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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#1
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432521/intermittent-food-restriction-initiated-late-in-life-prolongs-lifespan-and-retards-the-onset-of-age-related-markers-in-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#2
Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Yang Zhou, Su Wang, Feng Su, Shicui Zhang
Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3...
April 21, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423344/prolonged-dark-period-modulates-the-oxidative-burst-and-enzymatic-antioxidant-systems-in-the-leaves-of-salicylic-acid-treated-tomato
#3
Péter Poór, Zoltán Takács, Krisztina Bela, Zalán Czékus, Gabriella Szalai, Irma Tari
Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant growth regulator playing a role in the hypersensitive reaction (HR) and the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Since the SA-mediated signalling pathways and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are light-dependent, the time- and concentration-specific induction of oxidative stress was investigated in leaves of tomato plants kept under light and dark conditions after treatments with 0.1mM and 1mM SA. The application of exogenous SA induced early superoxide- and H2O2 production in the leaves, which was different in the absence or presence of light and showed time- and concentration-dependent changes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421842/the-management-of-ventricular-dysrhythmia-in-aconite-poisoning
#4
REVIEW
James M Coulson, Thomas M Caparrotta, John P Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Aconite poisoning is relatively rare but is frequently complicated by ventricular dysrhythmias, which may be fatal. Molecular basis of aconite alkaloid ventricular arrhythmogenicity: Aconite exerts its toxic effects due to the presence of an admixture of alkaloids present in all parts of the plant. The major target of these aconite alkaloids is the fast voltage-gates sodium channel, where they cause persistent activation. This blockade of the channel in the activated state promotes automaticity within the ventricular myocardium and the generation of ventricular arrhythmias...
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420550/effect-of-a-moderate-caffeine-dose-on-endurance-cycle-performance-and-thermoregulation-during-prolonged-exercise-in-the-heat
#5
Ross E Beaumont, Lewis J James
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperature. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Eight healthy, recreationally active males (mean±SD; age: 22±1 years; body mass: 71.1±8.5kg; VO2peak: 55.9±5.8mLkg(-1)min(-1); Wmax: 318±37W) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416984/the-inferior-displacement-of-the-his-bundle-and-fast-pathway-in-a-patient-with-common-type-atrioventricular-nodal-tachycardia-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-analysis
#6
Kunihiko Kiuchi, Koji Fukuzawa, Mori Shumpei, Tatsuya Nishii
A 66-year-old woman with palpitations was referred to our center for catheter ablation due to drug-refractory, common type atrioventricular nodal tachycardia (AVNRT). A selective slow pathway ablation was attempted. A fast junctional rhythm with transient ventriculoatrial block followed by transient prolongation of the A-H interval occurred immediately after the radiofrequency (RF) application at the coronary sinus ostium (CSOS) level. To assess the location of the fast pathway and His bundle, we sought to visualize the anatomy of the triangle of Koch (TOK) by three-dimensional computed tomography (CT)...
April 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416555/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteome-response-to-anti-tuberculosis-compounds-reveals-metabolic-escape-pathways-that-prolong-bacterial-survival
#7
Lia Danelishvili, Natalia Shulzhenko, Jessica J J Chinison, Lmar Babrak, Jialu Hu, Andriy Morgun, Gregory Burrows, Luiz E Bermudez
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases and the leading cause of death in many parts of the world. A major limitation of TB therapy is slow killing of infecting organism, increasing the risk for the development of tolerance phenotype and drug-resistance. Studies indicate that M. tuberculosis (Mtb) takes several days to be killed upon treatment with lethal concentrations of antibiotics both in vitro and in vivo To investigate how metabolic remodeling can enable transient bacterial survival during exposure with bactericidal concentrations of compounds, Mtb H37Rv strain was exposed to twice of the minimal inhibitory concentration of isoniazid, rifampicin, moxifloxacin, mefloquine or bedaquiline for 24h, 48h, 4 days, and 6 days, and the bacterial proteomic response was analyzed using the quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411307/ferumoxytol-is-not-retained-in-kidney-allografts-in-patients-undergoing-acute-rejection
#8
Maryam Aghighi, Laura Pisani, Ashok J Theruvath, Anne M Muehe, Jessica Donig, Ramsha Khan, Samantha J Holdsworth, Neeraja Kambham, Waldo Concepcion, Paul C Grimm, Heike E Daldrup-Link
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients. PROCEDURES: The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26 years) with acute allograft rejection (n = 5), non-rejecting allografts (n = 13), and normal native kidneys (n = 8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407662/effects-of-a-one-week-fasting-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-explorative-study
#9
Chenying Li, Badri Sadraie, Nico Steckhan, Christian Kessler, Rainer Stange, Michael Jeitler, Andreas Michalsen
There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394849/inhibition-of-voltage-gated-na-channels-by-bupivacaine-is-enhanced-by-the-adjuvants-buprenorphine-ketamine-and-clonidine
#10
Carsten Stoetzer, Christine Martell, Jeanne de la Roche, Andreas Leffler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Regional anesthesia includes application of local anesthetics (LAs) into the vicinity of peripheral nerves. Prolongation or improvement of nerve blocks with LAs can be accomplished by coapplication with adjuvants, including buprenorphine, ketamine, and clonidine. While the mechanisms mediating prolonged or improved LA-induced effects by adjuvants are poorly understood, we hypothesized that they are likely to increase LA-induced block of voltage-gated Na channels...
April 7, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394614/a-synthetic-macromolecular-antibiotic-platform-for-inhalable-therapy-against-aerosolized-intracellular-alveolar-infections
#11
Debobrato Das, Jasmin Chen, Selvi Srinivasan, Abby Michelle Kelly, Brian Lee, Hye-Nam Son, Frank Radella, Timothy E West, Daniel M Ratner, Anthony J Convertine, Shawn J Skerrett, Patrick S Stayton
Lung-based intracellular bacterial infections remain one of the most challenging infectious disease settings. For example, the current standard for treating Franciscella tularensis pneumonia (tularemia) relies on prolonged administration of oral and intravenous antibiotics that poorly achieve and sustain pulmonary drug bioavailability. Inhalable antibiotic formulations are approved and in clinical development for upper respiratory infections, but sustained drug dosing from inhaled antibiotics against alveolar intracellular infections remains a current unmet need...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393316/profiling-of-selenium-absorption-and-accumulation-in-healthy-subjects-after-prolonged-l-selenomethionine-supplementation
#12
C Di Dato, D Gianfrilli, E Greco, M Astolfi, S Canepari, A Lenzi, A M Isidori, E Giannetta
PURPOSE: Autoimmune thyroiditis and its complications for the reproductive system are a growing problem. Selenium is a common ingredient in numerous food supplements recommended for thyroiditis and pregnancy. A fast, simple method to measure serum selenium concentration will improve knowledge of its pharmacokinetics and toxicity. AIM: To validate a useful method to measure serum selenium concentration and to study selenium absorption and accumulation in a prospective interventional study of prolonged treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389217/supplementation-with-a-low-dose-of-octopamine-does-not-influence-endurance-cycling-performance-in-recreationally-active-men
#13
Ross E Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Lewis J James, Phillip Watson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of octopamine supplementation on endurance performance and exercise metabolism. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Ten healthy, recreationally active men (Mean±SD; age: 24±2 years; body mass: 78.4±8.7kg; VO2peak: 50.5±6.8 mLkg(-1)min(-1)) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants ingested either a placebo or 150mg of octopamine 60min prior to exercise...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384417/dehydration-causes-increased-reliance-on-protein-oxidation-in-mice-a-test-of-the-protein-for-water-hypothesis-in-a-mammal
#14
Marshall D McCue, Joey Sandoval, Jazmin Beltran, Alexander R Gerson
During fasting, animals rely on a mixture of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins that are derived solely from endogenous sources. The relative contributions of these metabolic fuels chiefly depend on the duration of the fast, but other factors including previous diet, environmental temperature, and activity level can modulate the fuel mixture. It has long been held that endogenous proteins are spared from catabolism until the final stages of prolonged fasting and contribute a significant proportion of energy once the other metabolic fuels have been depleted...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373598/raccoon-dog-model-shows-preservation-of-bone-during-prolonged-catabolism-and-reduced-physical-activity
#15
Anne-Mari J Mustonen, Mikko A J Finnilä, Katri S Puukka, Timo J Jämsä, Simo Saarakkala, Juha K Tuukkanen, T Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a promising animal model capable of preventing disuse-induced osteoporosis. Previous data suggest that this species resembles bears in the preservation of bone mass and biomechanical properties during prolonged passivity and catabolism. This longitudinal study examined the osteological properties of tibiae in farm-bred raccoon dogs that were either fed or fasted (n=6/group) for a 10-week period. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was utilized and plasma markers of bone turnover measured before fasting and at 9 weeks followed by mechanical testing (three-point bending), micro-computed tomography and Fourier transform infrared imaging at 10 weeks...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372849/effect-of-oral-protein-hydrolysate-on-glucose-control-in-patients-with-gestational-diabetes
#16
Langeza Saleh, Nicole L Schrier, Maaike J Bruins, Eric A P Steegers, Anton H van den Meiracker, Willy Visser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In type 2 diabetic patients, a casein-based protein hydrolysate has been shown to increase plasma insulin and to lower plasma glucose. In the present study, we examined the acute and prolonged effects of protein hydrolysate on postprandial glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses after a standardised breakfast and the effect on daily glucose control in patients with gestational diabetes. METHODS: In a single-centre randomised double blind placebo controlled design, patients with mild gestational diabetes (no use of insulin or oral antidiabetic agents; n = 26/group) were allocated to receive a protein hydrolysate drink, 8...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367166/the-effect-of-glucose-variability-on-qtc-duration-and-dispersion-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Yasar Sertbas, Ali Ozdemir, Meltem Sertbas, Akin Dayan, Seda Sancak, Cihangir Uyan
OBJECTIVE: Glycemic variability (GV) is a new term with the episodes of hyper and hypoglycemia in diabetic patients. Both prolonged QT interval and QTd are potential risk factors for malignant ventricular arrhythmias affecting the mortality of different groups of patients including diabetes mellitus. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if the glucose variability increasing the QTc interval and QTc dispersion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We included 275 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363953/avathrin-a-novel-thrombin-inhibitor-derived-from-a-multi-copy-precursor-in-the-salivary-glands-of-the-ixodid-tick-amblyomma-variegatum
#18
Janaki Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Cho Yeow Koh, Maria Kazimirova, Ladislav Roller, Chacko Jobichen, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan, Jun Mizuguchi, Sadaaki Iwanaga, Patricia A Nuttall, Mark Y Chan, R Manjunatha Kini
Tick saliva is a rich source of antihemostatic compounds. We amplified a cDNA from the salivary glands of the tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum) using primers based on the variegin sequence, which we previously identified as a novel thrombin inhibitor from the same tick species. The transcript encodes a precursor protein comprising a signal peptide and 5 repeats of variegin-like sequences that could be processed into multiple short peptides. These peptides share 31 to 34% identity with variegin. Here, we structurally and functionally characterized one of these peptides named "avathrin...
March 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358178/time-to-intubation-in-obese-patients-a-randomized-study-comparing-direct-laryngoscopy-and-videolaryngoscopy-in-experienced-anaesthetists
#19
Fredrik Ander, Anders Magnuson, Lars Berggren, Rebecca Ahlstrand, Alex de Leon
BACKGROUND: Airway management may be difficult in obese patients. Moreover, during prolonged intubation, oxygen desaturation develops rapidly. Videolaryngoscopy improves the view of the larynx, and the Storz® C-MACTM has been shown to be superior to other videolaryngoscopes in terms of intubation time in obese patients. However, no effort has been made to compare the Storz® C-MACTM with direct laryngoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate if the use of Storz® C-MACTM may reduce intubation time when compared to direct laryngoscopy (classic Macintosh® blade)...
March 28, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355342/association-of-weight-control-behaviors-with-body-mass-index-and-weight-based-self-evaluation
#20
Sabrina Chapuis-de-Andrade, Rafael M de Araujo, Diogo R Lara
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of weight control behaviors (WCBs) and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and weight-based self-evaluation. METHODS: Data were collected by the Brazilian Internet Study on Temperament and Psychopathology (BRAINSTEP) from 27,501 volunteers (30.4% men, mean age 28.9±8.7 years). RESULTS: The most prevalent WCBs for men and women were exhaustive physical exercise and prolonged fasting, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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