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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457996/the-tyg-index-cutoff-point-and-its-association-with-body-adiposity-and-lifestyle-in-children
#1
Sarah A Vieira Ribeiro, Poliana C A Fonseca, Cristiana S Andreoli, Andréia Q Ribeiro, Helen H M Hermsdorff, Patrícia F Pereira, Silvia E Priore, Sylvia C C Franceschini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with insulin resistance in children aged 4-7 years, and to identify the cutoff point of the triglyceride-glucose index for the prediction of IR in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 403 children from a retrospective cohort. Insulin resistance was also evaluated in a sub-sample using the HOMA index. Four indicators of body adiposity were assessed: body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and the percentages of total and central body fat...
February 16, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455757/federal-nutrition-program-revisions-impact-low-income-households-food-purchases
#2
Shu Wen Ng, Bridget A Hollingsworth, Emily A Busey, Julie L Wandell, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti
INTRODUCTION: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) required major revisions to food packages in 2009; effects on nationwide low-income household purchases remain unexamined. METHODS: This study examines associations between WIC revisions and nutritional profiles of packaged food purchases from 2008 to 2014 among 4,537 low-income households with preschoolers in the U.S. (WIC participating versus nonparticipating) utilizing Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel data...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453396/bone-marrow-lympho-myeloid-malfunction-in-obesity-requires-precursor-cell-autonomous-tlr4
#3
Ailing Liu, Minhui Chen, Rashmi Kumar, Maja Stefanovic-Racic, Robert M O'Doherty, Ying Ding, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Lisa Borghesi
Obesity, a prevalent condition in adults and children, impairs bone marrow (BM) function. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that obese mice exhibit poor emergency immune responses in a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner. Canonical myeloid genes (Csf1r, Spi1, Runx1) are enhanced, and lymphoid genes (Flt3, Tcf3, Ebf1) are reduced. Using adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera approaches we demonstrate that myeloid>lymphoid bias arises after 6 weeks of high-fat diet and depends on precursor cell-autonomous TLR4...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450728/winter-vitamin-d-3-supplementation-does-not-increase-muscle-strength-but-modulates-the-igf-axis-in-young-children
#4
Charlotte Mortensen, Christian Mølgaard, Hanne Hauger, Michael Kristensen, Camilla T Damsgaard
PURPOSE: To explore whether muscle strength, the insulin-like growth factor axis (IGF-axis), height, and body composition were associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and affected by winter vitamin D supplementation in healthy children, and furthermore to explore potential sex differences. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response winter trial at 55ºN. A total of 117 children aged 4-8 years were randomly assigned to either placebo, 10, or 20 µg/day of vitamin D 3 for 20 weeks...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438354/nutritional-quality-of-school-meals-in-france-impact-of-guidelines-and-the-role-of-protein-dishes
#5
Florent Vieux, Christophe Dubois, Christelle Duchêne, Nicole Darmon
In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., "starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20") in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools ("observed series"), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal)...
February 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391592/development-and-validation-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-equations-for-prediction-total-body-water-and-fat-free-mass-using-d2o-technique-in-moroccan-children-aged-between-8-and-11-years-old
#6
Imane El Harchaoui, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Issad Baddou, Imane El Menchawy, Kaoutar Benjeddou, Naima Saeid, Hakim Belghiti, Mohammed El Mzibri, Khalid El Kari, Hassan Aguenaou
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Estimating body composition using bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) requires specific prediction equations. The purpose of our study was to examine the validity of published BIA equations for assessing total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) using deuterium oxide dilution (D2O) as a reference method and to develop new FFM and TBW BIA equations if needed for Moroccan pre-pubertal children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were collected from 247 schoolchildren aged 8-11 years old...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380318/assessment-of-fatty-liver-in-models-of-disease-programming
#7
Kimberley D Bruce, Karen R Jonscher
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is present in a third of the general population and the majority of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Importantly, NAFLD can progress to severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), associated with liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research efforts have extensively focused on identifying factors contributing to the additional "hit" required to promote NALFD disease progression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361760/using-y-chromosomal-haplogroups-in-genetic-association-studies-and-suggested-implications
#8
A Mesut Erzurumluoglu, Denis Baird, Tom G Richardson, Nicholas J Timpson, Santiago Rodriguez
Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association...
January 22, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330781/a-review-of-the-methods-and-associated-mathematical-models-used-in-the-measurement-of-fat-free-mass
#9
REVIEW
Jaydeep Sinha, Stephen B Duffull, Hesham S Al-Sallami
Fat-free mass (FFM) represents the lean component of the body devoid of fat. It has been shown to be a useful predictor of drug dose requirements, particularly in obesity where the excess fat mass does not contribute to drug clearance. However, measuring FFM involves complex and/or expensive experimental methodologies that preclude their use in routine clinical practice. Thus, models to predict FFM from readily measurable variables, such as body weight and height, have been developed and are used in both population pharmacokinetic modelling and clinical practice...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288191/exercise-and-adiposity-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#10
George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Russell R Pate
INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health problem among children and adolescents. However, the magnitude of effect, as well as hierarchy of exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both), on selected measures of adiposity is not well established despite numerous trials on this issue. The primary purposes of this study are to use the network meta-analytical approach to determine the effects and hierarchy of exercise interventions on selected measures of adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243188/current-management-of-lipoblastoma
#11
Emmanuelle Séguier-Lipszyc, Artur Baazov, Suzanna Fichman, Shifra Ash, Enrique Freud
Lipoblastoma is a rare and benign tumor arising from embryonal fat cells. It is generally diagnosed in children younger than 3 years of age and can occur in the extremities or on the trunk. We present our series of 10 children with lipoblastoma treated at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel between 2011 and 2016. Six boys and four girls underwent tumor resection at a median age of 2 years and 3 months (range 5 months to 5.6 years). Locations were trunk (6), groin (2), perineum (1), and omentum (1)...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233230/priority-actions-for-addressing-the-obesity-epidemic-in-england
#12
Fiona Watson, Anna Taylor, Mike Rayner, Tim Lobstein, Robin Hinks
OBJECTIVE: To prioritise policy actions for government to improve the food environment and contribute to reduced obesity and related diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study applying the Food Environment Policy Index (Food EPI) in two stages. First, the evidence on all relevant policies was compiled, through an Internet search of government documents, and reviewed for accuracy and completeness by government officials. Second, independent experts were brought together to identify critical gaps and prioritise actions to fill those gaps, through a two-stage rating process...
December 13, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232072/child-nutrition-programs-flexibilities-for-milk-whole-grains-and-sodium-requirements-interim-final-rule
#13
(no author information available yet)
This interim final rule extends through school year 2018-2019 three menu planning flexibilities currently available to many Child Nutrition Program operators, giving them near-term certainty about Program requirements and more local control to serve nutritious and appealing meals to millions of children nationwide. These flexibilities include: Providing operators the option to offer flavored, low-fat (1 percent fat) milk in the Child Nutrition Programs; extending the State agencies' option to allow individual school food authorities to include grains that are not whole grain-rich in the weekly menu offered under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP); and retaining Sodium Target 1 in the NSLP and SBP...
November 30, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225800/recommendations-for-imaging-based-diagnosis-and-management-of-renal-angiomyolipoma-associated-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#14
REVIEW
María José Buj Pradilla, Teresa Martí Ballesté, Roser Torra, Felipe Villacampa Aubá
Renal angiomyolipomas are found in up to 80% of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. Although these tumours are usually asymptomatic, lesions >3 cm in diameter are prone to bleeding and up to 10% of TSC patients may experience a massive and potentially fatal retroperitoneal haemorrhage. Diagnosis can be complicated because of the initial lack of symptoms and the fat-poor content of atypical renal angiomyolipomas. After diagnosis, tumour growth and the emergence of new tumours must be monitored. Treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can reduce tumour size and is indicated in patients with TSC-associated renal angiomyolipomas >3 cm in diameter...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218646/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-complications-diagnosis-and-management-in-obese-children
#15
REVIEW
Naval K Vikram
The world at present is facing a burden of rising prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. The developing countries are particularly facing the dual burden on under-nutrition and obesity. This is associated with appearance and clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities at an early age with development of chronic complications early and possible decrease in life span of these children and adolescents. In adults this clustering has been termed as 'metabolic syndrome' with definitions that can be used universally...
December 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204367/protein-and-fat-meal-content-increase-insulin-requirement-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-role-of-duration-of-diabetes
#16
M van der Hoogt, J C van Dyk, R C Dolman, M Pieters
Background and objective: Hyperglycaemia remains a challenge in type 1 diabetes since current regimes used to determine meal insulin requirements prove to be ineffective. This is particularly problematic for meals containing high amounts of protein and fat. We aimed to determine the post-prandial glycaemic response and total insulin need for mixed meals, using sensor-augmented insulin pumps in children with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Twenty-two children with type 1 diabetes, aged 4-17 years on insulin pump therapy completed this home-based, cross-over, randomised controlled trial...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194425/contribution-of-discretionary-foods-and-drinks-to-australian-children-s-intake-of-energy-saturated-fat-added-sugars-and-salt
#17
Brittany J Johnson, Lucinda K Bell, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Anna M Rangan, Rebecca K Golley
Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars...
December 1, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167695/total-energy-expenditure-of-10-to-12-year-old-japanese-children-measured-using-the-doubly-labeled-water-method
#18
Keisuke Komura, Satoshi Nakae, Kazufumi Hirakawa, Naoyuki Ebine, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Haruo Ozawa, Yosuke Yamada, Misaka Kimura, Kojiro Ishii
Background: To establish Japanese children's estimated energy requirements, total energy expenditure (TEE) data measured using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method is needed. This study aimed to 1) obtain basic TEE data from Japanese children measured using DLW (TEEDLW), 2) compare TEEDLW with TEE estimated by various estimation formulas to calculate their accuracy, and 3) develop a new equation to estimate TEE using body composition and pedometers. Methods: TEE was measured using DLW in 56 10- to 12-year-old Japanese children (33 boys, 23 girls)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166409/post-weaning-high-fat-diet-results-in-growth-cartilage-lesions-in-young-male-rats
#19
Samuel S Haysom, Mark H Vickers, Lennex H Yu, Clare M Reynolds, Elwyn C Firth, Sue R McGlashan
To determine if a high-fat diet (HF) from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX) or cage only activity (SED) after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164096/the-prevalence-of-overfat-adults-and-children-in-the-us
#20
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The overfat condition is defined as excess body fat sufficient to impair health. The problem exists in most overweight and obese individuals and can also occur in those who are normal-weight and non-obese, often due to excess abdominal fat. Despite previous indications that the prevalence overweight and obesity is leveling, these conditions are currently at their highest levels in US history. Our review estimated the number of overfat Americans at 91% for adults and 69% for children. The primary purpose of this review was to build upon previous estimations of overfat prevalence in developed countries by using new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate the overfat prevalence in American adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years), and to expand the definition of overfat as excess body fat associated with at least one additional risk factor of impaired cardiometabolic or physical health...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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