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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436629/cognitive-improvement-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-by-voluntary-running%C3%A2-wheel-exercise-is-associated-with-lncmalat1%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-inhibition
#1
Jin-Lin Shang, Qing Cheng, Sheng-Jie Duan, Lu Li, Li-Ya Jia
Previous human and animal studies demonstrated that voluntary exercise may improve cognitive function and facilitate neuronal plasticity in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models. However, the possible underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), may be associated with the functions and dysfunctions of endothelial cells. The present study investigated whether spontaneous running‑wheel (RW) exercise‑induced MALAT1 expression changes may be associated with the cognitive improvement of mice following I/R injury...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435927/gene-silencing-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-intronic-micrornas
#2
Shi-Lung Lin, Shao-Yao Ying
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain either complete or partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. Numerous miRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), a post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. Recent evidence also indicates that they are involved in the transcriptional regulation of genome activities. They were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during embryonic development, and are now recognized as small gene silencers transcribed from the noncoding regions of a genome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425703/training-and-validating-a-portable-electronic-nose-for-lung-cancer-screening
#3
Rens van de Goor, Michel van Hooren, Anne-Marie Dingemans, Bernd Kremer, Kenneth Kross
INTRODUCTION: Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated if a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (Aeonose™) is able to discriminate between lung-cancer patients and healthy controls, based on their volatile organic compound pattern. METHODS: In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from lung-cancer patients and healthy controls...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415251/supercharged-free-omental-flap-plombage-for-empyema-in-a-patient-with-an-artificial-pericardium
#4
Isao Matsumoto, Kenji Iino, Hirofumi Takemura
Cavernostomy and fenestration were performed in a patient who developed a lung abscess and empyema in the left lung, which was damaged after multimodality therapy for advanced thymoma. The hospitalized patient suddenly experienced cardiopulmonary arrest due to major bleeding from the left main pulmonary artery. We immediately performed the main pulmonary arterial embolization, and the patient was resuscitated. Subsequently, the patient underwent supercharged free omental flap plombage performed in the following manner: first, laparoscopic harvesting of the omentum was performed in the supine position...
February 2, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412053/design-of-a-new-artificial-breathing-system-for-simulating-the-human-respiratory-activities
#5
Elmaati Essoukaki, Mourad Rattal, Lhoucine Ben Taleb, Mohammed Harmouchi, Abdelhadi Assir, Azeddine Mouhsen, Aissam Lyazidi
The purpose of this work is the conception and implementation of an artificial active respiratory system that allows the simulation of human respiratory activities. The system consists of two modules, mechanical and electronical. The first one represents a cylindrical lung adjustable in resistance and compliance. This lung is located inside a transparent thoracic box, connected to a piston that generates variable respiratory efforts. The parameters of the system, which are pressure, flow and volume, are measured by the second module...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405289/role-of-artificial-intelligence-in-the-care-of-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Mohamad Rabbani, Jonathan Kanevsky, Kamran Kafi, Florent Chandelier, Francis J Giles
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In up to 57% of patients, it is diagnosed at an advanced stage and the five-year survival rate ranges between 10 to 16%. There has been a significant amount of research using machine learning to generate tools using patient data to improve outcomes. METHODS: This narrative review is based on research material obtained from PubMed up to Nov 2017. The search terms include "artificial intelligence", "machine learning", "lung cancer", "Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)", "diagnosis", "treatment"...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390572/acute-liver-failure-caused-by-pembrolizumab-in-a-patient-with-pulmonary-metastatic-liver-cancer-a-case-report
#7
Zhenping Wu, Lingling Lai, Ming Li, Lunli Zhang, Wenfeng Zhang
RATIONALE: Keytruda (pembrolizumab) is an inhibitor of programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), which was approved to treat advanced melanoma and nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who do not respond to other treatment. However, its efficacy and security in the treatment of advanced liver cancer is still under investigation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with pulmonary metastatic liver cancer who accepted pembrolizumab treatment after the failure of sorafenib...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386211/neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-highlighting-pulmonary-and-other-rare-clinical-manifestations
#8
Khoa Anh Nguyen, Mohamed Elnaggar, Natalie M Gallant, Maged Tanios
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-related lung disease is a rare but increasingly recognised, high morbidity associated feature of the condition. We present a 48-year-old male patient with NF1, who was initially admitted for a subarachnoid haemorrhage requiring aneurysmal coil embolisation. During his recovery, he developed a left-sided pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement followed by concerns for re-expansion pulmonary oedema requiring intubation. Subsequently, the patient also developed a right-sided pneumothorax requiring additional chest tube placement but did not develop right-sided pulmonary oedema...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356724/nutm1-gene-fusions-characterize-a-subset-of-undifferentiated-soft-tissue-and-visceral-tumors
#9
Brendan C Dickson, Yun-Shao Sung, Marc K Rosenblum, Victor E Reuter, Mohammed Harb, Jay S Wunder, David Swanson, Cristina R Antonescu
NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive tumor that occurs mainly in the head and neck and, less frequently, the mediastinum and lung. Following identification of an index case of a NUTM1 fusion positive undifferentiated soft tissue tumor, we interrogated additional cases of primary undifferentiated soft tissue and visceral tumors for NUTM1 abnormalities. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and results validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346562/scaffold-free-trachea-regeneration-by-tissue-engineering-with-bio-3d-printing
#10
Daisuke Taniguchi, Keitaro Matsumoto, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Machino, Yosuke Takeoka, Abdelmotagaly Elgalad, Kiyofumi Gunge, Katsunori Takagi, Yasuaki Taura, Go Hatachi, Naoto Matsuo, Naoya Yamasaki, Koichi Nakayama, Takeshi Nagayasu
OBJECTIVES: Currently, most of the artificial airway organs still require scaffolds; however, such scaffolds exhibit several limitations. Alternatively, the use of an autologous artificial trachea without foreign materials and immunosuppressants may solve these issues and constitute a preferred tool. The rationale of this study was to develop a new scaffold-free approach for an artificial trachea using bio-3D printing technology. Here, we assessed the circumferential tracheal replacement using scaffold-free trachea-like grafts generated from isolated cells in an inbred animal model...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298331/detection-of-artificial-pulmonary-lung-nodules-in-ultralow-dose-ct-using-an-ex-vivo-lung-phantom
#11
Caroline Alexandra Burgard, Thomas Gaass, Madeleine Bonert, David Bondesson, Natalie Thaens, Maximilian Ferdinand Reiser, Julien Dinkel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the image quality of 3 different ultralow-dose CT protocols on pulmonary nodule depiction in a ventilated ex vivo-system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four porcine lungs were inflated inside a dedicated chest phantom and prepared with n = 195 artificial nodules (0.5-1 mL). The artificial chest wall was filled with water to simulate the absorption of a human chest. Images were acquired with a 2x192-row detector CT using low-dose (reference protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kV) and 3 different ULD protocols (respective effective doses: 1mSv and 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289849/toxicity-of-the-readily-leachable-fraction-of-urban-pm2-5-to-human-lung-epithelial-cells-role-of-soluble-metals
#12
Simonetta Palleschi, Barbara Rossi, Giovanna Armiento, Maria Rita Montereali, Elisa Nardi, Simona Mazziotti Tagliani, Marco Inglessis, Antonio Gianfagna, Leopoldo Silvestroni
Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has been repeatedly associated with adverse health effects in humans. The PM2.5 soluble fraction, and soluble metals in particular, are thought to cause lung damage. Literature data, however, are not consistent and the role of leachable metals is still under debate. In this study, Winter and Summer urban PM2.5 aqueous extracts, obtained by using a bio-compatible solution and different contact times at 37 °C, were used to investigate cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 in cultured lung epithelial cells (A549) and the role played by the leachable metals Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286529/unanticipated-difficult-airway-management-in-children-the-consensus-statement-of-the-paediatric-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-section-and-the-airway-management-section-of-the-polish-society-of-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-therapy-and-the-polish-so
#13
Wojciech Walas, Dawid Aleksandrowicz, Maria Borszewska-Kornacka, Tomasz Gaszyński, Ewa Helwich, Marek Migdał, Andrzej Piotrowski, Grażyna Siejka, Tomasz Szczapa, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska
Tracheal intubation may be defined as an artificial airway established in order to provide mechanical ventilation of the lungs during surgical procedures under general anaesthesia, treatment in an intensive care unit, as well as in emergency situations. Difficulties encountered during intubation may cause hypoxia, hypoxic brain injury and, in extreme situations, may result in the patient's death. There may be unanticipated and anticipated difficult airway. Children form a specific group of patients as there are significant differences in both anatomy and physiology...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251699/artificial-intelligence-in-diagnosis-of-obstructive-lung-disease-current-status-and-future-potential
#14
Nilakash Das, Marko Topalovic, Wim Janssens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases is an exciting phenomenon. Artificial intelligence algorithms work by finding patterns in data obtained from diagnostic tests, which can be used to predict clinical outcomes or to detect obstructive phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest trends and to discuss the future potential of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning has been successfully used in automated interpretation of pulmonary function tests for differential diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240631/in-vivo-5-day-animal-studies-of-a-compact-wearable-pumping-artificial-lung
#15
Shalv P Madhani, Brian J Frankowski, Sang-Ho Ye, Greg W Burgreen, William R Wagner, Robert Kormos, Jonathan D'Cunha, William J Federspiel
Recent studies show improved outcomes in ambulated lung failure patients. Ambulation still remains a challenge in these patients. This necessitates development of more compact and less cumbersome respiratory support specifically designed to be wearable. The Paracorporeal Ambulatory Assist Lung (PAAL) is being designed for providing ambulatory support in lung failure patients during bridge to transplant or recovery. We previously published in vitro and acute in vivo results of the PAAL. This study further evaluates the PAAL for 5 days...
December 11, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235989/motion-vector-field-phase-to-amplitude-resampling-for-4d-motion-compensated-cone-beam-ct
#16
Sebastian Sauppe, Julian Kuhm, Marcus Brehm, Pascal Paysan, Dieter Seghers, Marc Kachelriess
We propose a phase-to-amplitude resampling (PTAR) method to reduce motion blurring in motion-compensated (MoCo) 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) image reconstruction, without increasing the computational complexity of the motion vector field (MVF) estimation approach. PTAR is able to improve the image quality in reconstructed 4D volumes including both regular and irregular respiration patterns. The PTAR approach starts with a robust phase gating procedure for the initial MVF estimation and then switches to a phase-adapted amplitude gating method...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235345/mucus-and-cell-penetrating-nanoparticles-embedded-in-nano-into-micro-formulations-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-ivacaftor-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Barbara Porsio, Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Nicolò Mauro, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro
Here, mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for pulmonary administration of Ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were produced with the dual aim to enhance Ivacaftor delivery to the airway epithelial cells, by a rapid diffusion through the mucus barrier and, at the same time, promote Ivacaftor lung cellular uptake. Pegylated and Tat-decorated Fluorescent Nanoparticles (FNPs) were produced by nanoprecipitation, starting by two synthetic copolymers and showed nanometric sizes (~70 nm), slightly negative ζ potential and high cytocompatibility towards human bronchial epithelium cells...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226035/molecular-evolution-of-virulence-genes-and-non-virulence-genes-in-clinical-natural-and-artificial-environmental-legionella-pneumophila-isolates
#18
Xiao-Yong Zhan, Qing-Yi Zhu
Background: L. pneumophila is the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Free-living amoeba in natural aquatic environments is the reservoir and shelter for L. pneumophila. From natural water sources, L. pneumophila can colonize artificial environments such as cooling towers and hot-water systems, and then spread in aerosols, infecting the susceptible person. Therefore, molecular phylogeny and genetic variability of L. pneumophila from different sources (natural water, artificial water, and human lung tissue) might be distinct because of the selection pressure in different environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222320/anticoagulation-with-vads-and-ecmo-walking-the-tightrope
#19
REVIEW
Leslie Raffini
The evolution of devices for mechanical circulatory support (MCS), including ventricular assist devices (VADs) for patients with heart failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with acute cardiac or respiratory failure, has improved survival for subsets of critically ill children and adults. The devices are intricate and complex, allowing blood to bypass the heart or lungs (or both). As blood flows through these artificial devices, normal hemostasis is disrupted, coagulation is promoted, and in the absence of anticoagulation, a thrombus may form in the device, resulting in device failure or embolic stroke...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183341/kinetics-and-dissolution-of-intratracheally-administered-nickel-oxide-nanomaterials-in-rats
#20
Naohide Shinohara, Guihua Zhang, Yutaka Oshima, Toshio Kobayashi, Nobuya Imatanaka, Makoto Nakai, Takeshi Sasaki, Kenji Kawaguchi, Masashi Gamo
BACKGROUND: The toxicokinetics of nanomaterials are an important factor in toxicity, which may be affected by slow clearance and/or distribution in the body. METHODS: Four types of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were single-administered intratracheally to male F344 rats at three doses of 0.67-6.0 mg/kg body weight. The rats were sacrificed under anesthesia and the lung, thoracic lymph nodes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, liver, and other organs were sampled for Ni burden measurement 3, 28, and 91 days post-administration; Ni excretion was measured 6 and 24 h after administration...
November 28, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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