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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106200/bright-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-containing-a-biodegradable-shell-produced-at-high-yields-and-with-tuneable-optical-properties-by-a-scalable-microfluidic-device
#1
T F Abelha, T W Phillips, J H Bannock, A M Nightingale, C A Dreiss, E Kemal, L Urbano, J C deMello, M Green, L A Dailey
This study compares the performance of a microfluidic technique and a conventional bulk method to manufacture conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) embedded within a biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG5K-PLGA55K) matrix. The influence of PEG5K-PLGA55K and conjugated polymers cyano-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (CN-PPV) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) on the physicochemical properties of the CPNs was also evaluated. Both techniques enabled CPN production with high end product yields (∼70-95%)...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104015/-establishment-and-characterization-of-a-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-line
#2
R Wang, X C Bian, Y Q Liu, J G Fang, H Wang, H G Liu, M Lian, H Z Ma, L Feng, H Z Wang
Objective: To establish a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell line through primary cell culture and observe its biological characteristics. Methods: Tissue block culture method was used for primary cell culture. After LSCC cells passed 25 times in vitro, the morphology of cells was observed, keratin was stained histochemically, cell cycle was tested by PI-FACS, and the specie of cells was detected by PCR and short tandem repeat(STR) typing. Results: This newly established LSCC cell line was named as TR-LCC-1, most of the cancer cells were polygonal shape, like the cobblestone, loss of contact inhibition and with overlapping growth...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101857/fibrous-protein-structures-hierarchy-history-and-heroes
#3
John M Squire, David A D Parry
During the 1930s and 1940s the technique of X-ray diffraction was applied widely by William Astbury and his colleagues to a number of naturally-occurring fibrous materials. On the basis of the diffraction patterns obtained, he observed that the structure of each of the fibres was dominated by one of a small number of different types of molecular conformation. One group of fibres, known as the k-m-e-f group of proteins (keratin - myosin - epidermin - fibrinogen), gave rise to diffraction characteristics that became known as the α-pattern...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100562/healthcare-organisation-and-delivery-for-people-with-dementia-and-comorbidity-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-views-of-patients-carers-and-professionals
#4
Frances Bunn, Anne-Marie Burn, Louise Robinson, Marie Poole, Greta Rait, Carol Brayne, Johan Schoeman, Sam Norton, Claire Goodman
OBJECTIVES: People living with dementia (PLWD) have a high prevalence of comorbidty. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dementia on access to non-dementia services and identify ways of improving service delivery for this population. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving interviews and focus groups. Thematic content analysis was informed by theories of continuity of care and access to care. SETTING: Primary and secondary care in the South and North East of England...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100520/evidence-basis-for-using-perineural-dexmedetomidine-to-enhance-the-quality-of-brachial-plexus-nerve-blocks-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
L Vorobeichik, R Brull, F W Abdallah
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine has been proposed as a perineural local anaesthetic (LA) adjunct to prolong peripheral nerve block duration; however, results from our previous meta-analysis in the setting of brachial plexus block (BPB) did not support its use. Many additional randomized trials have since been published. We thus conducted an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized trials investigating the addition of dexmedetomidine to LA compared with LA alone (Control) in BPB for upper extremity surgery were sought...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100519/paravertebral-block-in-paediatric-abdominal-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#6
E A Page, K L Taylor
The increased popularity of paravertebral block (PVB) can be attributed to its relative safety and comparable efficacy when compared with epidural analgesia. It has thus been recommended for open cholecystectomy and other less painful surgeries such as inguinal herniorraphy and appendectomy. We performed a systematic review of PVB in paediatric abdominal conditions to assess its clinical efficacy and side effects compared with other analgesic therapies.A search of Medline, Embase, and Web of Science and hand-searching references from inception date to May 2016 was done...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100182/electrocardiographic-assessments-and-cardiac-events-after-fingolimod-first-dose-a-comprehensive-monitoring-study
#7
Volker Limmroth, Tjalf Ziemssen, Michael Lang, Stephan Richter, Bert Wagner, Judith Haas, Stephan Schmidt, Kathrin Gerbershagen, Christoph Lassek, Luisa Klotz, Olaf Hoffmann, Christian Albert, Katrin Schuh, Monika Baier-Ebert, Guillaume Wendt, Heinke Schieb, Susanne Hoyer, Ralf Dechend, Wilhelm Haverkamp
BACKGROUND: First dose observation for cardiac effects is required for fingolimod, but recommendations on the extent vary. This study aims to assess cardiac safety of fingolimod first dose. Individual bradyarrhythmic episodes were evaluated to assess the relevance of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. METHODS: START is an ongoing open-label, multi-center study. At the time of analysis 3951 patients were enrolled. The primary endpoints are the incidence of bradycardia (heart rate < 45 bpm) and second-/third-degree AV blocks during treatment initiation...
January 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096582/comparison-of-different-regimens-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-on-duration-of-subarachnoid-block
#8
Anil Thomas, M V S Satyaprakash, Lenin Babu Elakkumanan, Prasanna Udupi Bidkar, Sandeep Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many studies have studied the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the prolongation of the duration of the subarachnoid block (SAB). These studies had administered dexmedetomidine using different regimens. This study was designed to find out the suitable regimen with maximum advantages and minimum disadvantages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-three ASA 1 and 2 patients scheduled to undergo surgeries under SAB were randomly allocated into three groups namely B, M, and BM...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094391/advantages-of-an-optical-nanosensor-system-for-the-mechanistic-analysis-of-a-novel-topoisomerase-i-targeting-drug-a-case-study
#9
Marie B Andersen, Cinzia Tesauro, María Gonzalez, Emil L Kristoffersen, Concepción Alonso, Gloria Rubiales, Andrea Coletta, Rikke Frøhlich, Magnus Stougaard, Yi-Ping Ho, Francisco Palacios, Birgitta R Knudsen
The continuous need for the development of new small molecule anti-cancer drugs calls for easily accessible sensor systems for measuring the effect of vast numbers of new drugs on their potential cellular targets. Here we demonstrate the use of an optical DNA biosensor to unravel the inhibitory mechanism of a member of a new family of small molecule human topoisomerase I inhibitors, the so-called indeno-1,5-naphthyridines. By analysing human topoisomerase I catalysis on the biosensor in the absence or presence of added drug complemented with a few traditional assays, we demonstrate that the investigated member of the indeno-1,5-naphthyridine family inhibited human topoisomerase I activity by blocking enzyme-DNA dissociation...
January 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094209/simplified-low-dose-rate-infant-total-body-irradiation
#10
Nels Knutson, Y James Rao, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Stephanie M Perkins, H Harold Li
PURPOSE: Low-dose-rate total body irradiation (LDR TBI) in infants possesses unique challenges because of the setup limitations imposed by anesthesia. We present an LDR TBI method with an anteroposterior/posteroanterior arrangement and dose rate < 10 cGy/minute for infants (thickness <14 cm) without the use of a beam attenuator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The delivery used a 6 MV TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with adjustable meterset rates below 100 MU/minute...
October 24, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091605/cubosomes-from-hierarchical-self-assembly-of-poly-ionic-liquid-block-copolymers
#11
Hongkun He, Khosrow Rahimi, Mingjiang Zhong, Ahmed Mourran, David R Luebke, Hunaid B Nulwala, Martin Möller, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
Cubosomes are micro- and nanoparticles with a bicontinuous cubic two-phase structure, reported for the self-assembly of low molecular weight surfactants, for example, lipids, but rarely formed by polymers. These objects are characterized by a maximum continuous interface and high interface to volume ratio, which makes them promising candidates for efficient adsorbents and host-guest applications. Here we demonstrate self-assembly to nanoscale cuboidal particles with a bicontinuous cubic structure by amphiphilic poly(ionic liquid) diblock copolymers, poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-butyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and water under optimized conditions...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089807/ultrasonography-detects-ulnar-nerve-dislocation-despite-normal-electrophysiology-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Jared M Pisapia, Zarina S Ali, Eric D Hudgins, Viviane Khoury, Gregory G Heuer, Eric L Zager
BACKGROUND: Dislocation of the ulnar nerve (UN) occurs in a subset of patients with ulnar neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are performed to support the clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnostic and MRI studies but with ultrasound (US) showing UN dislocation, which prompted successful treatment by UN submuscular transposition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy 15 year-old female softball player presented with right medial elbow pain and paresthesias of the fourth and fifth digits...
January 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089653/priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#13
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Primary motor cortex neuroplasticity is reduced in old adults, which may contribute to the motor deficits commonly observed in the elderly. Previous research in young subjects suggests that the neuroplastic response can be enhanced using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), with a larger plastic response observed following priming with both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD)-like protocols. However, it is not known if priming stimulation can also modulate plasticity in older adults...
January 4, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#14
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086940/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-for-analgesia-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-feasibility-study
#15
Brian M Ilfeld, Christopher A Gilmore, Stuart A Grant, Michael P Bolognesi, Daniel J Del Gaizo, Amorn Wongsarnpigoon, Joseph W Boggs
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve stimulation has been used for decades to treat chronic pain but has not been used for postoperative analgesia due to multiple limitations, beginning with invasive electrode placement. With the development of small-diameter/gauge leads enabling percutaneous insertion, ultrasound guidance for accurate introduction, and stimulators small enough to be adhered to the skin, neurostimulation may now be provided in a similar manner to continuous peripheral nerve blocks...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074543/low-distress-tolerance-predicts-heightened-drug-seeking-and-taking-after-extended-abstinence-from-cocaine-self-administration
#16
Travis M Moschak, Douglas R Terry, Stacey B Daughters, Regina M Carelli
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to persist in goal-directed behavior while experiencing psychological distress, is associated with greater frequency of substance use and poor treatment outcomes. To examine a potential causal role substance use may play in DT, we developed a rodent model of DT in which rats had to press a lever within a continuously decreasing time window for reward while receiving negative feedback on failure trials. DT was defined as the time rats continued to seek reward before quitting the task...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072900/efficacy-of-adductor-canal-blockade-compared-to-multimodal-peri-articular-analgesia-following-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jaydev B Mistry, Priya Jha, Anton Khlopas, Melbin Thomas, Morad Chughtai, Michael A Mont, Ronald E Delanois
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be an impediment to patient recovery. Many commonly used pain control modalities are effective, but are also associated with adverse effects. Other modalities, such as adductor canal blocks (ACB) and multimodal periarticular analgesia (MPA), have gained popularity due to their efficacy and high safety profile. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no published studies indicating if a therapeutic advantage exists between the two pain control modalities...
January 10, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072812/is-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#18
George C Chang-Chien, Charles A Odonkor, Prin Amorapanth
Kratom is an unscheduled opioid receptor agonist that comes in the form of dietary supplements currently being abused by chronic pain patients on prescription opioids. Active alkaloids isolated from kratom such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are thought to act on mu- and delta-opioid receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors. Animal studies suggest that kratom may be more potent than morphine. Consequently, kratom consumption produces analgesic and euphoric feelings among users. In particular, some chronic pain patients on opioids take kratom to counteract the effects of opioid withdrawal...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067707/dural-puncture-epidural-technique-improves-labor-analgesia-quality-with-fewer-side-effects-compared-with-epidural-and-combined-spinal-epidural-techniques-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Anthony Chau, Carolina Bibbo, Chuan-Chin Huang, Kelly G Elterman, Eric C Cappiello, Julian N Robinson, Lawrence C Tsen
BACKGROUND: The dural puncture epidural (DPE) technique is a modification of the combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique, where a dural perforation is created from a spinal needle but intrathecal medication administration is withheld. The DPE technique has been shown to improve caudal spread of analgesia compared with epidural (EPL) technique without the side effects observed with the CSE technique. We hypothesized that the onset of labor analgesia would follow this order: CSE > DPE > EPL techniques...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063986/evidence-of-structurally-continuous-collagen-fibrils-in-tendons
#20
Rene B Svensson, Andreas Herchenhan, Tobias Starborg, Michael Larsen, Karl E Kadler, Klaus Qvortrup, S Peter Magnusson
: Tendons transmit muscle-generated force through an extracellular matrix of aligned collagen fibrils. The force applied by the muscle at one end of a microscopic fibril has to be transmitted through the macroscopic length of the tendon by mechanisms that are poorly understood. A key element in this structure-function relationship is the collagen fibril length. During embryogenesis short fibrils are produced but they grow rapidly with maturation. There is some controversy regarding fibril length in adult tendon, with mechanical data generally supporting discontinuity while structural investigations favor continuity...
January 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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