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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330973/neurokinin-b-regulates-reproduction-via-inhibition-of-kisspeptin-in-a-teleost-the-striped-bass
#1
Nilli Zmora, Ten Tsao Wong, John David Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yonathan Zohar
Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (stb), and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently down-regulated kiss2, while antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328155/does-dynorphin-play-a-role-in-the-onset-of-puberty-in-female-sheep
#2
J A Lopez, M N Bedenbaugh, R B McCosh, P W Weems, L J Meadows, B Wisman, L M Coolen, R L Goodman, S M Hileman
Puberty onset involves increased gonadotrophin-release (GnRH) release as a result of decreased sensitivity to oestrogen (E2 )-negative feedback. Because GnRH neurones lack E2 receptor α, this pathway must contain interneurones. One likely candidate is KNDy neurones (kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin). The overarching hypothesis of the present study was that the prepubertal hiatus in luteinising hormone (LH) release involves reduced kisspeptin and/or heightened dynorphin input. We first tested the specific hypothesis that E2 would reduce kisspeptin-immunopositive cell numbers and increase dynorphin-immunopositive cell numbers...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324048/demonstration-of-a-functional-kiss-kissr-system-in-amphioxus-with-implications-for-origin-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#3
Peng Wang, Meng Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shuangshuang Yang, Shicui Zhang, Zhenhui Liu
Amphioxus belongs to the Cephalochordata, which is the most basal subphylum of the chordates. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, key information about its regulation remains ambiguous. Here we clearly demonstrated the presence of a functional kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (Kiss-Kissr) system, which is involved in the regulation of reproduction in amphioxus. Evolutionary analyses revealed large expansion of Kiss and Kissr (gpr54) genes in amphioxus and they might represent the ancestral type of the Kiss/gpr54 genes in chordates...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324015/paternally-inherited-dlk1-deletion-associated-with-familial-central-precocious-puberty
#4
Andrew Dauber, Marina Cunha-Silva, Delanie B Macedo, Vinicius N Brito, Ana Paula Abreu, Stephanie A Roberts, Luciana R Montenegro, Melissa Andrew, Andrew Kirby, Matthew T Weirauch, Guillaume Labilloy, Danielle S Bessa, Rona S Carroll, Dakota C Jacobs, Patrick E Chappell, Berenice B Mendonca, David Haig, Ursula B Kaiser, Ana Claudia Latronico
Context: Central precocious puberty (CPP) results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Few genetic causes of CPP have been identified with the most common being mutations in the paternally expressed imprinted gene MKRN3. Objective: To identify the genetic etiology of CPP in a large multigenerational family. Design: Linkage analysis followed by whole genome sequencing was performed in a family with 5 female members with nonsyndromic CPP...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324006/effects-of-season-and-estradiol-on-kndy-neuron-peptides-colocalization-with-d2-dopamine-receptors-and-dopaminergic-inputs-in-the-ewe
#5
Peyton Weems, Jeremy Smith, Iain J Clarke, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman, Michael N Lehman
Seasonal reproduction in sheep is primarily due to a dramatic increase in the ability of estradiol (E2) to inhibit the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during the non-breeding season (anestrus). Recent findings suggest that KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in conveying this negative feedback influence, with dopaminergic projections from the retrochiasmatic area acting upon KNDy cells to decrease kisspeptin release and thus inhibit GnRH pulses...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323958/jmjd3-is-crucial-for-female-avpv-rip-cre-neuron-controlled-kisspeptin-estrogen-feedback-loop-and-reproductive-function
#6
Anying Song, Shujun Jiang, Qinghua Wang, Jianghuan Zou, Zhaoyu Lin, Xiang Gao
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. While most studies were focusing on the hierarch from brain to gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from gonad to the central nervous system, especially on the potential epigenetic modification in hypothalamic neurons. In this report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase JMJD3 in hypothalamic RIP-Cre neurons. The female mutant mice display late-onset obesity due to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure...
March 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295274/kisspeptin-innervation-of-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-sexual-dimorphism-and-effect-of-estrous-cycle-in-female-mice
#7
Marilena Marraudino, Dèsirèe Miceli, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the major autonomic output area of the hypothalamus and a critical regulatory center for energy homeostasis. The organism's energetic balance is very important for both the regular onset of puberty and regulation of fertility. Several studies have suggested a relationship among neural circuits controlling food intake, energy homeostasis and the kisspeptin peptide. The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies [the anterior ventral periventricular region (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC)] projecting mainly to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and to a few other locations, including the PVN...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288899/kisspeptin-10-treatment-generated-specific-gnrh-expression-in-cells-differentiated-from-rhesus-monkey-derived-lyon-nscs
#8
Tanzeel Huma, Xintian Hu, Yuanye Ma, Andrew Willden, Joshua Rizak, Muhammad Shahab, Zhengbo Wang
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have enormous potential as novel cell-based therapies, but their effectiveness depends on stem cell differentiation and specific signaling regulators, which remain poorly understood. In this study, a kisspeptin peptide (KP-10) was used at different dosages to determine whether rhesus macaque derived tau GFP-Lyon ES cells underwent kisspeptin specific neuronal differentiation. It was found that KP-10 exhibited an anti-proliferative effect on the cells and led to morphological changes and cellular differentiation consistent with neuronal stem cell (NSC) development...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288815/rf313-an-orally-bioavailable-neuropeptide-ff-receptor-antagonist-opposes-effects-of-rf-amide-related-peptide-3-and-opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-in-rodents
#9
Khadija Elhabazi, Jean-Paul Humbert, Isabelle Bertin, Raphaelle Quillet, Valérie Utard, Martine Schmitt, Jean-Jacques Bourguignon, Emilie Laboureyras, Meric Ben Boujema, Guy Simonnet, Caroline Ancel, Valérie Simonneaux, Massimiliano Beltramo, Bernard Bucher, Tania Sorg, Hamid Meziane, Elodie Schneider, Benoit Petit-Demoulière, Brigitte Ilien, Frédéric Bihel, Frédéric Simonin
Although opiates represent the most effective analgesics, their use in chronic treatments is associated with numerous side effects including the development of pain hypersensitivity and analgesic tolerance. We recently identified a novel orally active neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor antagonist, RF313, which efficiently prevents the development of fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in rats. In this study, we investigated the properties of this compound into more details. We show that RF313 exhibited a pronounced selectivity for NPFF receptors, antagonist activity at NPFF1 receptor (NPFF1R) subtype both in vitro and in vivo and no major side effects when administered in mice up to 30 mg/kg...
March 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279673/social-rank-dependent-expression-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormones-and-kisspeptin-in-the-medaka-brain
#10
Nao Kagawa, Sayuri Hirose, Keiko Fujimoto, Chihomi Nomura, Yuuma Fujita, Akira Honda, Mai Komori
Social interactions regulate the expression of several neuropeptides that have a central role in the reproductive system of mammals. Nonmammalian vertebrates also have these neuropeptides or paralogs, however, studies on the social regulation of reproductive physiology in nonmammalian species are limited. In this study, we examined whether the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) is affected by social hierarchy resulting from the outcomes of male-male competition in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes)...
March 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278530/developmental-origins-of-hypothalamic-cells-controlling-reproduction
#11
Matthew Joseph Biehl, Lori Therese Raetzman
The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the most critical modulator of reproductive function. Genetic or environmental insults to the HPG axis during developmental windows can persist into adulthood, and processes such as gonadal hormone synthesis, timing of puberty, and fertility can be affected. At the level of the hypothalamus, multiple regions develop at different times and are under the control of a concert of signaling pathways and transcription factors required for their patterning and maturation...
March 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266227/kisspeptin-a-new-marker-for-human-pre-ovulation
#12
Junyu Zhai, Lingling Ding, Shigang Zhao, Weiping Li, Yinhua Sun, Shizhen Su, Jiangtao Zhang, Han Zhao, Zi-Jiang Chen
Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in reproductive endocrine regulation. The aim of present study was to investigate the dynamic trend of kisspeptin levels during the menstrual cycle and to elucidate the relationship between kisspeptin ovulation. First, 15 female volunteers with regular menstrual cycles were recruited to detect the change in serum and urine kisspeptin levels over one menstrual cycle within each individual. Subsequently, 114 serum samples and 79 urine samples from 114 individuals were randomly collected at the outpatient department to better ascertain the results...
March 7, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251550/the-mystery-of-puberty-initiation-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-icpp
#13
REVIEW
Sofia Leka-Emiri, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235895/spike-and-neuropeptide-dependent-mechanisms-control-gnrh-neuron-nerve-terminal-ca-2-over-diverse-time-scales
#14
Karl J Iremonger, Robert Porteous, Allan E Herbison
Fast cell-to-cell communication in the brain is achieved by action potential-dependent synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The fast kinetics of transmitter release are determined by transient Ca(2+) elevations in presynaptic nerve terminals. Neuromodulators have previously been shown to regulate transmitter release by inhibiting presynaptic Ca(2+) influx. Few studies to date have demonstrated the opposite, that is, neuromodulators directly driving presynaptic Ca(2+) rises and increases in nerve terminal excitability...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215489/the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-subtypes-for-induction-of-delayed-effects-on-the-estrous-cycle-and-female-reproductive-organs-in-rats
#15
Miwa Takahashi, Ryohei Ichimura, Kaoru Inoue, Tomomi Morikawa, Kazunori Kuwata, Gen Watanabe, Midori Yoshida
It has been reported that neonatal exposure to estrogens at relatively low doses can induce early onset anovulation as a delayed effect in female rats. Dysfunction of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) was proposed to be a trigger for this effect. To determine the roles of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in the induction of delayed effects, we conducted a series of experiments using Donryu rats to examine whether neonatal injection of an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or an ERα antagonist (ICI) could induce delayed effects...
February 16, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209974/rabconnectin-3%C3%AE-is-required-for-the-morphological-maturation-of-gnrh-neurons-and-kisspeptin-responsiveness
#16
Brooke K Tata, Carole Harbulot, Zsolt Csaba, Stéphane Peineau, Sandrine Jacquier, Nicolas de Roux
A few hundred hypothalamic neurons form a complex network that controls reproduction in mammals by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Timely postnatal changes in GnRH secretion are essential for pubertal onset. During the juvenile period, GnRH neurons undergo morphological remodeling, concomitantly achieving an increased responsiveness to kisspeptin, the main secretagogue of GnRH. However, the link between GnRH neuron activity and their morphology remains unknown. Here, we show that brain expression levels of Dmxl2, which encodes the vesicular protein rabconnectin-3α, determine the capacity of GnRH neurons to be activated by kisspeptin and estradiol...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207895/the-metastasis-suppressor-kiss1-is-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein-slightly-more-extended-than-a-random-coil
#17
Alain Ibáñez de Opakua, Nekane Merino, Maider Villate, Tiago N Cordeiro, Georgina Ormaza, Marta Sánchez-Carbayo, Tammo Diercks, Pau Bernadó, Francisco J Blanco
The metastasis suppressor KISS1 is reported to be involved in the progression of several solid neoplasias, making it a promising molecular target for controlling their metastasis. The KISS1 sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal and several dibasic sequences that are proposed to be the proteolytic cleavage sites. We present the first structural characterization of KISS1 by circular dichroism, multi-angle light scattering, small angle X-Ray scattering and NMR spectroscopy. An analysis of the KISS1 backbone NMR chemical shifts does not reveal any preferential conformation and deviation from a random coil ensemble...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199332/photoperiod-regulate-gonad-development-via-kisspeptin-kissr-in-hypothalamus-and-saccus-vasculosus-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#18
Liang Chi, Xian Li, Qinghua Liu, Ying Liu
Atlantic salmon exhibit seasonal reproduction. However, the mechanisms governing this are still unclear. Generally speaking, kisspeptin has been recognized as a regulator of reproduction. Here, we report a relationship between kisspeptin, GnRH and photoperiod in Atlantic salmon. The results demonstrated that the expression of the Atlantic salmon kisspeptin-receptor (skissr) was not always consistent with the expression pattern of Atlantic salmon GnRH3 (sGnRH3) during all developmental processes. Kisspeptin may exert its influence primarily in the early and later stages of gonad development by promoting the secretion of sGnRH3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196880/agrp-to-kiss1-neuron-signaling-links-nutritional-state-and-fertility
#19
Stephanie L Padilla, Jian Qiu, Casey C Nestor, Chunguang Zhang, Arik W Smith, Benjamin B Whiddon, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly, Richard D Palmiter
Mammalian reproductive function depends upon a neuroendocrine circuit that evokes the pulsatile release of gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) from the pituitary. This reproductive circuit is sensitive to metabolic perturbations. When challenged with starvation, insufficient energy reserves attenuate gonadotropin release, leading to infertility. The reproductive neuroendocrine circuit is well established, composed of two populations of kisspeptin-expressing neurons (located in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamus, Kiss1(AVPV), and arcuate hypothalamus, Kiss1(ARH)), which drive the pulsatile activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194651/kisspeptin-10-inhibits-proliferation-and-regulates-lipolysis-and-lipogenesis-processes-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-isolated-rat-adipocytes
#20
Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Joanna H Sliwowska
INTRODUCTION: Kisspeptin, which is encoded by the KISS1 gene and acts via GPR54, plays a role in the regulation of reproductive functions. Expression of KISS1 and GRPR54 has been found in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, and was shown to be influenced by metabolic status. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that kisspeptin could be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line and in isolated rat adipocytes. METHODS: First, we characterized expression profiles of KISS1 and GPR54 mRNA and proteins in adipose cells isolated from male rats...
February 13, 2017: Endocrine
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