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Vascular permeability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775418/prolonged-activation-of-camp-signaling-leads-to-endothelial-barrier-disruption-via-transcriptional-repression-of-rras
#1
Carole Y Perrot, Junko Sawada, Masanobu Komatsu
The increase in cAMP levels in endothelial cells triggers cellular signaling to alter vascular permeability. It is generally considered that cAMP signaling stabilizes the endothelial barrier function and reduces permeability. However, previous studies have only examined the permeability shortly after cAMP elevation and thus have only investigated acute responses. Because cAMP is a key regulator of gene expression, elevated cAMP may have a delayed but profound impact on the endothelial permeability by altering the expression of the genes that are vital for the vessel wall stability...
May 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774063/dual-target-gene-therapy-to-eml4-alk-nsclc-by-a-gold-nanoshell-based-system
#2
Siwen Li, Yuxi Liu, Yalan Rui, Liping Tang, Samuel Achilefu, Yueqing Gu
Although EML4-ALK transforming fusion gene is represented in only 8% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, its expression is partly responsive for the failure of current NSCLC treatments. Preventing secondary mutation of the ALK protein through direct gene manipulation could overcome NSCLC drug resistance. Method: In this study, we developed a gold nanoshell (HAuNs) drug carrier for delivery and selective photo-thermal release of genes that target ALK and microRNA-301 in NSCLC. Additionally, the densely-coated nanoshell adsorbed high amounts of the positively-charged anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), generating an exciting multidimensional treatment strategy that includes gene-, thermal- and chemo- therapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765453/therapeutic-inhibition-of-cxc-chemokine-receptor-2-by-sb225002-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#3
Qing Cao, Biru Li, Xike Wang, Kun Sun, Ying Guo
Introduction: Sustained neutrophilic infiltration is known to contribute to organ damage, such as acute lung injury (ALI). CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is the major receptor regulating inflammatory neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relevance of the CXCR2 inhibitor SB225002 in LPS-induced acute lung injury. Material and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following four experimental groups ( n = 10 per group): untreated group (control group, Ctr); LPS-treated ALI group (LPS group, LPS); LPS + PBS-treated group (LPS + PBS); and SB225002-treated ALI group (LPS + SB225002)...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761012/an-overview-of-protective-strategies-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-role-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-preconditioning
#4
Ciprian Hentia, Alex Rizzato, Enrico Camporesi, Zhongjin Yang, Danina M Muntean, Dorel Săndesc, Gerardo Bosco
Introduction: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, has been recognized as the most frequent causes of devastating disorders and death currently. Protective effect of various preconditioning stimuli, including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), has been proposed in the management of I/R. Methods: In this study, we searched and reviewed up-to-date published papers to explore the pathophysiology of I/R injury and to understand the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of HBO as conditioning strategy...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756078/engineering-endothelialized-microfluidics-for-investigating-vascular-and-hematologic-processes-using-non-traditional-fabrication-techniques
#5
Robert G Mannino, Navaneeth Kr Pandian, Abhishek Jain, Wilbur A Lam
Investigating the complex interplay between blood cells and the endothelium is crucial in understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. Observation of the in vivo vasculature is difficult due to the complexities of vessel geometry, limited visualization capability, as well as variability and complexity inherent to biologic systems. Therefore, in vitro systems serve as ideal tools to study these cellular interactions. Microfluidic technologies are an ideal tool for recapitulating the vasculature in vivo as they can be used to fabricate fluidic channels on the size scale capillaries using gas permeable, biologically inert, and optically transparent substrates...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753850/role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dengue-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Gopinathan Pillai Sreekanth, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Thawornchai Limjindaporn
Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a disease that is endemic to many parts of the world, and its increasing prevalence ranks it among the diseases considered to be a significant threat to public health. The clinical manifestations of DENV infection range from mild dengue fever (DF) to more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Increased proinflammatory cytokines and vascular permeability, both of which cause organ injury, are the hallmarks of severe dengue disease. Signs of liver injury were observed in studies using hepatic cell lines, mouse models, and autopsy specimens from DENV-infected patients, and these signs substantiated the effects of inflammatory responses and hepatic cell apoptosis...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753139/a-review-on-fabricating-tissue-scaffolds-using-vat-photopolymerization
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas A Chartrain, Christopher B Williams, Abby R Whittington
Vat Photopolymerization (stereolithography, SLA), an Additive Manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology, holds particular promise for the fabrication of tissue scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine. Unlike traditional tissue scaffold fabrication techniques, SLA is capable of fabricating designed scaffolds through the selective photopolymerization of a photopolymer resin on the micron scale. SLA offers unprecedented control over scaffold porosity and permeability, as well as pore size, shape, and interconnectivity...
May 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750972/inhibition-of-cx43-gap-junction-uncoupling-prevents-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-and-reduces-excess-cell-monolayer-permeability-in-retinal-vascular-endothelial-cells
#8
Dongjoon Kim, Ulrik Mouritzen, Bjarne Due Larsen, Sayon Roy
The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of connexin 43 gap junction-uncoupling is sufficient to prevent retinal vascular cell loss under high glucose condition and reduce cell monolayer permeability. Rat retinal endothelial cells were grown for 3, 5, and 7 days in normal (5 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) medium; in parallel, cells grown in high glucose medium were exposed for 3, 5, and 7 days to 100 nM danegaptide, which stabilizes connexin 43-mediated cell coupling. Additionally, cells grown in normal medium were treated with a connexin 43 blocker as a negative control...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749551/angiotensin-ii-inhibits-the-protein-expression-of-zo%C3%A2-1-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-by-downregulating-ve%C3%A2-cadherin
#9
Longbin Liu, Liping Meng, Peng Zhang, Hui Lin, Jufang Chi, Fang Peng, Hangyuan Guo
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is reported to be involved in the development of various cardiovascular diseases by disrupting microvessel permeability, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which Ang II disrupts microvascular permeability. Rat endothelial cells were subjected to primary culture and identification. Cells in passages 4‑7 were then used for the following experiments. The cells were divided into control, Ang II, and Ang II + valsartan groups, and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were perform to evaluate the expression of zonula occludens‑1 (ZO‑1) and vascular endothelial (VE)‑cadherin in the cells...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745255/pannexin-1-channels-on-endothelial-cells-mediate-vascular-inflammation-during-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Ashish K Sharma, Eric J Charles, Yunge Zhao, Adishesh K Narahari, Pranav K Baderdinni, Miranda E Good, Ulrike M Lorenz, Irving L Kron, Douglas A Bayliss, Kodi S Ravichandran, Brant E Isakson, Victor E Laubach
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which involves inflammation, vascular permeability, and edema, remains a major challenge after lung transplantation. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels modulate cellular ATP release during inflammation. This study tests the hypothesis that endothelial Panx1 is a key mediator of vascular inflammation and edema after IR and that IRI can be blocked by Panx1 antagonism. A murine hilar ligation model of IRI was utilized whereby left lungs underwent 1 hour of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743365/dengue-virus-induces-increased-activity-of-the-complement-alternative-pathway-in-infected-cells
#11
Sheila Cabezas, Gustavo Bracho, Amanda L Aloia, Penelope J Adamson, Claudine S Bonder, Justine R Smith, David L Gordon, Jillian M Carr
Severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is associated with overactivity of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in patient studies. Here, the molecular changes in components of the AP during DENV infection in vitro are investigated. mRNA for factor H (FH) a major negative regulator of the AP, is significantly increased in DENV-infected endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages but in contrast production of extracellular FH protein is not. This discord is not seen for the AP activator, factor B (FB), with DENV induction of both FB mRNA and protein, nor with Toll-like receptor 3 or 4 stimulation of EC and macrophages, which induces both FH and FB mRNA and protein...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743277/small-gtpase-dependent-regulation-of-leukocyte-endothelial-interactions-in-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Julia Y Chu, Barry McCormick, Sonja Vermeren
Inflammation is a complex biological response that serves to protect the body's tissues following harmful stimuli such as infection, irritation or injury and initiates tissue repair. At the start of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory mediators induce changes in the endothelial lining of the blood vessels and in leukocytes. This results in increased vascular permeability and increased expression of adhesion proteins, and promotes adhesion of leukocytes, especially neutrophils to the endothelium. Adhesion is a prerequisite for neutrophil extravasation and chemoattractant-stimulated recruitment to inflammatory sites, where neutrophils phagocytose and kill microbes, release inflammatory mediators and cross-talk with other immune cells to co-ordinate the immune response in preparation for tissue repair...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735342/dabigatran-reduces-endothelial-permeability-through-inhibition-of-thrombin-induced-cytoskeleton-reorganization
#13
Hyun-Jung Choi, Na-Eun Kim, Jayoung Kim, Sunho An, Seung-Hee Yang, Jimin Ha, Sunghee Cho, Il Kwon, Young Dae Kim, Hyo Suk Nam, Ji Hoe Heo
Dabigatran etexilate (DE), a new oral anti-coagulant, is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Clinical trials showed the favorable benefit-to-risk profile of DE compared to warfarin for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Remarkably, patients treated with dabigatran showed reduced rates of intracerebral hemorrhage compared to warfarin. As the breakdown of endothelial barrier integrity is associated with hemorrhagic events and as thrombin increases endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that dabigatran preserves the endothelial barrier by inhibiting thrombin-induced permeability...
April 25, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734804/a-novel-nanoparticle-formulation-derived-from-carboxymethyl-cellulose-polyethylene-glycol-and-cabazitaxel-for-chemotherapy-delivery-to-the-brain
#14
Joseph Bteich, Mark J Ernsting, Mohammed Z Mohammed, Taira Kiyota, Trevor McKee, Mohit Trikha, Henry Lowman, Kenneth K Sokoll
Nanoparticles provide a unique opportunity to explore the benefits of selective distribution and release of cancer therapeutics at sites of disease through varying particle sizes and compositions that exploit the enhanced permeability of tumor-associated blood vessels. Though delivery of larger-as opposed to smaller and/or actively transported-molecules to the brain is prime face a challenging endeavor, we wondered whether nanoparticles could improve the therapeutic index of existing drugs for use in treating brain tumors via these vascular effects...
May 7, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733947/sphingolipid-signaling-modulates-trans-endothelial-cell-permeability-in-dengue-virus-infected-hmec-1-cells
#15
M G Anupriya, Sneha Singh, Neha Vijay Hulyalkar, Easwaran Sreekumar
Dengue has emerged as a major mosquito-borne disease in the tropics and subtropics. In severe dengue, enhanced microvascular endothelial permeability leads to plasma leakage. Direct dengue virus (DENV) infection in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) can enhance trans-endothelial leakage. Using a microarray-based analysis, we identified modulation of key endothelial cell signaling pathways in DENV-infected HMEC-1 cells. One among them was the sphingolipid pathway that regulates vascular barrier function...
May 4, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732187/adjunctive-therapies-during-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#16
REVIEW
Federico Pappalardo, Andrea Montisci
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) restores gas exchanges in severely hypoxemic patients. The need for adjunctive therapies usually originates either from refractory hypoxemia during ECMO (defined as the persistence of low blood oxygen levels despite extracorporeal support) or from the attempt to give a specific therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this review, therapeutic strategies to treat refractory and persistent hypoxemia during ECMO are evaluated. In the second part, therapies that can be added on top of VV ECMO to address inflammation and altered vascular permeability in ARDS are examined...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730819/artesunate-inhibits-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-mediated-remote-lung-inflammation-through-attenuating-ros-induced-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#17
Zhaohui Liu, Min Qu, Lili Yu, Panpan Song, Yulin Chang
The molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury (ALI) are closely associated with nucleotide-binding domains and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) pyrin domains containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, in which alveolar macrophages (AMs) exert an essential function. Our study has been proved that artesunate (AS) inhibits ALI. Nevertheless, the inhibition actions of AS on activation of NLRP3 in renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR)-mediated ALI remain to be further discussed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: sham + NS, sham + AS, RIR + NS, and RIR + AS...
May 5, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730154/histidine-rich-glycoprotein-induced-vascular-normalization-improves-epr-mediated-drug-targeting-to-and-into-tumors
#18
Benjamin Theek, Maike Baues, Felix Gremse, Robert Pola, Michal Pechar, Inka Negwer, Kaloian Koynov, Benjamin Weber, Matthias Barz, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Gert Storm, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers
Tumors are characterized by leaky blood vessels, and by an abnormal and heterogeneous vascular network. These pathophysiological characteristics contribute to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, which is one of the key rationales for developing tumor-targeted drug delivery systems. Vessel abnormality and heterogeneity, however, which typically result from excessive pro-angiogenic signaling, can also hinder efficient drug delivery to and into tumors. Using histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) knockout and wild type mice, and HRG-overexpressing and normal t241 fibrosarcoma cells, we evaluated the effect of genetically induced and macrophage-mediated vascular normalization on the tumor accumulation and penetration of ~10-20 nm-sized polymeric drug carriers based on poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729392/imaging-vascular-and-hemodynamic-features-of-the-brain-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#19
C Chad Quarles, Laura C Bell, Ashley M Stokes
In the context of neurologic disorders, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI provide valuable insights into cerebral vascular function, integrity, and architecture. Even after two decades of use, these modalities continue to evolve as their biophysical and kinetic basis is better understood, with improvements in pulse sequences and accelerated imaging techniques and through application of more robust and automated data analysis strategies. Here, we systematically review each of these elements, with a focus on how their integration improves kinetic parameter accuracy and the development of new hemodynamic biomarkers that provide sub-voxel sensitivity (e...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728746/-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-diagnostic-workup-of-lymph-nodes
#20
REVIEW
H-P Weskott
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Daily tasks in sonographic diagnostics include detection and characterization of peripheral and abdominal lymph nodes. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to the B‑mode methods, color-coded Doppler sonography (CCDS) plays an important role in the evaluation of lymph nodes. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become a standard procedure in vascular and organ diagnostics. Tissue perfusion can be recorded visually and retrospectively in real time using time-dependent intensity analysis...
May 4, 2018: Der Radiologe
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