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Prolonged fasting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792911/prolonged-drug-release-properties-for-orodispersible-films-by-combining-hot-melt-extrusion-and-solvent-casting-methods
#1
Isabell Speer, Maren Preis, Jörg Breitkreutz
Orodispersible films (ODFs) are an advantageous dosage form to accomplish patient convenience and compliance in oral drug delivery. They provide a number of special application features, such as the ease of administration without water and suitability for patients with swallowing problems. However, this promising dosage form has been limited to immediate release formulations so far. The aim of this study was to develop a thin film produced by solvent casting, which is rapidly disintegrating when placed in the mouth, but which provides prolonged drug release characteristics by incorporating drug-loaded matrix particles (MPs)...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761850/unexpected-regulation-pattern-of-the-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-murf1-pathway-with-remarkable-muscle-plasticity-in-the-daurian-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#2
Yanhong Wei, Lingchen Gong, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Zhe Wang, Jie Zhang, Er Ning, Hui Chang, Huiping Wang, Yunfang Gao
As a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) spends considerable time in a state of reduced activity with prolonged fasting. Despite this, they experience little muscle atrophy and have thus become an interesting anti-disuse muscle atrophy model. The IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway is significant to muscle atrophy due to the protein degradation resulting from the upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. The current study showed that the IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway and MuRF1 maintained relatively steady mRNA and protein expression levels, with little muscle atrophy observed in the soleus (slow-twitch, SOL) or extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch, EDL) during hibernation (HIB); however, mRNA expression significantly increased in the SOL and EDL muscle during interbout arousal (IBA), as did the MuRF1 mRNA level in the SOL and MuRF1 protein level in the EDL...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753153/efficient-derivatization-of-methylphosphonic-and-aminoethylsulfonic-acids-related-to-nerve-agents-simultaneously-in-soils-using-trimethyloxonium-tetrafluoroborate-for-their-enhanced-qualitative-detection-and-identification-by-ei-gc-ms-and-gc-fpd
#3
Carlos A Valdez, Mira K Marchioretto, Roald N Leif, Saphon Hok
Trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4 ) has been used in the simultaneous derivatization of phosphonic and 2-aminoethylsulfonic acids related to nerve agents in different soils for their enhanced detection and identification by electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GC-MS). The panel of acids consisted of five Schedule 2 phosphonic acids (methyl methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid) along with two sulfonic acids, N,N-diethyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropyl-2-aminoethylsulfonic acid...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750726/slc22a5-mutations-in-a-patient-with-systemic-primary-carnitine-deficiency-and-cleft-palate-successful-perioperative-management
#4
Ching-Wei Hu, Ching-Hsuan Hu, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Lun-Jou Lo
BACKGROUND: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by SLC22A5 gene mutation resulting in defective cellular carnitine transporter organic cation transporter 2. Defective carnitine transporter causes renal carnitine wasting and low serum carnitine. Carnitine is an essential cofactor for the transportation of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. Lacking of carnitine may cause metabolic decompensation and sudden death when the patient is exposed to prolonged fasting before an operation...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745135/-impacts-of-warming-and-nitrogen-addition-on-organic-fraction-release-in-fresh-litter-of-larix-potaninii-in-alpine-zone-of-the-western-sichuan-province-china
#5
Yue Xi Chen, Bei Chen, Hui Sun, Li Hong Ma, Dan Jie Shen, Yan Yang Liu
The decomposition dynamics of organic components in fresh litter of Larix potaninii were monitored by in situ litter-bag incubation under four treatments, i.e., field condition (CK), nitrogen addition (AN, 2 g N·m-2 ), warming by top-open chamber (OTC), nitrogen addition with warming by top-open chamber (OTC+AN), from November to next September. Decomposition of water-soluble sugar, water-soluble phenol and total polyphenol were stimulated significantly under the treatment OTC, AN and OTC+AN during the first four months compared with the CK, but the difference of these components release narrowed with the extension of incubation time...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737429/properties-of-calcium-silicate-monobasic-calcium-phosphate-materials-for-endodontics-containing-tantalum-pentoxide-and-zirconium-oxide
#6
Fausto Zamparini, Francesco Siboni, Carlo Prati, Paola Taddei, Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH4 P2 O8 ) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735448/-long-term-high-fat-diet-inhibits-hippocampal-expression-of-insulin-receptor-substrates-and-accelerates-cognitive-deterioration-in-obese-rats
#7
Dong-Hua Hu, Ya-Lan Li, Zhao-Jia Liang, Zhao Zhong, Jie-Ke Tang, Jing Liao, He Tian, Gao-Ming She, Yu Liu, Hui-Jie Xing
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of long-term high-fat diet on the expressions of insulin receptor substrates in the hippocampus and spatial learning and memory ability of obese rats. METHODS: A total of 100 4-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed with common diet (CD group, n=40) or high-fat diet (HFD group, n=60) for 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks, 8 rats were randomly selected from each group for testing their spatial learning and memory function using Morris water maze...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735436/-nicorandil-improves-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice-with-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes
#8
Wen-Hui Yan, Chun-Xi Zhang, Tong Xing, Xue Gong, Yu-Xuan Yang, Yi-Nuo Li, Xuan Liu, Jiamaliding Ayijiang, Ye Yu, Meng Zhang, Li-Na Chen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effects of potassium channel opener nicorandil against cognitive dysfunction in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. METHODS: C57BL/6J mouse models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) were established by intraperitoneal injection of STZ and received daily treatment with intragastric administration of nicorandil or saline (model group) for 4 consecutive weeks, with normal C57BL/6J mice serving as control. Fasting blood glucose level was recorded every week and Morris water maze was used to evaluate the cognitive behavior of the mice in the 4th week...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731937/carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-deficiency-cpt-ii-followed-by-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Nikola Gjorgjievski, Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Zvezdana Petronijevic, Gjulsen Selim, Petar Dejanov, Liljana Tozija, Aleksandar Sikole
BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, characterised by attacks of myalgia and myoglobinuria. The most common "classic" myopathic form occurs in young adults and is characterised by recurrent episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by prolonged exercise, fasting or febrile illness. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 22-year-old Caucasian male admitted to our hospital with fever, dyspnea, fatigue, myalgia and dark urine (brown-coloured)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725026/motion-induced-compression-of-perceived-numerosity
#10
Michele Fornaciai, Irene Togoli, Roberto Arrighi
It has been recently proposed that space, time, and number might share a common representation in the brain. Evidence supporting this idea comes from adaptation studies demonstrating that prolonged exposure to a given stimulus feature distorts the perception of different characteristics. For example, visual motion adaptation affects both perceived position and duration of subsequent stimuli presented in the adapted location. Here, we tested whether motion adaptation also affects perceived numerosity, by testing the effect of adaptation to translating or rotating stimuli moving either at high (20 Hz) or low (5 Hz) speed...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724797/stoichiometry-of-the-heteromeric-nicotinic-receptors-of-the-renshaw-cell
#11
Boris Lamotte d'Incamps, Tamara Zorbaz, Dominika Dingova, Eric Krejci, Philippe Ascher
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentamers built from a variety of subunits. Some are homomeric assemblies of α subunits, others heteromeric assemblies of α and β subunits which can adopt two stoichiometries (2α:3β or 3α:2β). There is evidence for the presence of heteromeric nAChRs with the two stoichiometries in the CNS, but it has not yet been possible to identify them at a given synapse. The 2α:3β receptors are highly sensitive to agonists, whereas the 3α:2β stoichiometric variants, initially described as low sensitivity receptors, are in fact activated by low and high concentrations of ACh...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718154/early-extubation-is-associated-with-improved-early-outcome-after-extracardiac-total-cavopulmonary-connection-independently-of-duration-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#12
Stanislav Ovroutski, Peter Kramer, Sarah Nordmeyer, Mi-Young Cho, Matthias Redlin, Oliver Miera, Joachim Photiadis, Felix Berger
OBJECTIVES: Strict patient selection, short cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and short mechanical ventilation are well-recognized aspects of optimizing the postoperative course after total cavopulmonary connection. In this study, we evaluated the influence of our early postoperative extubation strategy in our population of Fontan patients over the past 2 decades. METHODS: Early postoperative course was evaluated retrospectively in 211 consecutive patients, who were selected for total cavopulmonary connection in our institution between 1995 and 2015...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715186/glucometabolic-effects-of-single-and-repeated-exposure-to-forced-swimming-stressor-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Bolanle Olubusola Iranloye, Oluseyi Abimbola Ogunsola
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effects of a single (acute) and repeated (chronic) exposure to forced-swimming stressor on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and glycogen content in male rats. METHODS: Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: control group, single exposure (SE) to forced-swim stressor, repeated exposure to forced-swim stressor for 7 days (RE7), 14 days (RE14) and 28 days (RE28)...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712667/restructuring-of-the-gut-microbiome-by-intermittent-fasting-prevents-retinopathy-and-prolongs-survival-in-db-db-mice
#14
Eleni Beli, Yuanqing Yan, Leni Moldovan, Cristiano P Vieira, Ruli Gao, Yaqian Duan, Ram Prasad, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Fletcher A White, Steven Townsend, Luisa Chan, Caitlin N Ryan, Daniel Morton, Emil G Moldovan, Fang-I Chu, Gavin Y Oudit, Hartmut Derendorf, Luciano Adorini, Xiaoxin X Wang, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Michael E Boulton, Mervin C Yoder, Qiuhong Li, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Intermittent fasting (IF) protects against the development of metabolic diseases and cancer, but whether it can prevent diabetic microvascular complications is not known. In db/db mice, we examined the impact of long-term IF on diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite no change in glycated hemoglobin, db/db mice on the IF regimen displayed significantly longer survival and a reduction in DR endpoints, including acellular capillaries and leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesized that IF mediated changes in the gut microbiota would produce beneficial metabolites and prevent the development of DR...
April 30, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705961/development-of-a-versatile-high-temperature-short-time-htst-pasteurization-device-for-small-scale-processing-of-cell-culture-medium-formulations
#15
Patrick Floris, Sean Curtin, Christian Kaisermayer, Anna Lindeberg, Jonathan Bones
The compatibility of CHO cell culture medium formulations with all stages of the bioprocess must be evaluated through small-scale studies prior to scale-up for commercial manufacturing operations. Here, we describe the development of a bespoke small-scale device for assessing the compatibility of culture media with a widely implemented upstream viral clearance strategy, high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment. The thermal stability of undefined medium formulations supplemented with soy hydrolysates was evaluated upon variations in critical HTST processing parameters, namely, holding times and temperatures...
April 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703329/formulation-development-and-evaluation-of-gastroretentive-floating-beads-with-brucea-javanica-oil-using-ionotropic-gelation-technology
#16
Yue Zhang, Xi-Tong Zhang, Qi Zhang, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang
In the present study, a gastric retention floating system for Brucea javanica oil, composed of alginate and carrageenan, was prepared using ionotropic gelation. Parameters for floatability, drug load, encapsulation efficiency, bead morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo gastric retention were evaluated. The optimized formulation via Box-Behnken design consisted of 1.7% alginate (W/V), 1.02% carrageenan (W/V), 1.4% CaCO3 (W/V), and a gelling bath of pH 0.8. The alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil beads had a porous structure and exhibited up to 24 h of in vitro floatability with a load capacity of 45%-55% and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%-80%...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700894/consensus-statement-on-clear-fluids-fasting-for-elective-pediatirc-general-anesthesia
#17
Mark Thomas, Christa Morrison, Richard Newton, Ehrenfried Schindler
Pediatric anesthetic guidelines for the management of preoperative fasting of clear fluids are currently 2 hours. The traditional 2 hours clear fluid fasting time was recommended to decrease the risk of pulmonary aspiration and is not in keeping with current literature. It appears that a liberalized clear fluid fasting regime does not affect the incidence of pulmonary aspiration and in those who do aspirate, the sequelae are not usually severe or long-lasting. With a 2-hour clear fasting policy, the literature suggests that this translates into 6-7 hours actual duration of fasting with several studies up to 15 hours...
April 27, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686737/chikungunya-and-diabetes-what-do-we-know
#18
REVIEW
Francisca Kalline de Almeida Barreto, Renan Magalhães Montenegro, Virginia Oliveira Fernandes, Rhaquel Oliveira, Lívia Aline de Araújo Batista, Akhtar Hussain, Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti
Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. The first cases in Brazil were confirmed in 2014. Between 2016 and 2017, over 300,000 cases were identified during this period, with nearly 300 deaths. The clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and risk factors for occurrence of severe cases are not yet well understood, although it is known that the severity of the cases is associated with the presence of comorbidities, especially diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: To review the medical literature for the associations between DM and CHIK and to understand the potential impact on metabolic state and its complications...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682594/the-role-of-leptin-in-maintaining-plasma-glucose-during-starvation
#19
Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman
For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia...
March 2018: Postdoc Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674246/a-microrna-expression-signature-of-the-postprandial-state-in-response-to-a-high-saturated-fat-challenge
#20
Sergio Lopez, Beatriz Bermudez, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana
The postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important and largely silent disturbance involved in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. Exaggerated and prolonged states of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are frequently related to the ingestion of meals enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that function as gene regulators and play significant roles in both health and disease. However, differential miRNA expression between fasting and postprandial states has never been elucidated...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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