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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748089/the-role-of-nanotechnology-in-the-treatment-of-viral-infections
#1
REVIEW
Lavanya Singh, Hendrik G Kruger, Glenn E M Maguire, Thavendran Govender, Raveen Parboosing
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with viruses in particular making global impact on healthcare and socioeconomic development. In addition, the rapid development of drug resistance to currently available therapies and adverse side effects due to prolonged use is a serious public health concern. The development of novel treatment strategies is therefore required. The interaction of nanostructures with microorganisms is fast-revolutionizing the biomedical field by offering advantages in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743820/the-effects-of-suramin-on-ca-2-activated-force-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-release-in-skinned-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-rat
#2
Dane W Williams, Dimitrie George Stephenson, Giuseppe S Posterino
Suramin has long been used in the treatment of various human diseases. Intravenous infusions of Suramin are commonly administered to patients over extended periods of time but there are a number of significant contraindications with peripheral muscle weakness being one of the most frequently reported. Previous work has shown that even after a single infusion (300 mg kg(-1)) Suramin remains in skeletal muscle in effective concentrations (11.6 μg mL(-1); 84 days) for prolonged periods. These observations provide a strong rationale for investigation of the specific effects of Suramin on skeletal muscle function...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743556/increased-sensitivity-of-thyroid-hormone-mediated-signaling-despite-prolonged-fasting
#3
Bridget Martinez, Michael Scheibner, José G Soñanez-Organis, John T Jaques, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) can increase cellular metabolism. Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid gland responsiveness, in an effort to suppress cellular metabolism and abate starvation. However, in prolonged-fasted, elephant seal pups, cellular TH-mediated proteins are up-regulated and TH levels are maintained with fasting duration. The function and contribution of the thyroid gland to this apparent paradox is unknown and physiologically perplexing. Here we show that the thyroid gland remains responsive during prolonged food deprivation, and that its function and production of TH increase with fasting duration in elephant seals...
July 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742046/a-fast-algorithm-for-analysis-of-molecular-communication-in-artificial-synapse
#4
Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
In this paper we analyse molecular communications (MC) in a proposed artificial synapse (AS), whose main difference from biological synapses (BSs) is that it is closed, i.e., transmitter molecules cannot diffuse out from AS. Such a setup has both advantages and disadvantages. Besides higher structural stability, being closed, AS never runs out of transmitters. Thus, MC in AS is disconnected from outer environment, which is very desirable for possible intra-body applications. On the other hand, clearance of transmitters from AS has to be achieved by transporter molecules on the presynaptic membrane of AS...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741139/characterization-of-a-liquid-crystal-system-for-sustained-release-of-a-peptide-bms-686117
#5
Yan Xu, Vivian Li, Jinjiang Li, Duohai Pan, Gerd Langenbucher, Neil Mathias
Liquid crystal lipid-based formulations are an effective approach to prolong pharmacokinetics and reduce burst release of a drug on subcutaneous delivery. The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of phase structures of a lipid-based liquid crystal delivery system and its associated mechanical properties on the release profile of a peptide. It was hypothesized that release of drug molecules are closely related to the mechanical properties that are controlled by phase structures. Experimentally, the relationship between phase structures of lipid liquid crystal system-soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) in water were characterized by polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction...
July 24, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735199/one-pot-synthesis-of-bismuth-silicate-heterostructures-with-tunable-morphology-and-excellent-visible-light-photodegradation-performances
#6
Kun-Le Jia, Jin Qu, Shu-Meng Hao, Fei An, Ya-Qiong Jing, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Construction of a heterostructure to prolong the life of electron-hole pairs is a very important approach to endow it with excellent photodegradation performances. Particularly, one-pot synthesis of heterostructures with the same component but different crystal structures to form a proper band gap is still challenging. Herein, bismuth silicate (BSO) heterostructures are synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal approach without adding any other inorganic components. The crystal phase, morphology, surface state, and photochemical properties of the BSO materials are precisely tuned to fabricate two kinds of bismuth silicate heterostructures: rod-like Bi2SiO5/Bi12SiO20 and flower-like Bi2SiO5/Bi4Si3O12 heterostructures...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732568/effects-of-oral-contraceptives-on-metabolic-profile-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-comparing-products-containing-cyproterone-acetate-with-third-generation-progestins
#7
REVIEW
Mina Amiri, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Fatemeh Nahidi, Ali Kabir, Fereidoun Azizi, Enrico Carmina
BACKGROUND: Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most common treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), their effects and safety on the metabolic profiles of these patients are relatively unknown. In this meta-analysis the effects of the different durations (from 3months to 1year) of OC treatment using cyproterone acetate (CA) or third generation progestins on metabolic profile of patients with PCOS were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases (2001-2015) were searched to identify clinical trials investigating the effects of OC containing CA or third generation progestins on metabolic profiles of women with PCOS...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732557/a-negative-slope-conductance-of-the-persistent-sodium-current-prolongs-subthreshold-depolarizations
#8
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Neuronal subthreshold voltage-dependent currents determine membrane properties such as the input resistance (Rin) and the membrane time constant (τm) in the subthreshold range. In contrast with classical cable theory predictions, the persistent sodium current (INaP), a non-inactivating mode of the voltage-dependent sodium current, paradoxically increases Rin and τm when activated. Furthermore, this current amplifies and prolongs synaptic currents in the subthreshold range. Here, using a computational neuronal model, we showed that the creation of a region of negative slope conductance by INaP activation is responsible for these effects and the ability of the negative slope conductance to amplify and prolong Rin and τm relies on the fast activation of INaP...
July 18, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#9
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730776/institutional-variations-in-nutritional-aspects-of-enhanced-recovery-pathways-after-elective-surgery-for-colon-cancer
#10
Fotios Seretis, Panagiota Kaisari, Kasun Wanigasooriya, Edward Rawstorne, Charalampos Seretis
PURPOSE: Perioperative nutritional optimisation is one of the key aspects of the Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) pathway after elective colorectal cancer resections. Despite the general acceptance of ERAS as a safe and cost-effective perioperative care bundle, significant variations in terms of nutritional support exist among colorectal units. METHODS: To assess these variations, we performed a cross-sectional online survey among colorectal surgical residents within a UK region...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726169/comparison-of-the-systemic-and-local-pharmacokinetics-of-clonidine-mucoadhesive-buccal-tablets-with-reference-clonidine-oral-tablets-in-healthy-volunteers-an-open-label-randomised-cross-over-trial
#11
Bérangère Vasseur, Alain Dufour, Laetitia Houdas, Helen Goodwin, Kathryn Harries, Neslihan Yesiltas Emul, Simon Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: The clonidine mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT) is a novel delivery system resulting in high and sustained concentrations of clonidine in the oral cavity. In a phase II clinical trial, clonidine MBT reduced the incidence of severe oral mucositis (OM) compared to placebo in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. This study compared the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of clonidine MBT with a reference oral tablet (OT). METHODS: This was a randomised, three-period, single-dose crossover study in 36 healthy subjects aged 18-50 years...
July 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724166/iron-pharmacokinetics-in-women-with-iron-deficiency-anaemia-following-a-single-oral-dose-of-a-novel-formulation-of-tardyferon-prolonged-release-ferrous-sulphate
#12
Andrew Leary, Laurence Barthe, Thierry Clavel, Claudie Sanchez, Zahida Issiakhem, Bruno Paillard, Jean-Marc Edmond
Numerous iron-containing preparations are available on the market; these vary in dosage, salt, chemical state of iron (ferric or ferrous) and in the iron delivery process (immediate or prolonged-release). Tardyferon® is a prolonged-release tablet containing 80 mg ferrous sulphate. The formulation has recently been modified; changes to the excipients which constitute the inert formulation matrix have allowed a decrease in tablet size for easier swallowing. The aim of this multicenter open-label study was to characterize the serum pharmacokinetics of iron in non-pregnant women aged 23-45 years with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) following single oral administration of 160 mg Tardyferon® under fasting conditions...
July 19, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722611/phase-2a-open-label-4-escalating-dose-randomized-multicenter-study-evaluating-the-safety-and-activity-of-ferroquine-ssr97193-plus-artesunate-versus-amodiaquine-plus-artesunate-in-african-adult-men-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#13
Christian Supan, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Maryvonne Kombila, Carmen L Ospina Salazar, Jana Held, Bertrand Lell, Cathy Cantalloube, Elhadj Djeriou, Bernhards Ogutu, John Waitumbi, Nekoye Otsula, Duncan Apollo, Mark E Polhemus, Peter G Kremsner, Douglas S Walsh
Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended as first-line agents for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ferroquine, a 4-aminoquinolone, is a novel long-acting combination partner for fast-acting drugs like artesunate (AS). We did a small phase 2a, multicenter, open-label, safety-focused dose-ranging randomized study of ferroquine at three African hospitals: two Gabonese and one Kenyan. We recruited adult men with symptomatic uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Four escalating doses of ferroquine (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg) were assessed in sequence, versus an amodiaquine comparator...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717991/prolonged-bed-rest-impairs-rapid-cpi-17-phosphorylation-and-contraction-in-rat-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-to-cause-orthostatic-hypotension
#15
Toshio Kitazawa, Kazuyo Kitazawa
Prolonged bed rest (PBR) causes orthostatic hypotension (OH). Rapid constriction of splanchnic resistance arteries in response to a sudden increase in sympathetic tone contributes to the recovery of orthostatic arterial pressure upon standing. However, the molecular mechanism of PBR-induced dysfunction in arterial constriction is not fully understood. Previously, we showed that CPI-17, a regulatory protein for myosin phosphatase, mediates α1A-adrenergic receptor-induced rapid contraction of small mesenteric arteries...
July 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715993/metabolic-effects-of-intermittent-fasting
#16
Ruth E Patterson, Dorothy D Sears
The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714284/egg-albumen-as-a-fast-and-strong-medical-adhesive-glue
#17
Kaige Xu, Yuqing Liu, Shousan Bu, Tianyi Wu, Qiang Chang, Gurankit Singh, Xiaojian Cao, Chuang Deng, Bingyun Li, Gaoxing Luo, Malcolm Xing
Sutures penetrate tissues to close wounds. This process leads to inflammatory responses, prolongs healing time, and increases operation complexity. It becomes even worse when sutures are applied to stress-sensitive and fragile tissues. By bonding tissues via forming covalent bonds, some medical adhesives are not convenient to be used by surgeons and have side effects to the tissues. Here egg albumen adhesive (EAA) is reported with ultrahigh adhesive strength to bond various types of materials and can be easily used without any chemical and physical modifications...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700540/clinical-and-radiological-presentations-and-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma-a-single-tertiary-hospital-experience
#18
Gaby Jabbour, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ruben Peralta, Mohammed Ellabib, Hisham Al-Jogol, Mohammed Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND Splenic injury is the leading cause of major bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma. We examined the clinical and radiological presentations, management, and outcome of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) in our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of BSI patients between 2011 and 2014 was conducted. We analyzed and compared management and outcome of different splenic injury grades in trauma patients. RESULTS A total of 191 BSI patients were identified with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 years (13...
July 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698267/clinical-criteria-for-tracheostomy-decannulation-in-subjects-with-acquired-brain-injury
#19
Claudia Enrichi, Irene Battel, Cristiano Zanetti, Isabella Koch, Laura Ventura, Katie Palmer, Francesca Meneghello, Francesco Piccione, Simonetta Rossi, Marta Lazzeri, Maurizio Sommariva, Andrea Turolla
BACKGROUND: Patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) often require long periods of having a tracheostomy tube for airway protection and prolonged mechanical ventilation. It has been recognized that fast and safe decannulation improves outcomes and facilitates the recovery process. Nevertheless, few studies have provided evidence for decannulation criteria, despite the high prevalence of ABI subjects with tracheostomies. The aim of our study was to assess which clinical parameters are the best predictors for decannulation in subjects with ABI...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697834/-association-of-serum-vitamin-d-level-with-severity-and-treatment-in-children-with-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#20
Li Fan, Heng Liu, Yu-Chuan Wang, Li Chen, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yu-Xia Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of serum vitamin D [25-(OH)D3] level with the severity and treatment in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). METHODS: A total of 50 children with newly-diagnosed HSP between January and December, 2015 were enrolled as HSP group, and 49 healthy children were enrolled as control group. Fasting serum samples were collected, and ELISA was used to measure serum 25-(OH)D3 level. According to the serum 25-(OH)D3 level, the HSP group were further divided into normal group (>20 ng/mL) (n=9), insufficiency group (15-20 ng/mL) (n=15), deficiency group (≤15 ng/mL) (n=25), and severe deficiency group (≤5 ng/mL) (n=1)...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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