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X L Wang, J Wang, D L Mu, D X Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine adding to ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve block on the improvement of postoperative sleep quality in elderly patients after total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 60 years or older in Jishuitan Hospital scheduled for single total knee arthroplasty between Nov. 2016 and Jun. 2017 were recruited. All patients received spinal anesthesia and were randomized to receive either combined ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Y H Ma, J Wu, B Jia, J X Xue, T L Wang
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided continuous fascia iliaca compartment block combined with oral analgesics for pre-operative pain control in elderly patients with hip fracture. Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with hip fractures in Xuan Wu Hospital of Capital Medical University during Dec. 2015 to Dec. 2016 were included. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: control group (group C) (receiving the traditional analgesia: tramadol 50 mg and paracetamol 500 mg tid, po from admission to surgery), study group (group S) (receiving ultrasound-guided continuous fascia iliaca compartment block combined with oral analgesics for pre-operative pain control from admission to surgery)...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Benjamin L Ricca, Gautham Venugopalan, Saori Furuta, Kandice Tanner, Walter A Orellana, Clay D Reber, Douglas G Brownfield, Mina J Bissell, Daniel A Fletcher
Non-malignant breast epithelial cells cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form well organized, growth-arrested acini, whereas malignant cells form continuously growing disorganized structures. While the mechanical properties of the microenvironment have been shown to contribute to formation of tissue-specific architecture, how transient external force influences this behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that brief transient compression applied to single malignant breast cells in lrECM stimulated them to form acinar-like structures, a phenomenon we term 'mechanical reversion...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Jessica Alber, Kelly McGarry, Richard B Noto, Peter J Snyder
Background: Recent genome-wide association screening (GWAS) studies have linked Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology to gene networks that regulate immune function. Kan et al. recently reported that Arg1 (an anti-inflammatory gene that codes for arginase-1) is expressed in parts of the brain associated with amyloidosis prior to the onset of neuronal loss, suggesting that chronic brain arginine deprivation promotes AD-related neuropathology. They blocked arginine catabolism in their mouse AD model by administration of eflornithine (DFMO) to juvenile animals, effectively blocking the expression of AD-related amyloid pathology as the mice aged...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Basel Arafat, Magdalena Wojsz, Abdullah Isreb, Robert T Forbes, Mohammad Isreb, Waqar Ahmed, Tawfiq Arafat, Mohamed A Alhnan
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing has shown the most immediate potential for on-demand dose personalisation to suit particular patient's needs. However, FDM 3D printing often involves employing a relatively large molecular weight thermoplastic polymer and results in extended release pattern. It is therefore essential to fast-track drug release from the 3D printed objects. This work employed an innovative design approach of tablets with unique built-in gaps (Gaplets) with the aim of accelerating drug release...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
M D Edmonds, A F Vatta, A A Marchiondo, H B Vanimisetti, J D Edmonds
In 2013, a 118-day study was initiated to investigate the efficacy of concurrent treatment at pasture turnout with an injectable macrocyclic lactone with activity up to 28 days and an oral benzimidazole, referred to as "conventional" anthelmintics, when compared to treatment with conventional macrocyclic lactone alone or an injectable macrocyclic lactone with extended activity of 100 days or longer. A group of 210 steers were obtained from a ranch in California and transported to Idaho, USA. A total of 176 steers with the highest fecal egg counts were blocked by pre-treatment body weights and pasture location...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ann C Eriksen, Johnnie B Andersen, Jan Lindebjerg, René dePont Christensen, Torben F Hansen, Sanne Kjær-Frifeldt, Flemming B Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Tumour budding (TB) and Tumour Stroma Ratio (TSR) may be rewarding in the treatment stratification of patients with stage II colon cancer. However, lack of standardization may exclude these parameters from being used in a clinical setting. The purpose of this methodologic study was to compare stereology with semi-quantitative estimations of TSR, to investigate the intra-tumoural heterogeneity of TB and TSR, and to assess the intra- and inter-observer agreement. METHODS: Three paraffin embedded tumour blocks, one of them representing the deepest invasive front, were selected from each of 43 patients treated for stage II colon cancer...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Jing Li, Shuwen Xue, Chunqiu He, Huixia Qi, Fulin Chen, Yanling Ma
Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1 strain and Bacillus subtilis QHQ110 strain were chosen as rhamnolipid and lipopeptide producer respectively, to evaluate the efficiency of exogenous inoculants on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) and to explore the relationship between injected bacteria and indigenous bacterial community dynamics in long-term filed pilot of Hujianshan low permeability water-flooded reservoir for 26 months. Core-flooding tests showed that the oil displacement efficiency increased by 18.46% with addition of exogenous consortia...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marco Scardino, Tiziana D'Amato, Federica Martorelli, Giorgia Fenocchio, Vincenzo Simili, Berardo Di Matteo, Dario Bugada, Elizaveta Kon
BACKGROUND: Currently many TKA protocols rely on multimodal analgesic protocols with patient-controlled analgesia systems that administer opioids through a patient controlled IV infusion pump, in addition to concomitant peripheral nerve blocks and local anesthetics. Although effective, PCA IV opioids do not provide optimal results with fast track rehabilitation protocols. METHODS: The present is a retrospective study comparing the novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (SSTS) to our standard of care foreseeing continuous femoral nerve block (cFNB) within a multimodal analgesic in a TKA fast-track protocol...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Omar Viswanath, Roxanna Rasekhi, Rekhaben Suthar, Mark R Jones, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headaches encompass a broad-based category of a symptom of pain in the region of the head or neck. For those patients who unfortunately do not obtain relief from conservative treatment, interventional techniques have been developed and are continuing to be refined in an attempt to treat this subset of patients with the goal of return of daily activities. This investigation reviews various categories of headaches, their pathophysiology, and types of interventional treatments currently available...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Ruth M A Napper
The advantages of using design-based stereology in the collection of quantitative data, have been highlighted, in numerous publications, since the description of the disector method by Sterio (1984). This review article discusses the importance of total number derived with the disector method, as a key variable that must continue to be used to understand the rodent brain and that such data can be used to develop quantitative networks of the brain. The review article will highlight the huge impact total number has had on our understanding of the rodent brain and it will suggest that neuroscientists need to be aware of the increasing number of studies where density, not total number, is the quantitative measure used...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ian M Thornton, Duangkamol Srismith, Matt Oxner, William G Hayward
In two experiments we examined the performance of Asian and Caucasian participants as they were asked to estimate the ethnic composition of arrays of 16 concurrently presented faces. Across trials we systematically varied the physical proportion of Asian and Caucasian faces presented in the arrays using the method of constant stimuli. The task was to explicitly indicate which group was in the majority. The position of the 16 faces within the array were continuously shuffled using a 4 x 4 moving grid to block explicit enumeration...
March 16, 2018: Vision Research
Maria José Costa, Jyothirmayee Kudaravalli, Wen-Hui Liu, Jeffrey Stock, Sophanna Kong, Shu-Hui Liu
The development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies through mouse immunization often originates drug candidates that are not cross-reactive to the mouse ortholog. In such cases, and particularly in oncology, drug efficacy studies are performed on human tumor xenografts or with "surrogate" anti-mouse ortholog antibodies if targeting tumor host cells. Safety assessment of drug candidate(s) is performed at a later development stage in healthy non-human primates. While the latter remains necessary before a drug advances into human subjects, it precludes evaluation of safety in disease conditions and drug de-risking during early development...
2018: PloS One
Yang Wang, Xueping Kong, Wei Xu, Fengrui Jiang, Bao Li, Lixin Wu
A series of triol ligand [CH3 C(CH2 OH)3 ] covalently decorated polyoxometalates (POMs), which could be ascribed to the primary complexes with structural formulas {M2 [Mo2 O4 (CH3 C(CH2 O)3 )2 ]3 }2- (M = Cu2+ , Co2+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ ), have been synthesized in organic solvents. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that the synthesized polyanionic clusters are comprised of three {Mo2 } units and two divalent transition-metal ions connecting to each other in an alternating style, where all {Mo2 } blocks were covalently decorated by two triol ligands in the trans conformation...
March 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Zhibing Yang, Ruben Juanes
Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Miguel Marchena, Laura Ramírez, Diego García-Ayuso, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro de la Villa, Francisco Germain
Light causes damage to the retina (phototoxicity) and decreases photoreceptor responses to light. The most harmful component of visible light is the blue wavelength (400-500 nm). Different filters have been tested, but so far all of them allow passing a lot of this wavelength (70%). The aim of this work has been to prove that a filter that removes 94% of the blue component may protect the function and morphology of the retina significantly. Three experimental groups were designed. The first group was unexposed to light, the second one was exposed and the third one was exposed and protected by a blue-blocking filter...
2018: PloS One
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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