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Extravasation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036258/serpiginous-purpuric-eruption-of-the-leg
#1
Kristin Totoraitis, Cynthia M Magro, Adam Friedman
A previously healthy 68-year-old male presented with a rash on his right lower leg. The lesions had spread along the leg since onset 9 days prior, and the patient reported localized soreness and pruritus. He denied systemic symptoms including fever, fatigue, myalgia, joint pain, and recent illness. Physical examination revealed a serpiginous, purpuric eruption on the anterior and posterior right thigh and lower leg. A 4mm punch biopsy from the right lower leg revealed a Th2 dominant process reflective of a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034461/the-migraine-attack-as-a-homeostatic-neuroprotective-response-to-brain-oxidative-stress-preliminary-evidence-for-a-theory
#2
Jonathan M Borkum
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that migraineurs show higher levels of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides) between migraine attacks and that migraine triggers may further increase brain oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is transduced into a neural signal by the TRPA1 ion channel on meningeal pain receptors, eliciting neurogenic inflammation, a key event in migraine. Thus, migraines may be a response to brain oxidative stress. RESULTS: In this article, a number of migraine components are considered: cortical spreading depression, platelet activation, plasma protein extravasation, endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, and the release of serotonin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
October 16, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034214/pathogenic-cd8-t-cells-cause-increased-levels-of-vegf-a-in-experimental-malaria-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-but-therapeutic-vegfr-inhibition-is-not-effective
#3
Thao-Thy Pham, Melissa Verheijen, Leen Vandermosten, Katrien Deroost, Sofie Knoops, Kathleen Van den Eynde, Louis Boon, Chris J Janse, Ghislain Opdenakker, Philippe E Van den Steen
Malaria is a severe disease and kills over 400,000 people each year. Malarial complications are the main cause of death and include cerebral malaria and malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS). Despite antimalarial treatment, lethality rates of MA-ARDS are still between 20 and 80%. Patients develop pulmonary edema with hemorrhages and leukocyte extravasation in the lungs. The vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and the placental growth factor (PlGF) are vascular permeability factors and may be involved in the disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane, leading to alveolar edema...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034063/targeting-orthotopic-gliomas-with-renal-clearable-luminescent-gold-nanoparticles
#4
Chuanqi Peng, Xiaofei Gao, Jing Xu, Bujie Du, Xuhui Ning, Shaoheng Tang, Robert M Bachoo, Mengxiao Yu, Woo-Ping Ge, Jie Zheng
A major clinical translational challenge in nanomedicine is the potential of toxicity associated with the uptake and long-term retention of non-degradable nanoparticles (NPs) in major organs. The development of inorganic NPs that undergo renal clearance could potentially resolve this significant biosafety concern. However, it remains unclear whether inorganic NPs that can be excreted by the kidneys remain capable of targeting tumors with poor permeability. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant orthotopic brain tumor, presents a unique challenge for NP delivery because of the blood-brain barrier and robust blood-tumor barrier of reactive microglia and macroglia in the tumor microenvironment...
April 2017: Nano Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031196/anti-edematogenic-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-croton-rhamnifolioides-leaves-and-its-major-constituent-1-8-cineole-eucalyptol
#5
Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Lindaiane Bezerra Rodrigues, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana Cesário, Maria Rayane Correia de Oliveira, Cicera Datiane Morais Tintino, Fyama Ferreira E Castro, Isabel Sousa Alcântara, Maria Neyze Martins Fernandes, Thaís Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Maria Sanadia Alexandre da Silva, Adriano Antunes de Sousa Araújo, Lucindo José Quintans Júniur, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley
The species Croton rhamnifolioides, belonging to the Croton genus, is known in ethnomedicine as "quebra faca" and is used in the treatment of stomach pain, vomiting and fever. This study aims to evaluate the anti-edematogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of Croton rhamnifolioides leaf essential oil (OEFC) and its major constituent: 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol). The essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves through a hydrodistillation system. The chemical analysis was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030969/adropin-preserves-the-blood-brain-barrier-through-a-notch1-hes1-pathway-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#6
Lingyan Yu, Zhengyang Lu, Sherrefa Burchell, Derek Nowrangi, Anatol Manaenko, Xue Li, Yang Xu, Ningbo Xu, Jiping Tang, Haibin Dai, John H Zhang
Adropin is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a crucial role in the development of stroke. However, little is currently known about the effects of adropin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, the role of adropin in collagenase-induced ICH was investigated in mice. At 1-h post ICH, mice were administered with recombinant human adropin by intranasal. Brain water content, BBB permeability, and neurological function were measured at different time intervals...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027227/missing-in-action-the-meaning-of-cell-death-in-tissue-damage-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Luis E Muñoz, Moritz Leppkes, Tobias A Fuchs, Markus Hoffmann, Martin Herrmann
Billions of cells die every day in higher organisms as part of the normal process of tissue homeostasis. During special conditions like in development, acute infections, mechanical injuries, and immunity, cell death is a common denominator and it exerts profound effects in the outcome of these scenarios. To prevent the accumulation of aged, superfluous, infected, damaged and dead cells, professional phagocytes act in a rapid and efficient manner to clear the battle field and avoid spread of the destruction...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024748/effect-of-circulating-tumor-cell-aggregate-configuration-on-hemodynamic-transport-and-wall-contact
#8
Kevin J Anderson, Adelaide de Guillebon, Andrew Hughes, Weiwei Wang, Michael R King
Selectin-mediated adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the endothelium is a critical step in cancer metastasis, which is a major factor contributing to the mortality of cancer. The formation of tethers between tumor cells and endothelial selectins initiates cell rolling, which leads to firm adhesion, extravasation and the formation of secondary metastases. Tumor cells can travel through the bloodstream as single cells, or as aggregates known as circulating tumor microemboli (CTM). CTM have increased survivability and metastatic potential relative to CTCs, and the presence of CTM is associated with worse patient prognosis...
October 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023687/a-guide-for-effective-anatomical-vascularization-studies-useful-ex%C3%A2-vivo-methods-for-both-ct-and-mri-imaging-before-dissection
#9
Yohann Renard, Gabriela Hossu, Bailiang Chen, Marine Krebs, Marc Labrousse, Manuela Perez
The objective of this study was to develop a simple and useful injection protocol for imaging cadaveric vascularization and dissection. Mixtures of contrast agent and cast product should provide adequate contrast for two types of ex vivo imaging (MRI and CT) and should harden to allow gross dissection of the injected structures. We tested the most popular contrast agents and cast products, and selected the optimal mixture composition based on their availability and ease of use. All mixtures were first tested in vitro to adjust dilution parameters of each contrast agent and to fine-tune MR imaging acquisition sequences...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020849/microfluidic-preparation-of-drug-loaded-pegylated-liposomes-and-the-impact-of-liposome-size-on-tumour-retention-and-penetration
#10
Yao-Da Dong, Estefania Tchung, Cameron Nowell, Sadik Kaga, Nathania Leong, Dharmini Mehta, Lisa M Kaminskas, Ben J Boyd
Understanding the effect of liposome size on tendency for accumulation in tumour tissue requires preparation of defined populations of different sized particles. However, controlling the size distributions without changing the lipid composition is difficult, and differences in compositions itself modify distribution behaviour. Here a commercial microfluidic format as well as traditional methods were used to prepare doxorubicin-loaded liposomes of different size distributions but with the same lipid composition, and drug retention, biodistribution and localization in tumour tissues were evaluated...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994756/screening-assays-to-characterize-novel-endothelial-regulators-involved-in-the-inflammatory-response
#11
María Ángeles Higueras, Lidia Jiménez-García, Sandra Herranz, Sonsoles Hortelano, Alfonso Luque
The endothelial layer is essential for maintaining homeostasis in the body by controlling many different functions. Regulation of the inflammatory response by the endothelial layer is crucial to efficiently fight against harmful inputs and aid in the recovery of damaged areas. When the endothelial cells are exposed to an inflammatory environment, such as the outer component of gram-negative bacteria membrane, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), they express soluble pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Ccl5, Cxcl1 and Cxcl10, and trigger the activation of circulating leukocytes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994183/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-induced-angioedema-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Teresa Brown, Jimmy Gonzalez, Catherine Monteleone
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, one third of antihypertensive prescriptions in the United States in the past decade were for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). An important and serious side effect of ACEIs is angioedema caused by a reduction in bradykinin degradation. In a national medical chart abstraction study conducted at the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System in 2008, 0.20% of ACEI initiators developed angioedema while on the medication. The angiotensin-converting enzyme is a part of the renin-angiotensin system that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993062/chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-and-the-extrinsic-coagulation-system
#13
REVIEW
Yuhki Yanase, Shunsuke Takahagi, Michihiro Hide
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder characterized by daily or almost daily recurring skin edema and flare with itch. Recently, the activation of the blood coagulation cascade has been suggested to be involved in CSU, but the trigger of the coagulation cascade remains unclear. In this article, we review recent understanding of the relationship between the pathogenesis of CSU and extrinsic coagulation reactions. In CSU, vascular endothelial cells and eosinophils may play a role as TF-expressing cells for activating the extrinsic coagulation pathway...
October 6, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992069/local-delivery-of-liposomal-prednisolone-leads-to-an-anti-inflammatory-profile-in-renal-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-rat
#14
Carla M A van Alem, Mark Boonstra, Jurriën Prins, Taisiya Bezhaeva, Mieke F van Essen, Jurjen M Ruben, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Eric P van der Veer, Johan W de Fijter, Marlies E Reinders, Onno Meijer, Josbert M Metselaar, Cees van Kooten, Joris I Rotmans
Background: Treatment of inflammatory kidney diseases with systemic high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) has severe side effects. Liposomal encapsulation could facilitate local delivery of GCs to the inflamed kidney, as liposomes encapsulate their payload until extravasation at sites of inflammation, potentially resulting in local bioactivity. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of liposomes to accumulate locally after renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat and to study its effect on macrophages...
July 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990973/the-issue-of-gadolinium-retained-in-tissues-insights-on-the-role-of-metal-complex-stability-by-comparing-metal-uptake-in-murine-tissues-upon-the-concomitant-administration-of-lanthanum-and-gadolinium-diethylentriamminopentaacetate
#15
Enza Di Gregorio, Giuseppe Ferrauto, Chiara Furlan, Stefania Lanzardo, Raffaele Nuzzi, Eliana Gianolio, Silvio Aime
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the role of the stability of metal complexes in the processes that lead to the metal retention in the brain and other tissues of mice administered with lanthanides-based contrast agents. This issue was tackled by the simultaneous injection of gadolinium (Gd)-diethylentriamminopentaacetate (DTPA) and lanthanum-DTPA, which have the same charge and structure but differ in their thermodynamic stability by 3 orders of magnitude. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 healthy BALB/c mice were administered by a single intravenous injection with a dose consisting of 0...
October 3, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989143/-protective-effect-of-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-ss31-on-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#16
Jian Zhou, Zhengzheng Li, Zhenggang Chen, Kun Yang
To evaluate protective effects of SS31 on early brain injury (EBI) induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats.
 Methods: A total of 96 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A sham group, an SAH group, an SAH+vehicle group (SAH+V), and an SAH+SS31 group. The SAH-induced prechiasmatic cistern rat model was established in this study. Neurological deficit scores were evaluated at 24 h after SAH. The SS31 (5 mg/kg) as well as equal volume of vehicle were administrated intraperitoneally at 2 h after SAH...
September 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988499/polymer-therapeutics-and-the-epr-effect
#17
Hiroshi Maeda
History of the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect is discussed, which goes back to the analyses of molecular pathology in bacterial infection and edema (extravasation) formation. The first mediator we found for extravasation was bradykinin. Later on, were found nitric oxide and superoxide, then formation of peroxynitrite, that activates procollagenase. In this inflammatory setting many other vascular mediators are involved that are also common to cancer vasculature. Obviously cancer vasculature is defective architechtally, and this makes macromolecular drugs more permeable through the vascular wall...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988494/extravasation-of-contrast-spot-sign-predicts-in-hospital-mortality-in-ruptured-arteriovenous-malformation
#18
Zengpanpan Ye, Xiaolin Ai, Jun Zheng, Xin Hu, Chao You, Faramand Andrew M, Fang Fang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The spot sign is a highly specific and sensitive predictor of hematoma expansion in following primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rare cases of the spot sign have been documented in patients with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the accuracy of spot sign in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured AVM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for patients who presented to West China Hospital with ICH secondary to AVM in the period between January 2009 and September 2016...
October 9, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987927/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Jiang, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ling Zhu, Tuo Yang, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen, Richard F Keep, Yejie Shi
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role in regulating the trafficking of fluid, solutes and cells at the blood-brain interface and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the CNS. Under pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, the BBB can be disrupted, followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain and compromise of normal neuronal function. This article reviews recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying BBB dysfunction and recovery after ischemic stroke...
October 5, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987593/mrgprx2-is-essential-for-sinomenine-hydrochlorideinduced-anaphylactoid-reactions
#20
Rui Liu, Delu Che, Tingting Zhao, Priyanka Pundir, Jiao Cao, Yanni Lv, Jue Wang, Pengyu Ma, Jia Fu, Nana Wang, Xiaoyang Wang, Tao Zhang, Xinzhong Dong, Langchong He
Mast cells are unique immunocytes that function as sentinel cells in host defense reactions such as immediate hypersensitivity responses and anaphylactic responses. The mast cell specific receptor MRGPRX2 (Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2) triggers mast cell degranulation-a key process in anaphylactic reactions. We sought to better understand anaphylactic reaction induced by Sinomenine Hydrochloride (SH). MRGPRX2-related pseudo-allergic reactions induced by SH were investigated using the hindpaw swelling and extravasation assay in vivo and mast cell degranulation assays in vitro...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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