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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630204/a-low-molecular-weight-alginate-oligosaccharide-disrupts-pseudomonal-microcolony-formation-and-enhances-antibiotic-effectiveness
#1
Manon F Pritchard, Lydia C Powell, Alison A Jack, Kate Powell, Konrad Beck, Hannah Florance, Julian Forton, Philip D Rye, Arne Dessen, Katja E Hill, David W Thomas
In chronic respiratory disease the formation of dense, 3-dimensional 'micro colonies' by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the airway plays an important role in contributing to resistance to treatment. An in vitro biofilm model of pseudomonal microcolony formation using artificial sputum (AS) medium was established to study the effects of low molecular weight alginate oligomers (OligoG CF-5/20) on pseudomonal growth, microcolony formation and the efficacy of colistin. The studies employed clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates (n=3) and reference non-mucoid and mucoid multi-drug resistant (MDR) CF isolates (n=7)...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#2
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595469/application-of-the-icrp-respiratory-tract-model-to-estimate-pulmonary-retention-of-industrially-sampled-indium-containing-dusts
#3
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, M Abbas Virji, Melissa A Badding, Kristin J Cummings
Inhalation of indium-containing dusts is associated with the development of indium lung disease. Workers may be exposed to several different chemical forms of indium; however, their lung dosimetry is not fully understood. We characterized the physicochemical properties and measured the lung dissolution kinetics of eight indium-containing dusts. Indium dissolution rates in artificial lung fluids spanned two orders of magnitude. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory model (HRTM) to estimate pulmonary indium deposition, retention and biokinetic clearance to blood...
June 8, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586311/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Xiaohong Li, Shaojie Yue, Ziqiang Luo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients and common outcome of various lung interstitial diseases. Its mortality remains high, and no effective pharmacotherapy, in addition to artificial ventilation and transplantation, exists. As such, the administration of mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) is currently investigated as a new therapeutic method for pulmonary fibrosis. Clinical trials on MSC-based therapy as a potential treatment for lung injury and fibrosis are also performed...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585921/detection-of-lung-cancer-in-exhaled-breath-with-electronic-nose-using-support-vector-machine-analysis
#5
Madara Tirzīte, Māris Bukovskis, Gunta Strazda, Normunds Jurka, Immanuels Taivans
Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a low five-year survival rate. There are no cheap, simple and widely available screening methods for early diagnostics of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to determine whether analysis of the exhaled breath with an artificial olfactory sensor using support vector analysis can differentiate lung cancer patients from healthy individuals and patients with other lung diseases regardless of the stage of lung cancer and the most common comorbidities...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566606/pulmonary-endometriosis-which-probably-occurred-through-hematogenous-metastasis-after-artificial-abortion
#6
Kazushi Fujimoto, Hajime Kasai, Masaki Suga, Toshihiko Sugiura, Jiro Terada, Hidemi Suzuki, Masayuki Oota, Ichiro Yoshino, Yukio Nakatani, Koichiro Tatsumi
Pulmonary endometriosis (PEM) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissue in the lungs, which presents as catamenial hemoptysis. A 20-year-old-woman was admitted for repeated hemoptysis. Chest CT revealed a ground-glass opacity that appeared consistently with her menstrual cycle. Our detailed inquiry revealed a history of artificial abortion, which was followed by the use of oral contraceptives and catamenial hemoptysis after the discontinuation of these medications. Surgical removal was performed and histopathological examinations confirmed PEM...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566328/somatic-mutations-drive-distinct-imaging-phenotypes-in-lung-cancer
#7
Emmanuel Rios Velazquez, Chintan Parmar, Ying Liu, Thibaud P Coroller, Gisele Cruz, Olya Stringfield, Zhaoxiang Ye, G Mike Makrigiorgos, Fiona M M Fennessy, Raymond H Mak, Robert J Gillies, John Quackenbush, Hugo Aerts
Tumors are characterized by somatic mutations that drive biological processes ultimately reflected in tumor phenotype. With regard to radiographic phenotypes, generally unconnected through present understanding to the presence of specific mutations, artificial intelligence (AI) methods can automatically quantify phenotypic characters by using predefined, engineered algorithms or automatic deep-learning methods, a process also known as radiomics. Here we demonstrate how imaging phenotypes can be connected to somatic mutations through an integrated analysis of independent datasets of 763 lung adenocarcinoma patients with somatic mutation testing and engineered computed tomography (CT) image analytics...
May 31, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554242/a-new-visualization-method-for-navigated-bronchoscopy
#8
Pall Jens Reynisson, Erlend Fagertun Hofstad, Håkon Olav Leira, Christian Askeland, Thomas Langø, Hanne Sorger, Frank Lindseth, Tore Amundsen, Toril Anita Nagelhus Hernes
OBJECTIVE: In flexible endoscopy techniques, such as bronchoscopy, there is often a challenge visualizing the path from start to target based on preoperative data and accessing these during the procedure. An example of this is visualizing only the inside of central airways in bronchoscopy. Virtual bronchoscopy (VB) does not meet the pulmonologist's need to detect, define and sample the frequent targets outside the bronchial wall. Our aim was to develop and study a new visualization technique for navigated bronchoscopy...
May 30, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551559/crotonaldehyde-induces-autophagy-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-via-pi3k-ampk-and-mapk-pathways
#9
Limeng Wang, Xiang Li, Zhihua Yang, Xiujie Pan, Xingyu Liu, Maoxiang Zhu, Jianping Xie
Crotonaldehyde is an ubiquitous hazardous pollutant in the environment which can be produced naturally, artificially and endogenously. Acute exposure of crotonaldehyde was reported to induce severe lung injury in humans and experimental animals. However, the exact toxicity mechanisms of crotonaldehyde in organisms have not been fully explored. In the present study, we explored the role autophagy played in the cytotoxicity induced by crotonaldehyde in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and the pathways that mediated autophagy, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, were examined and validated...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537779/simulation-model-for-laparoscopic-foregut-surgery-the-university-of-north-carolina-foregut-model
#10
Francisco Schlottmann, Neal S Murty, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: A significant gap presently exists between box-lap and virtual-reality simulators and live surgery. Live animal and cadaver use has significant downsides. We have developed a high fidelity, real tissue simulator that allows training in laparoscopic foregut operations. METHODS: Our foregut surgery model is based on porcine tissue blocks that include lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, diaphragm, stomach, duodenum, liver, and spleen. The tissue block is mounted in a human mannequin and perfused with artificial blood...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535178/successful-removal-of-giant-primary-osteosarcoma-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-invading-the-superior-vena-cava-and-right-lung-with-artificial-blood-vessel-reconstruction
#11
Han-Yu Deng, Chang-Long Qin, Xiao-Ming Qiu, Qinghua Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528989/infections-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-epidemiology-risk-factors-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Biffi, Stefano Di Bella, Vittorio Scaravilli, Anna Maria Peri, Giacomo Grasselli, Laura Alagna, Antonio Pesenti, Andrea Gori
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support technique used in patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure. The ECMO circuit consists of vascular cannulae, a pump and an artificial lung. Infections are among the most common complications associated with ECMO and have a significant impact on the mortality rate. Here we present a narrative literature review regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and prevention of infectious complications during ECMO support. The prevalence of hospital-acquired infections during ECMO is 10-12% and their occurrence is likely to be more frequent compared with other critically ill patients...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523139/an-overview-of-the-use-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-lung-cancer-research
#13
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Piergiorgio Solli, Alessandro Pardolesi, Antonello Pasini
The artificial neural networks (ANNs) are statistical models where the mathematical structure reproduces the biological organisation of neural cells simulating the learning dynamics of the brain. Although definitions of the term ANN could vary, the term usually refers to a neural network used for non-linear statistical data modelling. The neural models applied today in various fields of medicine, such as oncology, do not aim to be biologically realistic in detail but just efficient models for nonlinear regression or classification...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#14
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#15
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514715/impact-of-physician-education-and-availability-of-parameters-regarding-esophageal-pressure-and-transpulmonary-pressure-on-clinical-decisions-involving-ventilator-management
#16
Yasuhiro Norisue, Lonny Ashworth, Takaki Naito, Jun Kataoka, Muneyuki Takeuchi, Sunao Usami, Junko Takada, Shigeki Fujitani
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484014/selective-targeting-of-point-mutated-kras-through-artificial-micrornas
#17
Mario Acunzo, Giulia Romano, Giovanni Nigita, Dario Veneziano, Luigi Fattore, Alessandro Laganà, Nicola Zanesi, Paolo Fadda, Matteo Fassan, Lara Rizzotto, Raleigh Kladney, Vincenzo Coppola, Carlo M Croce
Mutated protein-coding genes drive the molecular pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. Specifically, mutated KRAS is a documented driver for malignant transformation, occurring early during the pathogenesis of cancers such as lung and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Therapeutically, the indiscriminate targeting of wild-type and point-mutated transcripts represents an important limitation. Here, we leveraged on the design of miRNA-like artificial molecules (amiRNAs) to specifically target point-mutated genes, such as KRAS, without affecting their wild-type counterparts...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469778/the-protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-sevoflurane-on-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#18
Qi-Feng Tang, Zhi-Yuan Fang, Cheng-Huan Shi
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a disturbance caused by infectious or non-infectious inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could induce an artificial pathological ALI process. Sevoflurane has been demonstrated to be an inhaled anesthetic having anti-inflammatory and protective effects on inflammatory injury. To study the protective effects and mechanisms of sevoflurane on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. By assessing W/D ratio, sevofluranecan counteract the edema induced by LPS. The ELISA results showed that sevoflurane reduced IFN-γ production and increased IL-10 level...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451579/comparative-analysis-of-neural-network-training-methods-in-real-time-radiotherapy
#19
S Nouri, S M Hosseini Pooya, J Soltani Nabipour
BACKGROUND: The motions of body and tumor in some regions such as chest during radiotherapy treatments are one of the major concerns protecting normal tissues against high doses. By using real-time radiotherapy technique, it is possible to increase the accuracy of delivered dose to the tumor region by means of tracing markers on the body of patients. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the accuracy of some artificial intelligence methods including neural network and those of combination with genetic algorithm as well as particle swarm optimization (PSO) estimating tumor positions in real-time radiotherapy...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447929/five-year-follow-up-on-transplanted-organs-from-donors-after-brain-death-after-acute-stroke
#20
Vera Spatenkova, Eva Pokorna, Petr Suchomel
OBJECTIVES: Efficient intensive care donor management can help alleviate the shortage of organs for transplant. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of management of donors after brain death from our neurointensive care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational 5-year follow-up on 29 transplanted organs from 14 brain-dead donors after acute stroke (7 subarachnoid and 4 intracerebral hemorrhages, 3 ischemic strokes)...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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