipid-stores-during-prolonged-starvation
#15
Marshall D McCue, Audrey Albach, Giovanni Salazar
The risk of food limitation and, ultimately, starvation dates back to the dawn of heterotrophy in animals, yet starvation remains a major factor in the regulation of modern animal populations. Researchers studying starvation more than a century ago suggested that animals subjected to sublethal periods of food limitation are somehow more tolerant of subsequent starvation events. This possibility has received little attention over the past decades, yet it is highly relevant to modern science for two reasons. First, animals in natural populations are likely to be exposed to bouts of food limitation once or more before they face prolonged starvation, during which the risk of mortality becomes imminent...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050266/from-slow-to-fast-hypogravity-induced-remodeling-of-muscle-fiber-myosin-phenotype
#16
B S Shenkman
Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types arranged in a mosaic pattern. These fiber types are characterized by specific functional properties. Slow-type fibers demonstrate a high level of fatigue resistance and prolonged contraction duration, but decreased maximum contraction force and velocity. Fast-type fibers demonstrate high contraction force and velocity, but profound fatigability. During the last decades, it has been discovered that all these properties are determined by the predominance of slow or fast myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043567/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-cattle-by-using-indirect-absorbed-elisa-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-system-and-culture-in-alborz-province-iran
#17
Hedyeh Teymouri, Nader Mosavari, Hadi Poor Taghi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a slow growing, Gram-positive, and acid-fast bacillus. It is the causative agent of the chronic enteritis disease of ruminants called Johne's disease. Most of the infected animals are young. However, most clinical cases belong to adult cattle aged 3-5years. Due to a prolonged incubation period, identification of subclinically infected animals is one of the most crucial problems in Johne's disease. The aim of this study was to detect M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029601/hypothalamic-amp-activated-protein-kinase-regulates-biphasic-insulin-secretion-from-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-during-fasting-and-in-type-2-diabetes
#18
Shinji Kume, Motoyuki Kondo, Shiro Maeda, Yoshihiko Nishio, Tsuyoshi Yanagimachi, Yukihiro Fujita, Masakazu Haneda, Keiko Kondo, Akihiro Sekine, Shin-Ich Araki, Hisazumi Araki, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Satoshi Ugi, Daisuke Koya, Sawako Kitahara, Kiyosumi Maeda, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Takashi Uzu, Hiroshi Maegawa
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β cells is biphasic. However, the physiological significance of biphasic GSIS and its relationship to diabetes are not yet fully understood. This study demonstrated that impaired first-phase GSIS follows fasting, leading to increased blood glucose levels and brain glucose distribution in humans. Animal experiments to determine a possible network between the brain and β cells revealed that fasting-dependent hyperactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus inhibited first-phase GSIS by stimulating the α-adrenergic pancreatic nerve...
October 28, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028037/muscle-interleukin-6-and-fasting-induced-pdh-regulation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#19
Anders Gudiksen, Lærke Bertholdt, Mikkel Birkkjær Vingborg, Henriette Watson Hansen, Stine Ringholm Ringholm, Henriette Pilegaard
Fasting prompts a metabolic shift in substrate utilization from carbohydrate to predominant fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is seen as a controlling link between the competitive oxidation of carbohydrate and fat during metabolic challenges like fasting. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to be released from muscle with concomitant effects on both glucose and fat utilization. The aim was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 has a regulatory impact on fasting-induced suppression of skeletal muscle PDH...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018759/could-the-use-of-an-enhanced-recovery-protocol-in-laparoscopic-donor-nephrectomy-be-an-incentive-for-live-kidney-donation
#20
Aparna Rege, Harold Leraas, Deepak Vikraman, Kadiyala Ravindra, Todd Brennan, Tim Miller, Julie Thacker, Debra Sudan
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) recovery after major abdominal surgery can be delayed from an ongoing need for narcotic analgesia thereby prolonging hospitalization. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal perioperative care pathway designed to facilitate early recovery after major surgery by maintaining preoperative body composition and physiological organ function and modifying the stress response induced by surgical exposure. Enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) in colorectal surgery have decreased the duration of postoperative ileus and the hospital stay while showing equivalent morbidity, mortality, and readmission rates in comparison to the traditional standard of care...
November 22, 2016: Curēus
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