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Systemic sclerosis animal model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921889/positron-emission-tomography-of-type-2-cannabinoid-receptors-for-detecting-inflammation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Ruiqing Ni, Linjing Mu, Simon Ametamey
Cannabinoid receptor CB2 (CB2 R) is upregulated on activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain under inflammatory conditions and plays important roles in many neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) using CB2 R radiotracers has enabled the visualization of CB2 R distribution in vivo in animal models of central nervous system inflammation, however translation to humans has been less successful...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904379/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-as-a-promising-antigen-specific-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-from-preclinical-to-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Georgina Flórez-Grau, Irati Zubizarreta, Raquel Cabezón, Pablo Villoslada, Daniel Benitez-Ribas
The identification of activated T-lymphocytes restricted to myelin-derived immunogenic peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 water channel in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in the blood of patients opened the possibility for developing highly selective and disease-specific therapeutic approaches. Antigen presenting cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) represent a strategy to inhibit pro-inflammatory T helper cells. DCs are located in peripheral and lymphoid tissues and are essential for homeostasis of T cell-dependent immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903027/laquinimod-protects-the-optic-nerve-and-retina-in-an-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model
#3
Anna T Wilmes, Sabrina Reinehr, Sandra Kühn, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Laura Petrikowski, Simon Faissner, Ilya Ayzenberg, Gesa Stute, Ralf Gold, H Burkhard Dick, Ingo Kleiter, Stephanie C Joachim
BACKGROUND: The oral immunomodulatory agent laquinimod is currently evaluated for multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment. Phase II and III studies demonstrated a reduction of degenerative processes. In addition to anti-inflammatory effects, laquinimod might have neuroprotective properties, but its impact on the visual system, which is often affected by MS, is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate potential protective effects of laquinimod on the optic nerve and retina in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897736/dexmedetomidine-an-alpha-2a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-mitigates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-desensitization-of-cxcr7-in-microglia
#4
Yi Huang, Shite Hu, Yongliang Li, Dan Xue, Xiuguo Wu
In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by an ascending paralysis that is characterized by extensive infiltration of the central nervous system by inflammatory cells. Although several studies to some extent uncover the cellular mechanisms of microglia that govern EAE pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate microglia movement remain unknown and potential novel therapeutic strategies are still required...
June 13, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887155/concluding-remarks
#5
Maurizio Pocchiari, Jean Manson
This is the first volume of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology totally devoted to prion diseases. The reason for this choice is to inform neurologists and neuroscientists about the remarkable advances that this field has made in the diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases, understanding the pathogenesis of disease, and in the development of novel in vivo and in vitro models. In recent years, the knowledge of prion replication and mechanisms of prion spreading within the brain and peripheral organs of infected people has also become important for understanding other protein misfolded diseases of the brain, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871694/safety-and-efficacy-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-astrocytes-following-intrathecal-transplantation-in-sod1-g93a-and-nsg-animal-models
#6
Michal Izrael, Shalom Guy Slutsky, Tamar Admoni, Louisa Cohen, Avital Granit, Arik Hasson, Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, Lena Krush Paker, Graciela Kuperstein, Neta Lavon, Shiran Yehezkel Ionescu, Leonardo Javier Solmesky, Rachel Zaguri, Alina Zhuravlev, Ella Volman, Judith Chebath, Michel Revel
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron (MN) disease characterized by the loss of MNs in the central nervous system. As MNs die, patients progressively lose their ability to control voluntary movements, become paralyzed and eventually die from respiratory/deglutition failure. Despite the selective MN death in ALS, there is growing evidence that malfunctional astrocytes play a crucial role in disease progression. Thus, transplantation of healthy astrocytes may compensate for the diseased astrocytes...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863021/nogo-receptor-expression-in-microglia-macrophages-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-progression
#7
Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Min Joung Kim, Pei-Mun Aui, Kylie A Magee, Steven Petratos
Myelin-associated inhibitory factors within the central nervous system (CNS) are considered to be one of the main obstacles for axonal regeneration following disease or injury. The nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) has been well documented to play a key role in limiting axonal regrowth in the injured and diseased mammalian CNS. However, the role of nogo receptor in immune cell activation during CNS inflammation is yet to be mechanistically elucidated. Microglia/macrophages are immune cells that are regarded as pathogenic contributors to inflammatory demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860267/gpr97-adgrg3-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-regulating-cytokine-expression
#8
Jinjin Wang, Xiyi Wang, Xuejiao Chen, Shunyuan Lu, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang
Multiple sclerosis and its primary animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by immune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration that may be mediated by inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Gpr97, encoded by Adgrg3, has been reported to regulate the activity of NF-κB. In this study, using a previously established Adgrg3-knockout mouse model, we investigated the roles of Gpr97 in the development of autoimmune CNS disease in mice...
June 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859100/complement-components-are-upregulated-and-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-the-tdp-43-q331k-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
John D Lee, Samantha C Levin, Emily F Willis, Rui Li, Trent M Woodruff, Peter G Noakes
BACKGROUND: Components of the innate immune complement system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) specifically using hSOD1 transgenic animals; however, a comprehensive examination of complement expression in other transgenic ALS models has not been performed. This study therefore aimed to determine the expression of several key complement components and regulators in the lumbar spinal cord and tibialis anterior muscle of TDP-43Q331K mice during different disease ages...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805314/gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-current-applications-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Fengna Chu, Mingchao Shi, Yue Lang, Donghui Shen, Tao Jin, Jie Zhu, Li Cui
The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803827/csf1r-inhibition-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-promotes-recovery
#11
Jillian C Nissen, Kaitlyn K Thompson, Brian L West, Stella E Tsirka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive neuronal demyelination and degeneration. Much of this damage can be attributed to microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, as well as monocyte-derived macrophages, which breach the blood-brain barrier in this inflammatory state. Upon activation, both microglia and macrophages release a variety of factors that greatly contribute to disease progression, and thus therapeutic approaches in MS focus on diminishing their activity...
May 24, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791026/cd99l2-deficiency-inhibits-leukocyte-entry-into-the-central-nervous-system-and-ameliorates-neuroinflammation
#12
Maryna Samus, Ruth Seelige, Kerstin Schäfer, Lydia Sorokin, Dietmar Vestweber
Leukocyte entry into the CNS is a crucial step in the development of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Adhesion molecules mediating the docking of leukocytes to the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represent valuable targets for interference with the disease. However, little is known about the adhesion and signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that mediate the diapedesis through the BBB. Here, we show that conditional Tie-2-Cre driven gene inactivation of CD99L2 inhibits leukocyte entry into the CNS during active MOG35-55 -induced EAE and alleviates severity of the disease...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788997/2d-versus-3d-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cultures-for-neurodegenerative-disease-modelling
#13
REVIEW
Eduarda G Z Centeno, Helena Cimarosti, Angela Bithell
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affect millions of people every year and so far, there are no therapeutic cures available. Even though animal and histological models have been of great aid in understanding disease mechanisms and identifying possible therapeutic strategies, in order to find disease-modifying solutions there is still a critical need for systems that can provide more predictive and physiologically relevant results...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787578/mth1-driven-expression-of-htdp-43-results-in-typical-als-ftld-neuropathological-symptoms
#14
Barbara Scherz, Roland Rabl, Stefanie Flunkert, Siegfried Rohler, Joerg Neddens, Nicole Taub, Magdalena Temmel, Ute Panzenboeck, Vera Niederkofler, Robert Zimmermann, Birgit Hutter-Paier
Transgenic mouse models are indispensable tools to mimic human diseases and analyze the effectiveness of related new drugs. For a long time amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research depended on only a few mouse models that exhibit a very strong and early phenotype, e.g. SOD1 mice, resulting in a short treatment time window. By now, several models are available that need to be characterized to highlight characteristics of each model. Here we further characterized the mThy1-hTDP-43 transgenic mouse model TAR6/6 that overexpresses wild type human TARDBP, also called TDP-43, under control of the neuronal Thy-1 promoter presented by Wils and colleagues, 2010, by using biochemical, histological and behavioral readouts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777524/mercury-involvement-in-neuronal-damage-and-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Annalisa Samà, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis are characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuronal cell death. Although the causes of neurodegenerative diseases remain still unknown, it is now a well-established idea that more factors, such as genetic, endogenous, and environmental, are involved. Among environmental causes, the accumulation of mercury, a heavy metal considered a toxic agent, was largely studied as a probable factor involved in neurodegenerative disease course...
May 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770137/gut-microbiota-confers-resistance-of-albino-oxford-rats-to-the-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#16
Suzana Stanisavljević, Miroslav Dinić, Bojan Jevtić, Neda Đedović, Miljana Momčilović, Jelena Đokić, Nataša Golić, Marija Mostarica Stojković, Đorđe Miljković
Albino Oxford (AO) rats are extremely resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with established autoimmune pathogenesis. The autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is initiated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues after immunization of AO rats with CNS antigens. Subsequently, limited infiltration of the CNS occurs, yet without clinical sequels. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and gut microbiota play an important role in regulation and propagation of encephalitogenic immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770132/differing-outcome-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis-in-macrophage-neutrophil-and-t-cell-specific-gp130-deficient-mice
#17
Kristian Holz, Marco Prinz, Stefanie M Brendecke, Alexandra Hölscher, Fengyuan Deng, Hans-Willi Mitrücker, Stefan Rose-John, Christoph Hölscher
gp130 cytokines are differentially involved in regulating the T helper (H) 17-driven pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of human multiple sclerosis. Interleukin (IL)-6 directly promotes the development of TH17 cells through the gp130/IL-6R complex. By contrast, IL-27 has been shown to suppress a TH17 immune response by gp130/IL-27R-alpha (α) receptor ligation. The IL-27-dependent regulation of a TH17 development could be mediated on the level of CD4 T cells. However, because IL-27 also suppresses the secretion of the TH17-driving cytokines IL-6 and IL-12/23p40 in accessory cells, TH17 immune responses may also be controlled by IL-27 on the level of macrophages and/or neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760648/profile-of-arachidonic-acid-derived-inflammatory-markers-and-its-modulation-by-nitro-oleic-acid-in-an-inherited-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Andrés Trostchansky, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Ernesto Miquel, Sebastián Rodríguez-Bottero, Laura Martínez-Palma, Patricia Cassina, Homero Rubbo
The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2 -OA)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749614/microrna-signature-of-central-nervous-system-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Mariah L Hoye, Angela S Archambault, Taylor M Gordon, Landon K Oetjen, Matthew D Cain, Robyn S Klein, Seth D Crosby, Brian S Kim, Timothy M Miller, Gregory F Wu
Innate immune cells are integral to the pathogenesis of several diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis (MS). Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells that are critical regulators of adaptive immune responses, particularly in autoimmune diseases such as MS. The regulation of DC function in both the periphery and CNS compartment has not been fully elucidated. One limitation to studying the role of CD11c+ DCs in the CNS is that microglia can upregulate CD11c during inflammation, making it challenging to distinguish bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from microglia...
May 10, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747748/pg201-protects-mice-from-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-via-suppression-of-effector-t-cell-activation
#20
Min-Jung Bae, Jinyong Choi, Hyun-Keun Kim, Seonung Lim, Sunyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: PG201 is a botanical formulation, approved as an ethical drug (ETC) phytomedicine for treatment of patients with osteoarthritis in Korea, following satisfactory phase II and phase III studies. This phytomedicine was previously been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory activities, presumably via the control of Th1 and Th17 cells in animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. PURPOSE: In this study, the possibility of using PG201 to treat multiple sclerosis was explored...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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