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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334383/a-critical-role-of-inhibition-in-temporal-processing-maturation-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#1
Dongqin Cai, Rongrong Han, Miaomiao Liu, Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Yi Zheng, Limin Zhao, Jun Yao, Yiwei Wang, Yin Yue, Christoph E Schreiner, Kexin Yuan
Faithful representation of sound envelopes in primary auditory cortex (A1) is vital for temporal processing and perception of natural sounds. However, the emergence of cortical temporal processing mechanisms during development remains poorly understood. Although cortical inhibition has been proposed to play an important role in this process, direct in-vivo evidence has been lacking. Using loose-patch recordings in rat A1 immediately after hearing onset, we found that stimulus-following ability in fast-spiking neurons was significantly better than in regular-spiking (RS) neurons...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#2
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329340/baseline-characteristics-of-participants-in-the-aspree-aspirin-in-reducing-events-in-the-elderly-study
#3
John J McNeil, Robyn L Woods, Mark R Nelson, Anne M Murray, Christopher M Reid, Brenda Kirpach, Elsdon Storey, Raj C Shah, Rory S Wolfe, Andrew M Tonkin, Anne B Newman, Jeff D Williamson, Jessica E Lockery, Karen L Margolis, Michael E Ernst, Walter P Abhayaratna, Nigel Stocks, Sharyn M Fitzgerald, Ruth E Trevaks, Suzanne G Orchard, Lawrence J Beilin, Geoffrey A Donnan, Peter Gibbs, Colin I Johnston, Richard H Grimm
Background: There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Methods: Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323950/breaking-up-prolonged-sitting-alters-the-postprandial-plasma-lipidomic-profile-of-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Megan S Grace, Paddy C Dempsey, Parneet Sethi, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Natalie A Mellett, Jacquelyn M Weir, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan, Peter J Meikle, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Context: Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting, and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared to prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Design: Randomized cross-over experimental trial...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322276/identifying-fast-onset-antidepressants-using-rodent-models
#5
M J Ramaker, S C Dulawa
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317443/deterioration-of-the-anammox-process-at-decreasing-temperatures-and-long-srts
#6
Maaike Hoekstra, Florence A de Weerd, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
The implementation of autotrophic nitrogen removal in the mainstream of a municipal wastewater treatment plant is currently pursued. Among the crucial unknown factors are the kinetic properties of anaerobic ammonium oxidising (anammox) bacteria at low temperatures, as typically encountered for sewage in winter. In this study we investigated the adaptation of a fast growing anammox culture to a lower temperature. In a membrane bioreactor a highly enriched anammox community was obtained at 30, 25 and 20°C. The culture grew as free cells and small flocs (50 -150µm)...
March 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300407/dynamic-succession-of-groundwater-sulfate-reducing-communities-during-prolonged-reduction-of-uranium-in-a-contaminated-aquifer
#7
Ping Zhang, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Liyou Wu, Qichao Tu, Jianjun Wang, Christopher W Schadt, Matthew W Fields, Terry C Hazen, Adam P Arkin, David A Stahl, Jizhong Zhou
To further understand the diversity and dynamics of SRB in response to substrate amendment, we sequenced genes coding for the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) in groundwater samples collected after an emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) amendment, which sustained U(VI)-reducing conditions for one year in a fast-flowing aquifer. EVO amendment significantly altered the composition of groundwater SRB communities. Sequences having no closely related-described species dominated (80%) the indigenous SRB communities in nonamended wells...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294172/effects-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-on-glycaemic-control-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
A W Ashor, A D Werner, J Lara, N D Willis, J C Mathers, M Siervo
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have observed contrasting results on the effects of vitamin C on circulating biomarkers of glycaemic and insulin regulation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs testing the effect of vitamin C administration on glucose, HbA1c and insulin concentrations. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were used to retrieve RCTs published from inception until April 2016 and testing the effects of vitamin C in adult participants. The screening of 2008 articles yielded 22 eligible studies (937 participants)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#9
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292736/increased-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#10
Deepti Dubey, Paulette A McRae, Elyse K Rankin-Gee, Esther Baranov, Luke Wandrey, Stephanie Rogers, Brenda E Porter
Increased neuronal plasticity and neuronal cell loss has been implicated in the development of epilepsy following injury. Parvalbumin fast spiking inhibitory interneurons have a robust extracellular matrix coating their cell bodies and the proximal dendrites called the perineuronal net (PNN). The role of the PNN is not clear but it has been implicated in closing of the critical period, altering seizure thresholds and providing neuronal protection from oxidative stress. The PNN is susceptible to degradation following a prolonged seizure and there is an increase in proteolytic-fragments of the PNN enriched proteoglycan aggrecan (Dzwonek et al...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291379/characterization-of-vdasp-f2-secretory-factor-from-verticillium-dahliae-by-a-fast-and-easy-gene-knockout-system
#11
Chengjian Xie, Qiaoling Li, Xingyong Yang
The vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae produces persistent resting structures known as microsclerotia, which enable long-term survival of this plant pathogen in soil. The completed genome sequence of V. dahliae has facilitated large-scale investigations of individual gene functions using gene-disruption strategies based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). However, the construction of gene-deletion vectors and screening of deletion mutants have remained challenging in V. dahliae...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291369/ultrashort-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-insert-into-pulmonary-surfactant-monolayer-via-self-rotating-poration-and-mechanical-inhibition
#12
Tongtao Yue, Yan Xu, Shixin Li, Zhen Luo, Xianren Zhang, Fang Huang
It has been widely accepted that longer single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit higher toxicity by causing severe pneumonia once inhaled, yet relatively little is known regarding the potential toxicity of ultrashort SWCNTs, which are of central importance to their development as suitable vehicles for biomedical applications. Here, by combining coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD), pulling simulations, and scaling analysis, we demonstrate that the inhalation toxicity of ultrashort SWCNTs (1.5 nm < l < 5...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288895/nanocapsules-of-therapeutic-proteins-with-enhanced-stability-and-long-blood-circulation-for-hyperuricemia-management
#13
Xiaopei Zhang, Duo Xu, Xin Jin, Gan Liu, Sheng Liang, Hui Wang, Wei Chen, Xinyuan Zhu, Yunfeng Lu
Among a broad spectrum of medical treatments, protein therapeutics holds tremendous opportunities for the treatment of metabolic disorders, cancer, autoimmune diseases and etc. Broad adaption of protein therapeutics, however, still remain challenging, not only because of poor protein stability, but they also experience fast clearance after administrated and elicit immune responses, resulting in undesirable biodistribution and short blood residence time. In this study, we demonstrate a novel protein delivery method via encapsulating therapeutic proteins within thin shells of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which leads to significantly improved protein stability, reduced macrophage uptake, prolonged circulation time and reduced immunogenicity...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287553/intracarotid-cancer-cell-injection-to-produce-mouse-models-of-brain-metastasis
#14
Chenyu Zhang, Frank J Lowery, Dihua Yu
Metastasis, the spread and growth of malignant cells at secondary sites within a patient's body, accounts for > 90% of cancer-related mortality. Recently, impressive advances in novel therapies have dramatically prolonged survival and improved quality of life for many cancer patients. Sadly, incidence of brain metastatic recurrences is fast rising, and all current therapies are merely palliative. Hence, good experimental animal models are urgently needed to facilitate in-depth studies of the disease biology and to assess novel therapeutic regimens for preclinical evaluation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285643/energy-metabolism-differs-between-sleep-stages-and-begins-to-increase-prior-to-awakening
#15
Momoko Kayaba, Insung Park, Kaito Iwayama, Yumi Seya, Hitomi Ogata, Katsuhiko Yajima, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Tokuyama
PURPOSE: Human sleep is generally consolidated into a single prolonged period, and its metabolic consequence is to impose an extended period of fasting. Changes in sleep stage and homeostatic sleep drive following sleep onset may affect sleeping metabolic rate through cross talk between the mechanisms controlling energy metabolism and sleep. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of sleep stage and time after sleep onset on sleeping metabolic rate. METHODS: The sleeping metabolic rate of 29 healthy adults was measured using whole room indirect calorimetry, during which polysomnographic recording of sleep was performed...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282618/integrating-multiple-stressors-across-life-stages-and-latitudes-combined-and-delayed-effects-of-an-egg-heat-wave-and-larval-pesticide-exposure-in-a-damselfly
#16
Szymon Sniegula, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses...
March 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#17
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time-trial (TT) endurance performance by ~3,5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT-performance. METHODS: In 30 °C and 30% relative humidity, ten endurance-trained male athletes (Age: 22 ± 3 y; Wmax: 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
March 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282264/autophagy-up-and-down-by-outsmarting-the-incredible-ulk
#18
Francesca Nazio, Francesco Cecconi
Macroautophagy/autophagy initiation is finely regulated by post-translational modifications of key proteins, to comply with the fast kinetics of the cellular response to several stress stimuli. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination play a central role in controlling autophagy by influencing the activity, recruitment and turnover of autophagic components. Recently, we found that, upon autophagy progression, ULK1 kinase is specifically ubiquitinated by the E3 ligase NEDD4L and then degraded via the proteasome. However, during prolonged autophagy, while the ULK1 protein undergoes this inhibition, ULK1 mRNA is actively transcribed, translated and then inhibited again by MTOR-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation...
February 15, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273516/2-d-clinorotation-alters-the-uptake-of-some-nutrients-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Ellen Polinski, Oliver Schueler, Lars Krause, Monika A Wimmer, Ruth Hemmersbach, Heiner E Goldbach
Future long-term spaceflight missions rely on bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) in order to provide the required resources for crew survival. Higher plants provide an essential part since they supply food and oxygen and recycle carbon dioxide. There are indications that under space conditions plants might be inefficient regarding the uptake, transport and distribution of nutrients, which in turn affects growth and metabolism. Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seeds were germinated and grown for five days under fast clinorotation (2-D clinostat, 60rpm) in order to simulate microgravity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273224/emergency-cricothyrotomy-temporary-measure-or-definitive-airway-a-systematic-review
#20
Marina Barguil Macêdo, Ruggeri Bezerra Guimarães, Sahâmia Martins Ribeiro, Kátia Maria Marabuco DE Sousa
Being a fast and safe method in the hands of well trained professionals in both prehospital and intrahospital care, Cricothyrotomy has been broadly recommended as the initial surgical airway in the scenario "can't intubate, can't ventilate", and is particularly useful when the obstruction level is above or at the glottis. Its prolonged permanence, however, is an endless source of controversy. In this review we evaluate the complications of cricothyrotomy and the need of its routine conversion to tracheotomy through a search on PubMed, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases with no restriction to the year or language of the publication...
December 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
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