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Artificial lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240631/in-vivo-5-day-animal-studies-of-a-compact-wearable-pumping-artificial-lung
#1
Shalv P Madhani, Brian J Frankowski, Sang-Ho Ye, Greg W Burgreen, William R Wagner, Robert Kormos, Jonathan D'Cunha, William J Federspiel
Recent studies show improved outcomes in ambulated lung failure patients. Ambulation still remains a challenge in these patients. This necessitates development of more compact and less cumbersome respiratory support specifically designed to be wearable. The Paracorporeal Ambulatory Assist Lung (PAAL) is being designed for providing ambulatory support in lung failure patients during bridge to transplant or recovery. We previously published in vitro and acute in vivo results of the PAAL. This study further evaluates the PAAL for 5 days...
December 11, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235989/motion-vector-field-phase-to-amplitude-resampling-for-4d-motion-compensated-cone-beam-ct
#2
Sebastian Sauppe, Julian Kuhm, Marcus Brehm, Pascal Paysan, Dieter Seghers, Marc Kachelriess
We propose a phase-to-amplitude resampling (PTAR) method to reduce motion blurring in motion-compensated (MoCo) 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) image reconstruction, without increasing the computational complexity of the motion vector field (MVF) estimation approach. PTAR is able to improve the image quality in reconstructed 4D volumes including both regular and irregular respiration patterns. The PTAR approach starts with a robust phase gating procedure for the initial MVF estimation and then switches to a phase-adapted amplitude gating method...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235345/mucus-and-cell-penetrating-nanoparticles-embedded-in-nano-into-micro-formulations-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-ivacaftor-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Barbara Porsio, Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Nicolò Mauro, Gaetano Giammona, Gennara Cavallaro
Here, mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for pulmonary administration of Ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) were produced with the dual aim to enhance Ivacaftor delivery to the airway epithelial cells, by a rapid diffusion through the mucus barrier and, at the same time, promote Ivacaftor lung cellular uptake. Pegylated and Tat-decorated Fluorescent Nanoparticles (FNPs) were produced by nanoprecipitation, starting by two synthetic copolymers and showed nanometric sizes (~70 nm), slightly negative ζ potential and high cytocompatibility towards human bronchial epithelium cells...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226035/molecular-evolution-of-virulence-genes-and-non-virulence-genes-in-clinical-natural-and-artificial-environmental-legionella-pneumophila-isolates
#4
Xiao-Yong Zhan, Qing-Yi Zhu
Background: L. pneumophila is the main causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. Free-living amoeba in natural aquatic environments is the reservoir and shelter for L. pneumophila. From natural water sources, L. pneumophila can colonize artificial environments such as cooling towers and hot-water systems, and then spread in aerosols, infecting the susceptible person. Therefore, molecular phylogeny and genetic variability of L. pneumophila from different sources (natural water, artificial water, and human lung tissue) might be distinct because of the selection pressure in different environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222320/anticoagulation-with-vads-and-ecmo-walking-the-tightrope
#5
REVIEW
Leslie Raffini
The evolution of devices for mechanical circulatory support (MCS), including ventricular assist devices (VADs) for patients with heart failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with acute cardiac or respiratory failure, has improved survival for subsets of critically ill children and adults. The devices are intricate and complex, allowing blood to bypass the heart or lungs (or both). As blood flows through these artificial devices, normal hemostasis is disrupted, coagulation is promoted, and in the absence of anticoagulation, a thrombus may form in the device, resulting in device failure or embolic stroke...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183341/kinetics-and-dissolution-of-intratracheally-administered-nickel-oxide-nanomaterials-in-rats
#6
Naohide Shinohara, Guihua Zhang, Yutaka Oshima, Toshio Kobayashi, Nobuya Imatanaka, Makoto Nakai, Takeshi Sasaki, Kenji Kawaguchi, Masashi Gamo
BACKGROUND: The toxicokinetics of nanomaterials are an important factor in toxicity, which may be affected by slow clearance and/or distribution in the body. METHODS: Four types of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were single-administered intratracheally to male F344 rats at three doses of 0.67-6.0 mg/kg body weight. The rats were sacrificed under anesthesia and the lung, thoracic lymph nodes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, liver, and other organs were sampled for Ni burden measurement 3, 28, and 91 days post-administration; Ni excretion was measured 6 and 24 h after administration...
November 28, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173908/impact-of-pixel-based-machine-learning-techniques-on-automated-frameworks-for-delineation-of-gross-tumor-volume-regions-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#7
Yasuo Kawata, Hidetaka Arimura, Koujirou Ikushima, Ze Jin, Kento Morita, Chiaki Tokunaga, Hidetake Yabu-Uchi, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Tomonari Sasaki, Hiroshi Honda, Masayuki Sasaki
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pixel-based machine learning (ML) techniques, i.e., fuzzy-c-means clustering method (FCM), and the artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), on an automated framework for delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) regions of lung cancer for stereotactic body radiation therapy. The morphological and metabolic features for GTV regions, which were determined based on the knowledge of radiation oncologists, were fed on a pixel-by-pixel basis into the respective FCM, ANN, and SVM ML techniques...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168133/assessment-of-oral-and-lung-bioaccessibility-of-cd-and-pb-from-smelter-impacted-dust
#8
Aurélie Pelfrêne, Francis Douay
Soil and dust contamination by metals engenders significant environmental and health problems in northern France where a lead smelter was in activity for more than a century. This study aims to examine the long-term effects of the smelter, 10 years after its closedown, on the presence of metal in sidewalk dust for a better assessment of the local population's exposure to Cd and Pb. The investigation included: (i) the metal distribution in different dust particle sizes and (ii) the assessment of metal bioaccessibility via ingestion and inhalation of dust...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164017/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-targeted-nanocarrier-based-systems-for-the-treatment-of-lung-cancer
#9
Susanne R Youngren-Ortiz, Mahavir B Chougule
In Hawai'i, lung cancer is among the top cancers diagnosed and a leading cause of death. Despite current understanding and modern surgery, radiology, and chemotherapy techniques, the survival of those suffering from lung cancer remains low. Current anticancer drugs have poor tumor tissue selectivity and toxicity issues that contribute to their overall low efficacy, detrimental effects to normal tissues, and drug resistance. A potential way of mitigating cancer is through RNA interference (RNAi) by the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to target select proteins or genes involved in cancer progression, known as oncoproteins or oncogenes, respectively...
November 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162279/clinical-decision-support-of-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-a-data-driven-machine-learning-strategy-for-patient-specific-dosimetric-decision-making
#10
Gilmer Valdes, Charles B Simone, Josephine Chen, Alexander Lin, Sue S Yom, Adam J Pattison, Colin M Carpenter, Timothy D Solberg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical decision support systems are a growing class of tools with the potential to impact healthcare. This study investigates the construction of a decision support system through which clinicians can efficiently identify which previously approved historical treatment plans are achievable for a new patient to aid in selection of therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment data were collected for early-stage lung and postoperative oropharyngeal cancers treated using photon (lung and head and neck) and proton (head and neck) radiotherapy...
November 18, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153523/uncertainty-assessment-of-the-breath-methane-concentration-method-to-determine-methane-production-of-dairy-cows
#11
Liansun Wu, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Nico Ogink
The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137182/current-and-prospective-protein-biomarkers-of-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Tatiana N Zamay, Galina S Zamay, Olga S Kolovskaya, Ruslan A Zukov, Marina M Petrova, Ana Gargaun, Maxim V Berezovski, Anna S Kichkailo
Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Due to the great diversity in the molecular-biological features of lung cancer histological types, detection is impossible without knowledge of the nature and origin of malignant cells, which release certain protein biomarkers into the bloodstream...
November 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136621/evaluation-of-nickel-release-from-endobronchial-valves-as-a-possible-cause-of-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-treated-with-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction
#13
Daniel P Franzen, Claudia Lang, Nikos Agorastos, Lutz Freitag, Malcolm Kohler, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial valve (EBV) placement is an established lung volume reduction procedure aiming to improve lung function and exercise capacity in patients with severe emphysema. As EBVs consist of silicone and nitinol (a metal alloy of nickel and titanium), there are concerns that nickel ions might be released and could have a clinical impact in patients with a contact allergy to nickel. Based on a case with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) after treatment with EBVs, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro nickel release from EBVs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 15, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129163/occupational-lung-diseases-in-australia
#14
REVIEW
Ryan F Hoy, Fraser Brims
Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128546/a-1204-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-panel-for-massively-parallel-sequencing-analysis-of-dna-mixtures
#15
Hsiao-Lin Hwa, Wan-Chia Chung, Pei-Lung Chen, Chih-Peng Lin, Huei-Ying Li, Hsiang-I Yin, James Chun-I Lee
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology enables the simultaneous analysis of a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels). MPS also enables the detection of the alleles of minor contributors in a highly unbalanced DNA mixture. In this study, we established a 1204-marker panel optimized for MPS consisting of 987 autosomal markers (964 SNPs and 23 indels), 27 X-chromosome SNPs, 61 Y-chromosome markers (56 SNPs and 5 indels), and 129 mitochondrial SNPs...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123846/two-cases-of-cryptogenic-life-threatening-hemoptysis-identification-and-management-of-bleeding-point
#16
Kazunori Okuda, Jun Tanaka, Jun Okamoto, Fumihisa Kishi, Junichiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Hino, Satoru Chujoh, Kazuhisa Shimadzu, Masafumi Kishimoto, Noboru Kato, Shigeru Shiono
Cases: Case 1: A 63-year-old woman was referred for coughing blood. Although cardiorespiratory dynamics were stabilized by artificial respiration under sedation, severely poor ventilation developed from asphyxia associated with massive respiratory tract hemorrhage. One-lung ventilation was temporarily secured by endotracheal tube insertion into the left main bronchus just prior to cardiopulmonary arrest.Case 2: A 72-year-old man was referred for massive hemoptysis after coughing, then intubated and placed on a respirator...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111434/empiric-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-face-of-spreading-multi-drug-resistance-in-vitro-study-of-nitroxoline-effectiveness
#17
A Sobke, O Makarewicz, M Baier, C Bär, W Pfister, S G Gatermann, M W Pletz, C Forstner
The spread of antimicrobial resistance challenges the empiric treatment in urinary tract infections (UTI). Among others, nitrofurantoin is recommended for first line treatment, but acceptance among clinicians is limited due to chronic nitrofurantoin-induced lung toxicity and insufficient coverage of Enterobacteriaceae other than Escherichia coli. Nitroxoline seems to be an alternative to nitrofurantoin due to its favourable safety profile but data on its current in vitro susceptibility are sparse. In this study susceptibility to nitroxoline was tested against 3,012 urinary clinical isolates (including multidrug-resistant bacteria and Candida spp...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109070/artificial-intelligence-learning-semantics-via-external-resources-for-classifying-diagnosis-codes-in-discharge-notes
#18
Chin Lin, Chia-Jung Hsu, Yu-Sheng Lou, Shih-Jen Yeh, Chia-Cheng Lee, Sui-Lung Su, Hsiang-Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Automated disease code classification using free-text medical information is important for public health surveillance. However, traditional natural language processing (NLP) pipelines are limited, so we propose a method combining word embedding with a convolutional neural network (CNN). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the performance of traditional pipelines (NLP plus supervised machine learning models) with that of word embedding combined with a CNN in conducting a classification task identifying International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes in discharge notes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099541/pulmonary-arteriovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-to-avoid-pulmonary-overflow-during-total-artificial-heart-implantation
#19
Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Jessica G Y Luc, Fabio Sagebin, Joshua K Wong, Howard T Massey
Total artificial hearts (TAH) can be used as a bridge to transplant or, occasionally, as destination therapy for patients with severe biventricular dysfunction. Not infrequently TAHs are placed in patients with severe low flow states, in which the lungs of these patients are unable to adjust rapidly to the "normal" right ventricular output of a TAH. These patients may develop variable degrees of pulmonary edema secondary to stress failure of the pulmonary capillaries requiring increased respiratory support, which can occasionally be fatal...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092951/computational-radiomics-system-to-decode-the-radiographic-phenotype
#20
Joost J M van Griethuysen, Andriy Fedorov, Chintan Parmar, Ahmed Hosny, Nicole Aucoin, Vivek Narayan, Regina G H Beets-Tan, Jean-Christophe Fillion-Robin, Steve Pieper, Hugo J W L Aerts
Radiomics aims to quantify phenotypic characteristics on medical imaging through the use of automated algorithms. Radiomic artificial intelligence (AI) technology, either based on engineered hard-coded algorithms or deep learning methods, can be used to develop noninvasive imaging-based biomarkers. However, lack of standardized algorithm definitions and image processing severely hampers reproducibility and comparability of results. To address this issue, we developed PyRadiomics, a flexible open-source platform capable of extracting a large panel of engineered features from medical images...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
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