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Fat children requirements

Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Elif Kilic, Ömer Faruk Özer, Aybala Erek Toprak, Hayriye Erman, Emel Torun, Sıddıka Kesgin Ayhan, Hifa Gülru Caglar, Sahbettin Selek, Abdurrahim Kocyigit
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Daniel G Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Freeman Miller, Mary F Barbe, Jill M Slade, Ryan T Pohlig, Christopher M Modlesky
INTRODUCTION: Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were tested...
October 9, 2016: Bone
Carmen Piernas, Dantong Wang, Shufa Du, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Chang Su, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chia-Hung Wu, Nai-Chi Chiu, Yi-Chen Yeh, Yu Kuo, Sz-Shian Yu, Ching-Yao Weng, Chien-An Liu, Yi-Hong Chou, Yi-You Chiou
BACKGROUND: Beside hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, and cholangiocarcinoma, the imaging findings of other relatively uncommon hepatic lesions are less discussed in the literature. Imaging diagnosis of these lesions is a daily challenge. In this article, we review the imaging characteristics of these neoplasms. METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2014, 4746 patients underwent liver biopsy or hepatic surgical resection in our hospital. We reviewed the pathological database retrospectively...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Geoff B Sorge, Ellen Bialystok
Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function...
August 30, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Karina R Lora, Brenda Davy, Valisa Hedrick, Ann M Ferris, Michael P Anderson, Dorothy Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years...
August 20, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Simone M Dustin, Carl E Stafstrom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. METHODS: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29-35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA)...
June 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Said A Al-Busafi, Peter Ghali, Marc Deschênes, Philip Wong
Chylous ascites refers to the accumulation of lipid-rich lymph in the peritoneal cavity due to disruption of the lymphatic system secondary to traumatic injury or obstruction. Worldwide, abdominal malignancy, cirrhosis, and tuberculosis are the commonest causes of CA in adults, the latter being most prevalent in developing countries, whereas congenital abnormalities of the lymphatic system and trauma are commonest in children. The presence of a milky, creamy appearing ascitic fluid with triglyceride content above 200 mg/dL is diagnostic, and, in the majority of cases, unless there is a strong suspicion of malignancy, further investigations are not required in patients with cirrhosis...
2014: ISRN hepatology
Sylwia Merkiel, Wojciech Chalcarz
BACKGROUND: Monitoring energy intake in preschool children is the basis for planning intervention programmes. The published articles in which energy intake in Polish preschool children was reported are still very few. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess energy intake in preschool children from Piła, including energy intake and intake of energy from macronutrients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Energy intake was assessed from weighed food records kept over seven consecutive days by preschool staff and parents of 122 children, 61 girls and 61 boys, aged 4 to 6 years...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Katarzyna Marcinek, Rafał Wojciech Wójciak, Zbigniew Krejpcio
BACKGROUND: An adequately balanced daily food rations (DFR) providing the organism with a sufficient amount of energy and nutrients, including minerals, is particularly important in infanthood and early childhood due to the child's intensive physical, intellectual and motoric development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluation the supply of energy, nutrients and vitamins in daily food rations of children fed at home and in nursery schools. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 75 children aged 1-4 years were the research subjects...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
T A Willis, K P J Roberts, T M Berry, M Bryant, M C J Rudolf
OBJECTIVES: One in five children in England are overweight/obese at school entry. Tackling obesity is therefore a priority. Right from the Start with HENRY is a widely-commissioned programme delivered by trained facilitators to small groups of parents over eight weekly sessions. It is designed to provide parents of infants and preschool children with the skills, knowledge and confidence required for a healthier family lifestyle. The aim of this work was to investigate programme impact using data collected routinely for quality control purposes...
July 2016: Public Health
J K Zakrzewski, F B Gillison, S Cumming, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, S T Broyles, C M Champagne, J-P Chaput, K D Denstel, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, E F Mire, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M Standage
OBJECTIVES: Reports of inverse associations between breakfast frequency and indices of obesity are predominantly based on samples of children from high-income countries with limited socioeconomic diversity. Using data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the present study examined associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity in a sample of 9-11-year-old children from 12 countries representing a wide range of geographic and socio-cultural variability...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
Shelley M Vanderhout, Catherine S Birken, Patricia C Parkin, Gerald Lebovic, Yang Chen, Deborah L O'Connor, Jonathon L Maguire
Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship...
May 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
(no author information available yet)
This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs...
April 25, 2016: Federal Register
Olli Turta, Samuli Rautava
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity and overweight are among the greatest health challenges in the pediatric population. Obese individuals exhibit marked differences in the composition of the intestinal microbial community as compared to lean subjects. These changes in the gut microbiota precede the clinical manifestation of overweight. Convincing experimental data suggest a causal role for intestinal microbes in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. DISCUSSION: Exposure to antibiotics exerts a devastating impact on the intestinal microbial community...
2016: BMC Medicine
Dominique Turck, Christian P Braegger, Carla Colombo, Dimitri Declercq, Alison Morton, Ruzha Pancheva, Eddy Robberecht, Martin Stern, Birgitta Strandvik, Sue Wolfe, Stephane M Schneider, Michael Wilschanski
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is both a frequent feature and a comorbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF), with nutritional status strongly associated with pulmonary function and survival. Nutritional management is therefore standard of care in CF patients. ESPEN, ESPGHAN and ECFS recommended guidelines to cover nutritional management of patients with CF. METHODS: The guidelines were developed by an international multidisciplinary working group in accordance with officially accepted standards...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Fernanda Marchetto da Silva, Alexander Augusto Jorge, Alexandra Malaquias, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Guilherme Lopes Yamamoto, Chong Ae Kim, Debora Bertola
Rasopathies are a group of rare disorders characterized by neurocardiofaciocutaneous involvement, and caused by mutations in several genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. In the present study, we characterized growth parameters, body composition, and nutritional aspects of children and adults (n = 62) affected by these disorders, mainly Noonan syndrome, using an indirect method-anthropometry-and a 24-hr recall questionnaire. The growth parameters in our cohort showed short stature, especially in individuals with RAF1 and SHOC2 mutations, lower obesity rates compared to the control population, and BMI scores highest in individuals with BRAF mutations and lowest in individuals with SHOC2...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Selena E Ortiz, Frederick J Zimmerman, Gary J Adler
BACKGROUND: Support for policies to combat obesity is often undermined by a public sense that obesity is largely a matter of personal responsibility. Industry rhetoric is a major contributor to this perception, as the soda/fast food/big food companies emphasize choice and individual agency in their efforts to neutralize policies that are burdensome. Yet obesity experts recognize that environmental forces play a major role in obesity. We investigate whether exposure to a taste-engineering frame increases support for food and beverage policies that address obesity...
May 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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