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Pediatric HAI

Shyamal C Bir, Devi Prasad Patra, Tanmoy K Maiti, Hai Sun, Bharat Guthikonda, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Xiao-Mei Li, He Jiang, Yan-Hui Li, Yan Zhang, Hai-Ju Liu, Hai-Yan Ge, Yi Zhang, Mei-Ting Li
Outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVAs) are common in children; however, experience is limited on their radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of mapping and ablation of pediatric OTVAs and to evaluate the role of ECG algorithms in distinguishing the origin of OTVAs. We compared retrospectively collected single-center data on 92 consecutive pediatric patients (58 male; age, 8.2 ± 2.9 [range 3.6-18] years) who underwent RFCA for OTVAs from 2009 to 2015...
August 26, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Hai-Bo Wang, Daniel T Laskowitz, Jodi A Dodds, Gao-Qiang Xie, Pu-Hong Zhang, Yi-Ning Huang, Bo Wang, Yang-Feng Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is necessary to develop an effective and low-cost screening tool for identifying Chinese people at high risk of stroke. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is a powerful predictor of stroke in the pediatric sickle cell disease population, as demonstrated in the STOP trial. Our study was conducted to determine the prediction value of peak systolic velocities as measured by TCD on subsequent stroke risk in a prospective cohort of the general population from Beijing, China...
2016: PloS One
Laura Folgori, Paola Bernaschi, Simone Piga, Michaela Carletti, Filippe Pirrone Cunha, Paulo Henrique Rodriguez Lara, Nicholas Cafieiro de Castro Peixoto, Bárbara Gomes Alves Guimarães, Mike Sharland, André Ricardo Araujo da Silva, Marta Ciofi Degli Atti
OBJECTIVES To describe trends in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric/neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate risk factors and impact of multidrug resistance in children admitted to ICUs. DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study with a nested case-control study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014. SETTING Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals in Italy and Brazil with a total of 103 ICU beds. PATIENTS Inclusion criteria were admission to ICU during the study period, age at onset less than 18 years, and microbiologically confirmed HAI...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Wei Luo, Hai Liu, Jiaxin Li, Jun Yang, Yulun Xu
OBJECTIVE: Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are extremely rare. In this article, we present a series of twenty-one cases operated on in the last eight years at our institution. METHODS: During the 8-year period from January 2008 to October 2015, we encountered 102 histologically established cases of CPPs, of which 21 located in the CPA region. Clinical profiles, radiological features, surgical procedures, intraoperative findings and outcomes were extracted from the patient records and neuroimaging data...
August 6, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
Xiao-Lei Fan, Hai-Ying Li, Xiao-Xin Chen, Lei Xie, Huai-Li Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the change in serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) in children with pneumonia and its correlation with gastrointestinal injury. METHODS: A total of 82 children with community-acquired pneumonia who were treated from January to October, 2015 were enrolled, among whom 34 had mild pneumonia and 48 had severe pneumonia. According to pediatric critical illness score (PCIS), the children with severe pneumonia were further divided into non-critical group (25 patients) and critical group (23 patients)...
July 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ngai Kien Le, Wertheim Hf, Phu Dinh Vu, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hai Thanh Le, Bich Thi Ngoc Hoang, Vu Thanh Vo, Yen Minh Lam, Dung Tien Viet Vu, Thu Hoai Nguyen, Tung Quang Thai, Lennart E Nilsson, Ulf Rydell, Kinh Van Nguyen, Behzad Nadjm, Louise Clarkson, Håkan Hanberger, Mattias Larsson
There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ali Ismail, Abdul-Karim El-Hage-Sleiman, Marianne Majdalani, Rima Hanna-Wakim, Souha Kanj, Rana Sharara-Chami
INTRODUCTION: Device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAIs) are the principal threat to patient safety in intensive care units (ICUs).  The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common DA-HAIs in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC). Length of stay (LOS) and mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and suitability of empiric antibiotic choices for DA-HAIs according to the local resistance patterns were also studied...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Jeffrey S Raskin, Jesse J Liu, Hai Sun, Andrew Nemecek, Seshadri Balaji, Ahmed M Raslan
OBJECTIVE: Operatively, video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (VATS) involves pleural entry and poses risk in small children and patients with pulmonary disease. A conventional posterior sympathectomy is more invasive than VATS. We investigated a cadaveric feasibility study of a minimal access posterior approach for endoscopic extrapleural sympathectomy and discuss this minimal approach in children with cardiac sympathectomy. METHODS: A posterior endoscopic extrapleural approach for thoracic sympathectomy was performed using lightly embalmed cadavers; surgical corridor depth, width, and associated pleural violation were recorded...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Bettina von Dessauer, Maria S Navarrete, Dona Benadof, Carmen Benavente, Michael G Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Studies have consistently shown that copper alloyed surfaces decrease the burden of microorganisms in health care environments. This study assessed whether copper alloy surfaces decreased hospital-associated infections in pediatric intensive and intermediate care units. METHODS: Admitted infants were assigned sequentially to a room furnished with or without a limited number of copper alloyed surfaces. Clinical and exposure to intervention data were collected on a daily basis...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Meng Xu, Hai-Feng Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Hui-Wen Zhuang
MicroRNAs are extensively included in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases by inhibiting target gene expression. Recently, studies have demonstrated that microRNA-497 (miR-497) may be implicated in human breast cancer that miR-497 predicts the prognosis of breast cancer patients from the posttranscriptional level. However, the specific function of miR-497 in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is far from clear nowadays. The present study was designed to determine the role of miR-497 in spinal cord IR injury and investigate the underlying spinal cord protective mechanism...
July 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yong-liang Ni, Hai-xin Wang, Yan Xu, Shou-bin Jiao
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of skin wound induction gel on the glans scabbing rate, class-A wound healing rate, and wound healing time of circumcision for phimosis in pediatric patients. METHODS: We randomly assigned 48 six to thirteen years old children with phimosis to an experimental group (n = 25) and a control group (n = 23) to be treated by circumcision. After surgery, the patients in the experimental group received application of skin wound induction gel while those in the control group received that of povidone iodine only to the glans and incision...
March 2016: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Neha H Shah, Hai Jung H Rhim, Jennifer Maniscalco, Karen Wilson, Caroline Rassbach
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) fellowship programs have grown rapidly over the last 20 years and have varied in duration and content. In an effort to standardize training in the absence of a single accrediting body, PHM fellowship directors now meet annually to discuss strategies for standardizing and enhancing training. OBJECTIVES: To explore similarities and differences in curricular structure among PHM fellowship programs in an effort to inform future curriculum standardization efforts...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Serkan Atici, Ahmet Soysal, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Ayşe Karaaslan, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Feyza İnceköy Girgin, Gülcan Çulha, Gülşen Altınkanat, Nilüfer Öztürk, Güner Söyletir, Mustafa Bakır
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and distribution of HAIs, pathogens, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a newly opened pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODOLOGY: The infection control team detected and recorded HAI cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria in the PICU of Marmara University Pendik Training and Research Hospital over a four-year period following its opening...
March 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Estelle Peronnet, Kha Nguyen, Elisabeth Cerrato, Rathi Guhadasan, Fabienne Venet, Julien Textoris, Alexandre Pachot, Guillaume Monneret, Enitan Delphine Carrol
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are associated with significant mortality and morbidity and prolongation of hospital stay, adding strain on limited hospital resources. Despite stringent infection control practices some children remain at high risk of developing HAI. The development of biomarkers which could identify these patients would be useful. In this study our objective was to evaluate mRNA candidate biomarkers for HAI prediction in a pediatric intensive care unit...
2016: PloS One
Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini, Amany AboZeid, Abdul Hai
PURPOSE: The clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are well characterized; however, there have been very limited data regarding the radiologic findings of pediatric EoE. We report on the radiologic findings of pediatric EoE observed on barium esophagram and correlate them with the endoscopic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified children diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2015. Two pediatric radiologists met after their independent evaluations of each fluoroscopic study to reach a consensus on each case...
August 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Yong-Hai Zhou, Fang-Qing Xia, Sven Van Poucke, Ming-Hua Zheng
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Any delay in diagnosis can result in delayed treatment and severe complications, including secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which is rare but potentially fatal.In this paper, the authors present 3 cases of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with scrub typhus, successfully treated with chloramphenicol without additional antineoplastic therapy. All patients cured and achieved complete resolution.This report highlights the effectiveness of chloramphenicol without the need for chemotherapy in the treatment of scrub typhus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a pediatric population under the age of 8 years...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Muh-Lii Liang, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Kim-Hai Ng, Ya-Ni Tsai, Cheng-Fong Tsai, Meng-En Chao, Da-Jung Liu, Shing-Shiung Chu, Wan Chen, Yun-Ru Liu, Ren-Shyan Liu, Shih-Chieh Lin, Donald Ming-Tak Ho, Tai-Tong Wong, Muh-Hwa Yang, Hsei-Wei Wang
Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) are aggressive brain tumors affecting children, and outcomes have remained dismal, even with access to new multimodal therapies. In this study, we compared the miRNomes and transcriptomes of pediatric low- (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) using small RNA sequencing (smRNA-Seq) and gene expression microarray, respectively. Through integrated bioinformatics analyses and experimental validation, we identified miR-137 and miR-6500-3p as significantly downregulated in pHGGs...
April 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Reinhold Munker, Ruta Brazauskas, Hai Lin Wang, Marcos de Lima, Hanna J Khoury, Robert Peter Gale, Richard T Maziarz, Brenda M Sandmaier, Daniel Weisdorf, Wael Saber
Acute biphenotypic leukemias or mixed phenotype acute leukemias (MPAL) are rare and considered high risk. The optimal treatment and the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) are unclear. Most prior case series include only modest numbers of patients who underwent transplantation. We analyzed the outcome of 95 carefully characterized alloHCT patients with MPAL reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2012. The median age was 20 years (range, 1 to 68)...
June 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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