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H-G Wirsching, T Weiss, P Roth, M Weller
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, gliomas were classified based on histopathological features alone. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system from 2016 integrated molecular features into the histopathological diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To summarize key aspects of the WHO classification from 2016 and implications for the clinical management of glioma patients. An overview of novel treatment approaches is also provided...
April 20, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Karessa White, Mi-Jung Kim, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Dalian Ding, Kevin Boyd, Logan Walker, Paul Linser, Zaimary Meneses, Cole Slade, Jonathan Hirst, Katherine Santostefano, Naohiro Terada, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura, Richard Salvi, Shinichi Someya
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 2 participates in the TCA cycle and catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH. In the mitochondria, IDH2 also plays a key role in protecting mitochondrial components from oxidative stress by supplying NADPH to both glutathione reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2). Here, we report that loss of Idh2 accelerates age-related hearing loss, the most common form of hearing impairment, in male mice. This was accompanied by increased oxidative DNA damage, increased apoptotic cell death, and profound loss of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells in the cochlea of 24-month-old Idh2-/- mice...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
T Gambichler, I Rüddel, S Hessam, F G Bechara, E Stockfleth, L Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Koebnerized non-melanoma skin cancer following skin trauma represents a rare and obscure event. OBJECTIVES: To study molecular pathological parameters in koebnerized squamous cell carcinomas (K-SCCs) occurring after complete tumour removal. METHODS: We assessed two patients with multiple sclerosis who were on treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) preceded by long-term azathioprine therapy. Both patients rapidly developed several K-SCCs following histopathologically proven complete excision of cutaneous SCCs...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Marina Leitman, Vladimir Tyomkin, Leonid Sternik, Laurian Copel, Orly Goitein, Zvi Vered
Until recently, diagnosis of intramyocardial dissecting hematoma (IDH) was performed during necropsy or at surgery. During the recent years, echocardiography has permitted clinical suspicion, which usually needed confirmation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we tried to define clinical and imaging features of IDH and predictors of mortality. We searched the literature for proven cases of IDH and analyzed them together with 2 of our cases. A total of 40 cases of IDH (2 our original and 38 literature cases) were included...
February 2018: Echocardiography
Alexander E Perl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precious few drugs were successfully developed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over the past decades, despite a dramatic expansion of our understanding of its molecular underpinnings during this time. Then in 2017, a wave of new drugs suddenly became approved. This review serves to introduce the newly available drugs, discuss their impact upon therapy, and highlight additional novel agents that are waiting in the wings. RECENT FINDINGS: Newly approved agents in AML include a tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations, an inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), and two novel agents using antibody-delivered or liposome-delivered cytotoxics...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Roshni Gavel, S P Mishra, Seema Khanna, Rahul Khanna, Agni Gautam Shah
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer represents a major public health problem in women worldwide. For many cancers, serum tumour markers play an important role in patient treatment and monitoring. Isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme is also used as a biomarker for various types of cancer. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine serum Isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH-2) enzyme activity in breast cancer patients (pre and post chemotherapy) and also correlate the changes in enzyme activity with stages of cancer and control groups...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Walid-Sabri Hamadou, Violaine Bourdon, Sébastien Létard, Fabienne Brenet, Sofien Laarif, Sawsen Besbes, Angelo Paci, Muriel David, Virginie Penard-Lacronique, Yosra Ben Youssef, Mohamed-Adnène Laatiri, François Eisinger, Véronique Mari, Paul Gesta, Hélène Dreyfus, Valérie Bonadona, Catherine Dugast, Hélène Zattara, Laurence Faivre, Testsuro Noguchi, Abderrahim Khélif, Chaker Ben Salem, Patrice Dubreuil, Hagay Sobol, Zohra Soua
Isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH 1 and IDH 2 mutations were reported in several cancer forms, especially in hematological malignancies, but were never been investigated in familial aggregation. The aim of this study is to determine whether germline isocitrate dehydrogenase genes mutations are involved.We targeted IDH1 and IDH2 genes in 104 familial cases belonging to Tunisian and French populations, including several forms of hematological malignancies and cosegregated solid tumors.We report one IDH1 variant: c...
December 2016: Annals of Hematology
Song-Young Park, Matthew J Rossman, Jayson R Gifford, Leena P Bharath, Johann Bauersachs, Russell S Richardson, E Dale Abel, J David Symons, Christian Riehle
Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity; however, the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim-trained (EX, 5 wk) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Hidehiro Takei, Emilie Rouah, Meenakshi B Bhattacharjee
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor of young adults that typically occurs supratentorially. It is generally considered to be a low-grade, circumscribed tumor that when treated by surgical resection has a relatively favorable outcome. Cases of cerebellar PXA are rare, and those associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are even less common, with only 2 cases reported to date. We present herein a third case of PXA-NF1 with unusual features. A 33-year-old woman presented with a history of headache...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Alexander Arnold, Marcus Bahra, Dido Lenze, Maren Bradtmöller, Katrin Guse, Claire Gehlhaar, Hendrik Bläker, Frank L Heppner, Arend Koch
In order to study molecular similarities and differences of intrahepatic (IH-CCA) and extrahepatic (EH-CCA) cholangiocarcinoma, 24 FFPE tumor samples (13 IH-CCA, 11 EH-CCA) were analyzed for whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) using a new high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay. Common in both tumor subtypes the most frequent losses were detected on chromosome 1p, 3p, 6q and 9 while gains were mostly seen in 1q, 8q as well as complete chromosome 17 and 20...
October 2015: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
John D Koerner, Jordan Glaser, Kristen Radcliff
BACKGROUND: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) evaluated the effects of surgery versus nonoperative treatment for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), among other pathologies. Multiple subgroup analyses have been completed since the initial publications, which have further defined which patient factors lead to better or worse patient-reported outcomes; however, the degree to which these factors influence patient-reported outcomes has not been explored. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We reviewed the subgroup analyses of the SPORT IDH studies to answer the following questions: (1) What factors predicted improvement in patient-reported outcomes after operative or nonoperative treatment of lumbar IDH? (2) What factors predicted worse patient-reported outcomes compared to baseline after operative or nonoperative treatment of lumbar IDH? And (3) what factors influenced patient-reported outcomes of surgery in patients with lumbar IDH? METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE(®) search to identify the subgroup analyses of the SPORT IDH data that were responsive to our study questions...
June 2015: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
T Komatsuda, T Annaka, S Oka
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling shoot differentiation from immature embryo callus was identified by linkage analysis with morphological and isozyme markers in barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Immature embryos were isolated from cvs 'Azumamugi' (difficult to differentiate), 'Kanto Nakate Gold' (easy to differentiate), their hybrids (F1) and a backcross population derived from a cross 'Azumamugi' x F1. The embryos were cultured in vitro for callus initiation and subsequent shoot differentiation. The shoot differentiation rate was closely associated with ear type (v locus), isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme (Idh-2), and esterase isozyme (Est-11)...
July 1993: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Bosiljka Krtinić, Ljubinka Francuski, Dušan Petrić, Vesna Milankov
Genetic diversity was studied at allozyme loci in two Palearctic and one Nearctic population of Aedimorphus (=Aedes) vexans, a species of public health and veterinary importance. The population from Serbia was the most polymorphic (P= 35%) with the highest observed heterozygosity (H(o) = 0.027). The lowest observed heterozygosity (H(o) = 0.010) was obtained for the Nearctic population. All analyses based on individual (STRUCTURE analysis) and population level (pairwise F(ST), Nm values, AMOVA, Nei's D value) revealed significant structuring between Nearctic and Palearctic populations, indicating a lack of gene flow and thus, the presence of independent gene pools...
June 2013: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Hisatomi Arima, Yoshitaka Murakami, Tai Hing Lam, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Jean Woo, Il Suh, Xianghua Fang, Mark Woodward
The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure defined blood pressure (BP) levels of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg as prehypertension and those of ≥ 140/90 mm Hg as hypertension. Hypertension can be divided into 3 categories, isolated diastolic (IDH; systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg), isolated systolic (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg)...
June 2012: Hypertension
H H Kreipe
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) represent neoplastic proliferations of hematopoietic stem cells, which may progress to loss of differentiation and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transitions between MDSs and MPNs as well as combinations between both disorders occur and MPNs may acquire dysplastic features combined with cytopenia. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms show dysplastic and myeloproliferative properties and have in common genetic aberrations at the stem cell level (TET2, ASXL 1, CBL, IDH 1, IDH 2, EZH2, p53, Runx1), which may be found in one cell or may affect different hematopoietic stem cells, expanding in parallel...
November 2011: Der Pathologe
Changcun Guo, Christopher J Pirozzi, Giselle Y Lopez, Hai Yan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Isocitrate dehydrogenases, IDH1 and IDH2, decarboxylate isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and reduce NADP to NADPH. Point mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 have been discovered in gliomas. IDH mutations cause loss of native enzymatic activities and confer novel activity of converting α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The mechanisms of IDH mutations in gliomagenesis, and their value as diagnostic, prognostic marker and therapeutic target have been extensively studied...
December 2011: Current Opinion in Neurology
Tiffany M Powell, Robert J Glynn, Julie E Buring, Mark A Creager, Paul M Ridker, Aruna D Pradhan
Prospective data regarding risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) are sparse, especially among women; the relative contribution of systolic versus diastolic blood pressure control for incident PAD has not been well studied. We evaluated the association of self-reported blood pressure control with incident symptomatic PAD in middle-aged and older women. We examined the relationship between reported hypertension and incident confirmed symptomatic PAD (n = 178) in 39,260 female health professionals aged ≥ 45 years without known vascular disease at baseline...
August 2011: Vascular Medicine
B Ford, D McQueen, R Naczi, A Reznicek
A taxonomic study by Naczi, Reznicek, and Ford (American Journal of Botany, 85, 434-447, 1998) has determined that three species (Carex willdenowii, C. basiantha, and C. superata) can be recognized within the C. willdenowii complex. To determine the amount of genetic divergence within and between these species, allozyme analyses were conducted on 14 populations distributed from Pennsylvania to eastern Texas. Seventeen loci were surveyed, 13 of which were polymorphic, with all populations being polymorphic at one or more loci...
April 1998: American Journal of Botany
R S Iudina, A V Zheleznov, V K Shumnyĭ
Starch gel electrophoresis was used for isozyme analysis of ADH, GDH, MDH, IDH, and ME in populations of amaranth. Experiments were performed with 93 populations and 4 cultivars. Some populations proved to be polymorphic, and this fact allowed analysis of the genetic control of the enzymes listed. The populations examined showed poor allozyme variability. Monomorphism for all loci studied was observed in 73 populations and 4 varieties. Starch gel electrophoresis was used for isozyme analysis ofADH, GDH, MDH, IDH, and ME in populations of amaranth...
November 2010: T︠S︡itologii︠a︡ i Genetika
E Pili, L Carcangiu, M Oppo, A Marchi
Culicoides species belonging to the Obsoletus complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been indicated as primary bluetongue (BT) vectors in many European countries and their possible involvement in the maintenance and overwintering of BT viruses has been suggested, even in regions where Culicoides imicola Keiffer is the main vector. The Obsoletus complex includes two predominant taxa, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle. However, the role played by each species in the epidemiology of BT is still unknown...
December 2010: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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