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Systemic sclerosis animal model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443093/a-novel-cervical-spinal-cord-window-preparation-allows-for-two-photon-imaging-of-t-cell-interactions-with-the-cervical-spinal-cord-microvasculature-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Neda Haghayegh Jahromi, Heidi Tardent, Gaby Enzmann, Urban Deutsch, Naoto Kawakami, Stefan Bittner, Dietmar Vestweber, Frauke Zipp, Jens V Stein, Britta Engelhardt
T-cell migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM) has been established as a powerful tool to study cell-cell interactions in inflammatory EAE lesions in living animals. In EAE, central nervous system inflammation is strongly pronounced in the spinal cord, an organ in which 2P-IVM imaging is technically very challenging and has been limited to the lumbar spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431621/two-decades-of-glatiramer-acetate-from-initial-discovery-to-the-current-development-of-generics
#2
REVIEW
Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Kavita V Nair, Joseph L Glajch, Tanmoy C Ganguly, Daniel Kantor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, incurable, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the United States, several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available, including glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone®), one of the most longstanding treatments. GA was discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s/early 1970s while attempting to produce a synthetic antigen capable of inducing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of autoimmune inflammatory CNS disorders, including MS...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421297/suppression-of-th1-differentiation-by-tryptophan-supplementation-in-vivo
#3
Tobias V Lanz, Simon Becker, Soumya R Mohapatra, Christiane A Opitz, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
Metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan (trp) is a key endogenous immunosuppressive pathway restricting inflammatory responses. Tryptophan metabolites promote regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and suppress proinflammatory T helper cell (Th)1 and Th17 phenotypes. It has been shown that treatment with natural and synthetic tryptophan metabolites can suppress autoimmune neuroinflammation in preclinical animal models. Here, we tested if oral intake of tryptophan would increase immunosuppressive tryptophan metabolites and ameliorate autoimmune neuroinflammation as a safe approach to treat autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS)...
April 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421248/indications-for-cellular-migration-from-the-central-nervous-system-to-its-draining-lymph-nodes-in-cd11c-gfp-bone-marrow-chimeras-following-eae
#4
Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Kerstin Immig, Carolin Prodinger, Ingo Bechmann
The concept as to how the brain maintains its immune privilege has initially been based on observations that it is lacking classical lymph vessels and later, the absence of dendritic cells (DC). This view has been challenged by several groups demonstrating drainage/migration of injected tracers and cells into cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the presence of brain antigens in CLNs in the course of various brain pathologies. Using CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (tg) mice, we have shown the existence of CD11c(+) cells, a main DC marker, within the brain parenchyma...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416816/scalable-electrophysiology-in-intact-small-animals-with-nanoscale-suspended-electrode-arrays
#5
Daniel L Gonzales, Krishna N Badhiwala, Daniel G Vercosa, Benjamin W Avants, Zheng Liu, Weiwei Zhong, Jacob T Robinson
Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405624/gm-csf-is-not-essential-for-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-but-promotes-brain-targeted-disease
#6
Emily R Pierson, Joan M Goverman
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been used as an animal model of multiple sclerosis to identify pathogenic cytokines that could be therapeutic targets. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is the only cytokine reported to be essential for EAE. We investigated the role of GM-CSF in EAE in C3HeB/FeJ mice that uniquely exhibit extensive brain and spinal cord inflammation. Unexpectedly, GM-CSF-deficient C3HeB/FeJ mice were fully susceptible to EAE because IL-17 activity compensated for the loss of GM-CSF during induction of spinal cord-targeted disease...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400867/evaluation-of-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-primary-and-secondary-sjogren-s-syndrome
#7
Ellen De Langhe, Xavier Bossuyt, Long Shen, Kishore Malyavantham, Julian L Ambrus, Lakshmanan Suresh
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and parotid secretory protein (PSP) were discovered in an animal model of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Their expression was noted in patients with SS, especially those with lower focus scores on lip biopsies and those with early disease lacking antibodies to Ro and La. OBJECTIVE: The current studies evaluated these autoantibodies in patients with long-standing SS expressing high levels of anti-Ro antibodies and in patients with Sjogren's syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD)...
2017: Open Rheumatology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400721/mir-384-regulates-the-th17-treg-ratio-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-pathogenesis
#8
Xuebin Qu, Jingjing Han, Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jun Zhou, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
Specific miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), during which IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we identified levels of miR-384 as significantly increased in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Over-expression of miR-384 in vivo led to severe EAE, characterized by exacerbated demyelination, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration of the spinal cord; inhibition of miR-384 reversed these changes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397727/neutralization-of-interleukin-9-decreasing-mast-cells-infiltration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Jun-Jie Yin, Xue-Qiang Hu, Zhi-Feng Mao, Jian Bao, Wei Qiu, Zheng-Qi Lu, Hao-Tian Wu, Xiao-Nan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Th9 cells are a newly discovered CD4+ T helper cell subtype, characterized by high interleukin (IL)-9 secretion. Growing evidences suggest that Th9 cells are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are multifunctional innate immune cells, which are perhaps best known for their role as dominant effector cells in allergies and asthma. Several lines of evidence point to an important role for mast cells in MS and its animal models. Simultaneously, there is dynamic "cross-talk" between Th9 and mast cells...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393255/surfactant-protein-a-is-expressed-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-rats-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-suppresses-inflammation-in-human-astrocytes-and-microglia
#10
Xue Yang, Jun Yan, Juan Feng
The collectin surfactant protein‑A (SP‑A), a potent host defense molecule, is well recognized for its role in the maintenance of pulmonary homeostasis and the modulation of inflammatory responses. While previous studies have detected SP‑A in numerous extrapulmonary tissues, there is still a lack of information regarding its expression in central nervous system (CNS) and potential effects in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model of MS, to investigate the expression of SP‑A in the CNS at different stages of disease progression...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392360/matrine-promotes-nt3-expression-in-cns-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Ming-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Jian Kang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Nan Liu, Shu-Qing Liu, Wen-Di Ma, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) is a potent neurotrophic factor for promoting remyelination and recovery of neuronal function; upregulation of its expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is thus of major therapeutic importance for neurological deficits. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flavescent, has been recently reported to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by secreting antiinflammatory cytokines...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385005/kcho-1-mecasin-a-novel-herbal-anti-inflammatory-compound-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-an-animal-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Myung Geun Kook, Soon Won Choi, Yoojin Seo, Dong Woung Kim, Bong Keun Song, Ilhong Son, Sungchul Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective death of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The main cause of the disease is still elusive but several mutations have been associated with the disease process. In particular, mutant SOD1 protein causes oxidative stress by activating glia cells and contributes to the motor neuron degeneration. KCHO-1, a novel herbal combination compound, contains 30% ethanol and the extracts of nine herbs that have been commonly used in traditional medicine to prevent fatigue or inflammation...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#13
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371563/placental-stromal-cell-therapy-for-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-the-role-of-route-of-cell-delivery
#14
Ilona Shapira, Nina Fainstein, Maria Tsirlin, Ilana Stav, Evgenia Volinsky, Claudia Moresi, Tamir Ben-Hur, Raphael Gorodetsky
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with no effective treatment available for the chronic-progressive stage. Cell therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for attenuating the immune-mediated CNS process. Isolated and expanded human placental stromal cells (hPSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties, making them a good candidate for MS therapy. We examined the potential of hPSC therapy in preventing the onset or attenuating the course of established disease in a murine MS model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
April 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367355/glyceryl-tribenzoate-a-flavoring-ingredient-inhibits-the-adoptive-transfer-of-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-via-tgf-%C3%AE-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#15
Susanta Mondal, Sridevi Dasarathi, Kalipada Pahan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we have explored a novel use of glyceryl tribenzoate (GTB), a flavoring ingredient, in ameliorating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, via TGF-β. Oral feeding of GTB suppressed clinical symptoms of adoptively-transferred relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366802/in-vivo-epr-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-the-redox-status-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-the-sod1-g93a-als-rat-model
#16
Stefan Stamenković, Aleksandra Pavićević, Miloš Mojović, Ana Popović-Bijelić, Vesna Selaković, Pavle Andjus, Goran Bačić
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting the motor pathways of the central nervous system. Although a number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been described in the disease, post mortem and animal model studies indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and elevated production of reactive oxygen species as major contributors to disease pathology. In this study, the BBB permeability and the brain tissue redox status of the SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model in the presymptomatic (preALS) and symptomatic (ALS) stages of the disease were investigated by in vivo EPR spectroscopy using three aminoxyl radicals with different cell membrane and BBB permeabilities, Tempol, 3-carbamoyl proxyl (3CP), and 3-carboxy proxyl (3CxP)...
March 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362802/comparison-of-independent-screens-on-differentially-vulnerable-motor-neurons-reveals-alpha-synuclein-as-a-common-modifier-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#17
Rachel A Kline, Kevin A Kaifer, Erkan Y Osman, Francesco Carella, Ariana Tiberi, Jolill Ross, Giuseppa Pennetta, Christian L Lorson, Lyndsay M Murray
The term "motor neuron disease" encompasses a spectrum of disorders in which motor neurons are the primary pathological target. However, in both patients and animal models of these diseases, not all motor neurons are equally vulnerable, in that while some motor neurons are lost very early in disease, others remain comparatively intact, even at late stages. This creates a valuable system to investigate the factors that regulate motor neuron vulnerability. In this study, we aim to use this experimental paradigm to identify potential transcriptional modifiers...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341058/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulators-and-activators-a-review-of-the-preclinical-evidence
#18
Peter Sandner, Johannes Peter Stasch
It is now well established that the NO-sGC-cGMP signal transduction system mediates many different physiological functions in almost every conceivable organ system; this has been best characterized in the cardiovascular system where NO-driven cGMP production exerts a plethora of cytoprotective and anti-atherogenic effects, including dilatation, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, blockade of leukocyte recruitment, and anti-platelet activity. Accordingly, dysfunctional NO-sGC-cGMP mediated signaling is perceived as the underlying pathophysiological cause of many cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#19
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320131/epigenetic-and-gene-expression-alterations-of-foxp3-in-the-t-cells-of-eae-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Ali Noori-Zadeh, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. It has been shown that the regulatory T (Treg) cells are responsible for maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and can suppress the autoimmune process in several animal models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Recent basic studies have demonstrated that forkhead box P (FOXP3) and BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) are the master transcription factors of these cells playing a pivotal role in the polarization of naïve T cells into Treg cells...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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