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Pediatric Hospital acquired condition

Rita Mangione-Smith, Carol P Roth, Maria T Britto, Alex Y Chen, Julie McGalliard, Thomas F Boat, John L Adams, Elizabeth A McGlynn
OBJECTIVES: To develop and test quality indicators for assessing care in pediatric hospital settings for common respiratory illnesses. PATIENTS: A sample of 2796 children discharged from the emergency department or inpatient setting at 1 of the 3 participating hospitals with a primary diagnosis of asthma, bronchiolitis, croup, or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011. SETTING: Three tertiary care children's hospitals in the United States...
February 21, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
E Vincent S Faustino, Leslie J Raffini
Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Kathleen Jopke, Heather Sanders, Rosemary White-Traut
Hospital admissions related to burn injury reach 40,000 annually. Patients who experience extensive burns require longer hospital stays and are at increased risk for infection and hospital acquired conditions. This comparative case study is a two patient matched case control design that follows the hospital course of two children who experienced burn injuries. For one of these patients, with the consent of the child's parents, the grandmother treated her granddaughter with essential oils. Essential oils have the potential to inhibit microbial growth, support treatment of wounds, and facilitate healing...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Catherine Gibbons, Gonzalo Bailador Del Pozo, Javier Andrés, Tim Lobstein, Melania Manco, Hadas Lewy, Einat Bergman, David O'Callaghan, Gavin Doherty, Olga Kudrautseva, Angel Palomares, Roni Ram, Alberto Olmo
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is related to many health problems and diseases. The current obesity epidemic, which is a major health problem, is closely related to a lack of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, and increased energy intake; with evidence to show increasing incidence of these issues in the younger population. Tackling obesity and its comorbid conditions requires a holistic approach encompassing attention on physical activity, healthy diet, and behavioral activation in order to enable and maintain meaningful and long-term weight loss and weight maintenance...
December 9, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Angela K Saettele, Jacob L Christensen, Kelly L Chilson, David J Murray
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital or acquired heart disease have an increased risk of anesthesia related morbidity and mortality. The child's anesthetic risk is related to the severity of their underlying cardiac disease, associated comorbidities, and surgical procedure. The goal of this project was to determine the ease of use of a preoperative risk stratification tool for assigning pediatric cardiac staff and to determine the relative frequency that children with low, moderate, and high risk cardiac disease present for non-cardiac surgery at a tertiary pediatric hospital...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Alexander W Hirsch, Michael C Monuteaux, Genna Fruchtman, Richard G Bachur, Mark I Neuman
OBJECTIVES: Unlike community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), there is a paucity of data characterizing the patient demographics and hospitalization characteristics of children with aspiration pneumonia. We used a large national database of US children's hospitals to assess the patient and hospitalization characteristics associated with aspiration pneumonia and compared these characteristics to patients with CAP. METHODS: We identified children hospitalized with a diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia or CAP at 47 hospitals included in the Pediatric Health Information System between 2009 and 2014...
November 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
A Lo Vecchio, L Lancella, C Tagliabue, C De Giacomo, S Garazzino, M Mainetti, L Cursi, E Borali, M V De Vita, E Boccuzzi, L Castellazzi, S Esposito, A Guarino
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly found in children worldwide, but limited data are available from children living in southern Europe. A 6-year retrospective study was performed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and risk of recurrence in Italy. Data of children with community- and hospital-acquired CDI (CA-CDI and HA-CDI, respectively) seen at seven pediatric referral centers in Italy were recorded retrospectively. Annual infection rates/10,000 hospital admissions were calculated...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Mohammed El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar-Idrissi, Sanae Chaouki, Samir Atmani, Abdelhak Bouharrou, Moustapha Hida
Recurrent respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent reasons for pediatric visits and hospitalization. Causes of this pathology are multiple ranging from congenital to acquired and local to general. Immune deficiencies are considered as underlying conditions predisposing to this pathology. Our work is about to determine when and how to explore the immune system when facing recurrent respiratory infections. This was based on the records of 53 children hospitalized at the pediatrics unit of Hassan II University Hospital, Fez Morocco...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Ruston S Taylor, Lara S Shekerdemian
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to discuss the prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of hospital-acquired infections in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery and the published antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens and rational approaches to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of nosocomial infections in these patients. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE and PubMed. CONCLUSION: Hospital-acquired infections remain a significant source of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality in pediatric cardiac surgical patients...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Heba Taher Othman, Walaa A Abu Elhamed, Dina Mohammed Hassan, May Sherif Soliman, Radwa Wagih Abdel Baset
INTRODUCTION: Viruses are the most important causative agents of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs), ranked as the second leading cause of death and the primary cause of hospitalization in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are among the commonest viral causes of severe ALRTI. In this study, we aimed to study the burden of both RSV and hMPV in causing severe ALRTI in children younger than two years of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Pamela M Choi, Charles Hong, Steve Woods, Brad W Warner, Martin S Keller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the early impact of American College of Surgeons (ACS)-level-1 verification at an established pediatric trauma center. METHODS: Following IRB approval, we conducted a retrospective review of all trauma patients treated at a level-1 state-designated pediatric trauma center, comparing 2years before (2009-2010) and 2years after ACS-verification (mid-2012-mid-2014). Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Sherif M Badawy, Karen Rychlik, Anjali A Sharathkumar
Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (pTP) is the most effective intervention to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized adults. High-quality studies investigating the role of pTP in children are lacking. The aim of this study is to understand pediatric hematologists' current practices of pTP prescription and to explore their opinion about universal adoption of pTP for high-risk hospitalized children. An electronic survey was sent to members of Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society of North America...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Kavita Parikh, Matt Hall, Anne J Blaschke, Carlos G Grijalva, Thomas V Brogan, Mark I Neuman, Derek J Williams, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Samir S Shah
BACKGROUND: National guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children were published in 2011. These guidelines discourage most diagnostic testing for outpatients, as well as repeat testing for hospitalized patients who are improving. We sought to evaluate the temporal trends in diagnostic testing associated with guideline implementation among children with CAP. METHODS: Children 1 to 18 years old who were discharged with pneumonia after emergency department (ED) evaluation or hospitalization from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014 at any of 32 children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System were included...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Tiffany L Milner, Russell McCulloh, Michael Koster, Eric Biondi, Vanessa Hill, Shawn Ralston
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the variation in antibiotic prescribing practices for uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia across the continuum of care for hospitalized pediatric patients to better inform future efforts at standardizing antibiotic therapy throughout a single hospitalization. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study involving 4 hospitals caring for children aged 3 months to 18 years, hospitalized between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, with diagnosis of uncomplicated pneumonia and without complex chronic medical conditions...
November 6, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yerko Cuevas, Luisa Schonhaut, Aníbal Espinoza, Valeria Schonstedt, Alejandra Aird, Francesca Castoldi
INTRODUCTION: Pain and cervical muscle spasm are common reasons why parents bring children to the pediatric emergency department. The first steps are the gathering of medical history of the patient and a physical examination. If musculoskeletal damage is suspected, cervical spine x-rays should be obtained. An intervertebral disc calcification finding, in the absence of other radiological lesions should suggest pediatric intervertebral disc calcification. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of intervertebral disc calcification, a rare condition that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of torticollis and neck pain in childhood...
May 2015: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
J Mayouego Kouam, E Epée, S Azria, D Enyama, A Omgbwa Eballe, C Ebana Mvogo, M Cherifi
INTRODUCTION: Ocular and orbital trauma is a leading cause of acquired monocular blindness in childhood. These injuries differ from those in adults in some aspects of the management and prognosis, notably the risk of amblyopia. The goal of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of ocular trauma in children who consulted in an eye emergency department in Île-de-France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study...
October 2015: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
U M Sani, H Ahmed, N M Jiya
BACKGROUND: Acquired heart diseases (AHDs) are serious but largely preventable diseases. They are highly prevalent in developing countries where poverty, illiteracy, and poor socioeconomic conditions still pose a significant challenge. The prevalence and pattern of AHD among children have not been previously documented within the study area. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern and outcome of AHDs among children in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted at the Pediatric Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria from 1st July 2009 to 30th June 2014...
November 2015: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Jennifer Peterson, Kathleen Adlard, Beverly Inge Walti, Jennifer Hayakawa, Elyse McClean, Susan Carroll Feidner
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in a 232-bed, freestanding children's hospital in Western United States. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers have been an underappreciated hospital-acquired condition in children. Children have distinct anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors that alter how pressure ulcers occur, but nurses may not recognize the pediatric patient as at risk because of lack of knowledge and tools to assess skin, identify risk factors, and recognize or stage pressure ulcers...
September 2015: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Dawn Nebrig, Jennifer Munafo, Julie Goddard, Carol Tierney
Healthcare leaders face a multitude of priorities demanding their attention and resources, from patient, employee safety and hospital-acquired conditions to predicting future revenue in the context of healthcare reform. Assessing value requires balancing outcomes and experience with cost. How does allocating funds for professional nursing conferences measure up? What is a valid return on investment when we send staff nurses to professional conferences, specifically the annual Magnet® conference? The following article describes how Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center answered these questions and redefined the expectations for conference attendees while enhancing the experience and the reportable outcomes for practice and the organization...
September 2015: Journal of Nursing Administration
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