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Artificial lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223376/bactericidal-and-fungicidal-activity-of-n-chlorotaurine-is-enhanced-in-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-medium
#1
Martina Gruber, Ivan Moser, Markus Nagl, Michaela Lackner
Lung infections with multiresistant pathogens are a major problem of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). N-chlorotaurine (NCT), a microbicidal active chlorine compound with no resistance development, is well tolerated upon inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate NCT on its bactericidal and fungicidal activity in vitro in artificial sputum medium (ASM) mimicking the composition of cystic fibrosis mucus.The medium was inoculated with bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus including some MRSA strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) or spores of fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, Lomentospora prolificans, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium minutisporum, Exophiala dermatitidis, Geotrichum sp...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215891/thoracic-ultrasound-assessment-of-lung-consolidation-at-weaning-in-holstein-dairy-heifers-reproductive-performance-and-survival
#2
A G V Teixeira, J A A McArt, R C Bicalho
The objective of this study was to determine the association of lung consolidation at weaning with later reproductive performance and survival. Ultrasonography of the lungs was performed at 60 d of life in recently weaned Holstein heifer calves from a single farm in New York State. Thoracic screening covered the right 2nd through 10th and left 3rd through 9th intercostal spaces and was performed using a 6.2-MHz linear transducer. Each calf was classified as not having lung consolidation (hyperechoic line with reverberation artifact with or without comet tail) or with lung consolidation (any detectable heterogeneous hypoechoic area)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212205/spontaneous-breathing-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#3
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Giulia Maria Ruggeri, Elena Spinelli, Daniela Tubiolo, Alfredo Lissoni, Alessandro Protti, Luciano Gattinoni
BACKGROUND: We evaluate the clinical feasibility of spontaneous breathing on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the interactions between artificial and native lungs in patients bridged to lung transplant or with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: The clinical course of a total of 48 patients was analyzed. Twenty-three of 48 patients were enrolled in the prospective study (nine bridged to lung transplant, six COPD, and eight acute respiratory distress syndrome)...
February 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191852/artificial-chemical-reporter-targeting-strategy-using-bioorthogonal-click-reaction-for-improving-active-targeting-efficiency-of-tumor
#4
Hong Yeol Yoon, Min Lee Shin, Man Kyu Shim, Sangmin Lee, Jin Hee Na, Heebeom Koo, Hyukjin Lee, Jong-Ho Kim, Kuen Yong Lee, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon
Biological ligands such as aptamer, antibody, glucose and peptide have been widely used to bind specific surface molecules or receptors in tumor cells or subcellular structures to improve tumor-targeting efficiency of nanoparticles. However, this active targeting strategy has limitations for tumor targeting due to inter- and intra-heterogeneity of tumors. In this study, we demonstrated an alternative active targeting strategy using metabolic engineering and bioorthogonal click reaction to improve tumor-targeting efficiency of nanoparticles...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187049/fiber-bundle-design-for-an-integrated-wearable-artificial-lung
#5
Shalv P Madhani, Brian J Frankowski, William J Federspiel
Mechanical ventilation and ECMO are the only viable treatment options for lung failure patients at the end stage, including ARDS and COPD. These treatments however are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to long wait times for lung transplant. Contemporary clinical literature has shown ambulation improves post-transplant outcomes in lung failure patients. Given this, we are developing the PAAL, a truly wearable artificial lung that allows for ambulation. In this study, we targeted 180 ml/min oxygenation and determined the form factor for a hollow fiber membrane (HFM) bundle for the PAAL...
February 7, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170370/development-of-a-gene-panel-for-next-generation-sequencing-of-clinically-relevant-mutations-in-cell-free-dna-from-cancer-patients
#6
Umberto Malapelle, Clara Mayo de-Las-Casas, Danilo Rocco, Monica Garzon, Pasquale Pisapia, Nuria Jordana-Ariza, Maria Russo, Roberta Sgariglia, Caterina De Luca, Francesco Pepe, Alejandro Martinez-Bueno, Daniela Morales-Espinosa, María González-Cao, Niki Karachaliou, Santiago Viteri Ramirez, Claudio Bellevicine, Miguel Angel Molina-Vila, Rafael Rosell, Giancarlo Troncone
BACKGROUND: When tumour tissue is unavailable, cell-free DNA (cfDNA)can serve as a surrogate for genetic analyses. Because mutated alleles in cfDNA are usually below 1%, next-generation sequencing (NGS)must be narrowed to target only clinically relevant genes. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed a panel to use in ultra-deep sequencing to identify such mutations in cfDNA. METHODS: Our panel ('SiRe') covers 568 mutations in six genes (EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, cKIT and PDGFRα)involved in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastrointestinal stromal tumour, colorectal carcinoma and melanoma...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145560/survival-following-lung-transplantation-for-artificial-stone-silicosis-relative-to-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Dror Rosengarten, Benjamin D Fox, Elizabeth Fireman, Paul D Blanc, Victoria Rusanov, Oren Fruchter, Yael Raviv, Osnat Shtraichman, Milton Saute, Mordechai R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is a progressive lung disease resulting from the inhalation of respirable crystalline silica. Lung transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage silicosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the survival experience following lung transplantation among patients with silicosis. METHODS: We reviewed data for all patients who underwent lung transplantation for silicosis and a matched group undergoing lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) at a single medical center between March 2006 and the end of December 2013...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130689/comparison-of-machine-learning-methods-for-classifying-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-from-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-images
#8
Hongkai Wang, Zongwei Zhou, Yingci Li, Zhonghua Chen, Peiou Lu, Wenzhi Wang, Wanyu Liu, Lijuan Yu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare one state-of-the-art deep learning method and four classical machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from (18)F-FDG PET/CT images. Another objective was to compare the discriminative power of the recently popular PET/CT texture features with the widely used diagnostic features such as tumor size, CT value, SUV, image contrast, and intensity standard deviation. The four classical machine learning methods included random forests, support vector machines, adaptive boosting, and artificial neural network...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127344/helminth-parasites-of-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-in-bushehr-province-southwestern-iran
#9
Majid Mansouri, Bahador Sarkari, Gholam Reza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province), Southwestern Iran. METHODS: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125027/in-vitro-investigations-of-human-bioaccessibility-from-reference-materials-using-simulated-lung-fluids
#10
Aurélie Pelfrêne, Mark R Cave, Joanna Wragg, Francis Douay
An investigation for assessing pulmonary bioaccessibility of metals from reference materials is presented using simulated lung fluids. The objective of this paper was to contribute to an enhanced understanding of airborne particulate matter and its toxic potential following inhalation. A large set of metallic elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) was investigated using three lung fluids (phosphate-buffered saline, Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid) on three standard reference materials representing different types of particle sources...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113310/seamless-lesion-insertion-for-data-augmentation-in-cad-training
#11
Aria Pezeshk, Nicholas Petrick, Weijie Chen, Berkman Sahiner
The performance of a classifier is largely dependent on the size and representativeness of data used for its training. In circumstances where accumulation and/or labeling of training samples is difficult or expensive, such as medical applications, data augmentation can potentially be used to alleviate the limitations of small datasets. We have previously developed an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement an existing CT or mammography dataset by seamlessly inserting a lesion extracted from a source image into a target image...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110738/risk-analysis-of-lung-cancer-and-effects-of-stress-level-on-cancer-risk-through-neuro-fuzzy-model
#12
Atınç Yılmaz, Seçkin Arı, Ümit Kocabıçak
A significant number of people pass away due to limited medical resources for the battle with cancer. Fatal cases can be reduced by using the computational techniques in the medical and health system. If the cancer is diagnosed early, the chance of successful treatment increases. In this study, the risk of getting lung cancer will be obtained and patients will be provided with directions to exterminate the risk. After calculating the risk value for lung cancer, status of the patient's susceptibility and resistance to stress is used in determining the effects of stress to disease...
December 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109960/rna-nanoparticle-based-targeted-therapy-for-glioblastoma-through-inhibition-of-oncogenic-mir-21
#13
Tae Jin Lee, Ji Young Yoo, Dan Shu, Hui Li, Jianying Zhang, Jun-Ge Yu, Alena Cristina Jaime-Ramirez, Mario Acunzo, Giulia Romano, Ri Cui, Hui-Lung Sun, Zhenghua Luo, Matthew Old, Balveen Kaur, Peixuan Guo, Carlo M Croce
Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miRNA-21 has been proposed to treat glioblastoma by rescuing tumor suppressors, PTEN and PDCD4. However, systemic delivery of anti-miR-21 sequences requires a robust and efficient delivery platform to successfully inhibit this druggable target. Three-way-junction (3WJ)-based RNA nanoparticles (RNP), artificially derived from pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor, was recently shown to target glioblastoma. Here, we report that multi-valent folate (FA)-conjugated 3WJ RNP constructed to harbor anti-miR-21 LNA sequences (FA-3WJ-LNA-miR21) specifically targeted and delivered anti-miR-21 LNA and knocked down miR-21 expression in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo with favorable biodistribution...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093826/highly-sensitive-detection-of-e2-activity-in-ubiquitination-using-an-artificial-ring-finger
#14
Kazuhide Miyamoto, Miho Sumida, Mayumi Yuasa-Sunagawa, Kazuki Saito
The ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes of protein ubiquitination are associated with various diseases such as leukemia, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Rapid and accurate detection of E2 enzymatic activities remains poor. Here, we described the detection of E2 activity on a signal accumulation ISFET biosensor (AMIS sensor) using an artificial RING finger (ARF). The use of ARF enables the simplified detection of E2 activity without a substrate. The high-sensitivity quantitative detection of E2 activities was demonstrated via real-time monitoring over a response range of femtomolar to micromolar concentrations...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075489/cough-augmentation-techniques-for-extubation-or-weaning-critically-ill-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation
#15
REVIEW
Louise Rose, Neill Kj Adhikari, David Leasa, Dean A Fergusson, Douglas McKim
BACKGROUND: There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074528/respiratory-motion-prediction-and-prospective-correction-for-free-breathing-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri-of-the-kidneys
#16
Hao Song, Dan Ruan, Wenyang Liu, V Andrew Stenger, Rolf Pohmann, Maria A Fernandez Seara, Tejas Nair, Sungkyu Jung, Jingqin Luo, Yuichi Motai, Jingfei Ma, John D Hazle, H Michael Gach
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion prediction using an artificial neural network (ANN) was integrated with pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI to allow free-breathing perfusion measurements in the kidney. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the ANN to accurately predict the location of the kidneys during image acquisition. METHODS: A pencil-beam navigator was integrated with a pCASL sequence to measure lung/diaphragm motion during ANN training and the pCASL transit delay...
January 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067267/polydatin-protects-the-respiratory-system-from-pm2-5-exposure
#17
Xiao-Dan Yan, Qi-Ming Wang, Cai Tie, Hong-Tao Jin, Yan-Xing Han, Jin-Lan Zhang, Xiao-Ming Yu, Qi Hou, Piao-Piao Zhang, Ai-Ping Wang, Pei-Cheng Zhang, Zhonggao Gao, Jian-Dong Jiang
Atmospheric particle is one of the risk factors for respiratory disease; however, their injury mechanisms are poorly understood, and prevention methods are highly desirable. We constructed artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5) particles according to the size and composition of actual PM2.5 collected in Beijing. Using these artificial particles, we created an inhalation-injury animal model. These aPM2.5 particles simulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the actual PM2.5, and inhalation of the aPM2.5 in rat results in a time-dependent change in lung suggesting a declined lung function, injury from oxidative stress and inflammation in lung...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056789/evolutionary-diversification-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-artificial-sputum-model
#18
Emily V Davies, Chloe E James, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley
BACKGROUND: During chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo extensive evolutionary diversification. However, the selective drivers of this evolutionary process are poorly understood. To test the effects of temperate phages on diversification in P. aeruginosa biofilms we experimentally evolved populations of P. aeruginosa for approximately 240 generations in artificial sputum medium with or without a community of three temperate phages...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048860/su-f-p-54-guidelines-to-check-image-registration-qa-of-a-clinical-deformation-registration-software-a-single-institution-preliminary-study
#19
G Gill, S Souri, A Rea, Y Chen, J Antone, X Qian, A Riegel, P Taylor, M Marrero, F Diaz, Y Cao, A Jamshidi, S Barley, V Sorell, G Karangelis, T Button, E Klein
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to verify and analyze the accuracy of a clinical deformable image registration (DIR) software. METHODS: To test clinical DIR software qualitatively and quantitatively, we focused on lung radiotherapy and analyzed a single (Lung) patient CT scan. Artificial anatomical changes were applied to account for daily variations during the course of treatment including the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The primary CT (pCT) and the structure set (pST) was deformed with commercial tool (ImSimQA-Oncology Systems Limited) and after artificial deformation (dCT and dST) sent to another commercial tool (VelocityAI-Varian Medical Systems)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048107/su-f-i-04-low-dose-ct-lung-cancer-screening-protocol-evaluation
#20
E Nett, Y Imai
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate protocols for low dose CT (LDCT) for lung cancer screening on a Revolution CT (GE Healthcare; Waukesha, WI). Lung cancer the leading cause of cancer death for men and women, and more deaths are attributable to lung cancer than breast, colon and prostate cancers combined. Recently, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed LDCT screening resulted in a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and 6.7% in mortality from all causes [NEJM, 2011]...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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