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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079262/pediatric-obesity-pharmacokinetic-alterations-and-effects-on-antimicrobial-dosing
#1
Stephanie Natale, John Bradley, William Huy Nguyen, Tri Tran, Pamela Ny, Kirsten La, Eva Vivian, Jennifer Le
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist for appropriate drug dosing in obese children. This comprehensive review summarizes pharmacokinetic alterations that occur with age and obesity, and these effects on antimicrobial dosing. A thorough comparison of different measures of body weight and specific antimicrobial agents, including cefazolin, cefepime, ceftazidime, daptomycin, doripenem, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, piperacill-tazobactam, tobramycin, vancomycin, and voriconazole, are presented...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077151/multi-strategic-intervention-to-enhance-implementation-of-healthy-canteen-policy-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole Nathan, Lisa M Janssen, John Wiggers, Kathryn Reilly, Tessa Delaney, Christopher M Williams, Colin Bell, Rebecca Wyse, Rachel Sutherland, Libby Campbell, Christophe Lecathelinais, Chris Oldmeadow, Megan Freund, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. METHODS: Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group...
January 11, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076316/changes-of-thyroid-hormonal-status-in-patients-receiving-ketogenic-diet-due-to-intractable-epilepsy
#3
Engin Kose, Orkide Guzel, Korcan Demir, Nur Arslan
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD), which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, mimics the metabolic state of starvation and is used therapeutically for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. It is known that generation of triiodothyronine (T3) from thyroxine (T4) decreases during fasting periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid function of children receiving KD for at least 1 year due to drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: A total of 120 patients [63 males, 52...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059054/randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-families-for-health-a-family-based-childhood-obesity-treatment-intervention-delivered-in-a-community-setting-for-ages-6-to-11-years
#4
Wendy Robertson, Joanna Fleming, Atiya Kamal, Thomas Hamborg, Kamran A Khan, Frances Griffiths, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Nigel Stallard, Stavros Petrou, Douglas Simkiss, Elizabeth Harrison, Sung Wook Kim, Margaret Thorogood
BACKGROUND: Effective programmes to help children manage their weight are required. 'Families for Health' focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health version 1 showed sustained reductions in mean body mass index (BMI) z-score after 2 years in a pilot project. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in a randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
January 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056273/-study-on-the-contribution-rate-of-follow-up-formula-to-the-nutrient-intake-of-infants-and-young-children-aged-7-24-months-in-china
#5
H Z Li, H X Jia, D Liang, T T Deng, L T Niu, J H Han
Objective: To determine the contribution of follow-up formula (FUF) to the nutrient intake of 7-24-month-old infants and young children. Methods: The cluster random sampling method and the convenience sampling method were used in combination, and geographic and economic factors were taken into consideration. Four areas of China (Beijing, Hebei, Guangxi, Guangdong) were selected, with 120 infants chosen from each of these areas (half of which were 7-12 months old, and half were 13-24 months old). A dietary survey was completed by a continuous 24-hour weighing method over two days...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008727/nutrient-composition-of-premixed-and-packaged-complementary-foods-for-sale-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lack-of-standards-threatens-infant-growth
#6
William A Masters, Marc D Nene, Winnie Bell
Premixed flours for infant porridge are increasingly produced and sold in developing countries to complement continued breastfeeding. Such complementary food (CF) products have known efficacy against malnutrition in children from 6 to 24 months of age, but ingredient ratios and production processes may vary. This study provides the first systematic measurement of their actual nutrient composition. We purchased samples of 108 premixed CF products in 22 low- and middle-income countries, and commissioned blind laboratory measurement of each product's macronutrients and micronutrients...
December 22, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004412/conceptualization-of-physical-exercise-and-keeping-fit-by-child-wheelchair-users-and-their-parents
#7
Jane Noyes, Llinos Haf Spencer, Nathan Bray, Hans-Peter Kubis, Richard P Hastings, Matthew Jackson, Thomas D O'Brien
AIM: To gain a better understanding of how children aged 6-18 years who use wheelchairs and their families conceptualized physical exercise and keeping fit. BACKGROUND: Disabled children with reduced mobility are commonly overweight and unfit. Nurse-led health screening programmes in schools commonly exclude disabled children if they cannot use standard weighing scales or stand against height measuring sticks. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study at two time points over 6 months with children who use wheelchairs and their families...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916866/relationship-between-soft-drink-consumption-and-obesity-in-9-11-years-old-children-in-a-multi-national-study
#8
Peter T Katzmarzyk, Stephanie T Broyles, Catherine M Champagne, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#10
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889809/reversal-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-who-adhere-to-a-very-low-energy-diet-a-pilot-study
#11
Megan L Gow, Louise A Baur, Nathan A Johnson, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. METHODS: Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged 7-16 years, non-medicated (n = 1) or treated with metformin (n = 7) and in some cases insulin (n = 3), followed a VLED (<3360 kJ/day) for 8 weeks, then transitioned to a hypocaloric diet (∼6300 kJ/day) that they followed to 34 weeks...
November 26, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849624/efficacy-of-micellized-vs-fat-soluble-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-healthy-school-children-from-northern-india
#12
Raman K Marwaha, Vamsi K Yenamandra, Mohammed Asraf Ganie, Gomathy Sethuraman, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Sathish K Mathur, Vinod K Sharma, Ambrish Mithal
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a widely recognized public health problem. Efficacy of a recently developed micellized form of vitamin D3 has not been studied. Hence, we undertook this study to compare its efficacy with the conventionally used fat-soluble vitamin D3. METHODS: In this open-labeled nonrandomized pilot study, we recruited 180 healthy children, aged 13-14 years in two groups and supplemented Group A (60 children) with 60,000 IU of fat-soluble vitamin D3/month with milk and Group B (120 children) with 60,000 IU/month of water miscible vitamin D3 under supervision for 6 months...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824061/length-free-near-infrared-measurement-of-newborn-malnutrition
#13
Fatin Hamimi Mustafa, Emily J Bek, Jacqueline Huvanandana, Peter W Jones, Angela E Carberry, Heather E Jeffery, Craig T Jin, Alistair L McEwan
Under-nutrition in neonates can cause immediate mortality, impaired cognitive development and early onset adult disease. Body fat percentage measured using air-displacement-plethysmography has been found to better indicate under-nutrition than conventional birth weight percentiles. However, air-displacement-plethysmography equipment is expensive and non-portable, so is not suited for use in developing communities where the burden is often the greatest. We proposed a new body fat measurement technique using a length-free model with near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on a single site of the body - the thigh...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802802/improved-high-resolution-pediatric-vascular-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-with-gadofosveset-enhanced-3d-respiratory-navigated-inversion-recovery-prepared-gradient-echo-readout-imaging-compared-to-3d-balanced-steady-state-free-precession-readout-imaging
#14
Animesh Tandon, Sassan Hashemi, W James Parks, Michael S Kelleman, Denver Sallee, Timothy C Slesnick
BACKGROUND: Improved delineation of vascular structures is a common indication for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in children and requires high spatial resolution. Currently, pre-contrast 3D, respiratory navigated, T2-prepared, fat saturated imaging with a bSSFP readout (3D bSSFP) is commonly used; however, these images can be limited by blood pool inhomogeneity and exaggeration of metal artifact. We compared image quality of pediatric vasculature obtained using standard 3D bSSFP to 3D, respiratory navigated, inversion recovery prepared imaging with a gradient echo readout (3D IR GRE) performed after administration of gadofosveset trisodium (GT), a blood pool contrast agent...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782039/performance-of-two-bioelectrical-impedance-analyses-in-the-diagnosis-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-the-fuprecol-study
#15
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Javier Martínez-Torres, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio González-Jiménez, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso
This study aimed to determine thresholds for percentage of body fat (BF%) corresponding to the cut-off values for overweight/obesity as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), using two bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIA), and described the likelihood of increased cardiometabolic risk in our cohort defined by the IOTF and BF% status. Participants included 1165 children and adolescents (54.9% girls) from Bogotá (Colombia). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight...
October 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#16
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733746/oxidative-stress-status-in-childhood-obesity-a-potential-risk-predictor
#17
Elif Kilic, Ömer Faruk Özer, Aybala Erek Toprak, Hayriye Erman, Emel Torun, Sıddıka Kesgin Ayhan, Hifa Gülru Caglar, Sahbettin Selek, Abdurrahim Kocyigit
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732905/cortical-bone-deficit-and-fat-infiltration-of-bone-marrow-and-skeletal-muscle-in-ambulatory-children-with-mild-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#18
Daniel G Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Freeman Miller, Mary F Barbe, Jill M Slade, Ryan T Pohlig, Christopher M Modlesky
INTRODUCTION: Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were compared...
January 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702726/obesity-non-communicable-disease-ncd-risk-factors-and-dietary-factors-among-chinese-school-aged-children
#19
Carmen Piernas, Dantong Wang, Shufa Du, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Chang Su, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#20
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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