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Clinical trialls

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329202/epcam-immunotherapy-versus-specific-targeted-delivery-of-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Joanna Macdonald, Justin Henri, Kislay Roy, Emma Hays, Michelle Bauer, Rakesh Naduvile Veedu, Normand Pouliot, Sarah Shigdar
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, was one of the first cancer associated biomarkers to be discovered. In the last forty years, this biomarker has been investigated for use in personalized cancer therapy, with the first monoclonal antibody, edrecolomab, being trialled in humans more than thirty years ago. Since then, several other monoclonal antibodies have been raised to EpCAM and tested in clinical trials. However, while monoclonal antibody therapy has been investigated against EpCAM for almost 40 years as primary or adjuvant therapy, it has not shown as much promise as initially heralded...
January 12, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284453/a-pilot-exploratory-investigation-on-pregnant-women-s-views-regarding-stan-fetal-monitoring-technology
#2
Kate Bryson, Chris Wilkinson, Sabrina Kuah, Geoff Matthews, Deborah Turnbull
BACKGROUND: Women's views are critical for informing the planning and delivery of maternity care services. ST segment analysis (STan) is a promising method to more accurately detect when unborn babies are at risk of brain damage or death during labour that is being trialled for the first time in Australia. This is the first study to examine women's views about STan monitoring in this context. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pregnant women recruited across a range of clinical locations at the study hospital...
December 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277558/the-cohort-multiple-randomised-controlled-trial-cmrcts-design-was-found-to-be-highly-susceptible-to-low-statistical-power-and-internal-validity-biases
#3
David Reeves, Kelly Howells, Mark Sidaway, Amy Blakemore, Mark Hann, Maria Panagioti, Peter Bower
OBJECTIVE: The 'cohort multiple randomized controlled trial' (cmRCT) is a recent innovation by which novel interventions are trialled within large longitudinal cohorts of patients to take gain efficiencies and align trials more closely to standard clinical practice. The use of cmRCTs is outpacing methodological understanding of them and more appropriate methods for designing and analysing such trials are urgently needed. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We established the UK CLASSIC cohort of 4,377 patients with long-term conditions within which we are conducting a cmRCT ("PROTECTS") of telephone-based health coaching...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228235/the-potential-role-of-external-venous-supports-in-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#4
Jamie A Mawhinney, Craig A Mounsey, David P Taggart
Despite the apparent superiority of arterial conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the long saphenous vein remains the most commonly used graft. The high failure rate of long saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) over time is therefore an important limiting factor for the long-term outcomes of CABG. Various methods to improve SVG patency have been proposed, although few have had a significant impact on clinical practice. External SVG supports have been a focus of research over the past 50 years, with their use intended to minimize well-documented pathophysiological changes that occur in the SVG following implantation into the coronary circulation...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208618/feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-investigate-the-treatment-of-sarcoidosis-associated-fatigue-with-methylphenidate-fast-mp-a-study-protocol
#5
Christopher Atkins, Richard Fordham, Allan B Clark, Andrea Stockl, Andrew P Jones, Andrew M Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a frequent and troublesome manifestation of chronic sarcoidosis. This symptom can be debilitating and difficult to treat, with poor response to the treatment. Symptomatic management with neurostimulants, such as methylphenidate, is a possible treatment option. The use of such treatment strategies is not without precedent and has been trialled in cancer-related fatigue. Their use in sarcoidosis requires further evaluation before it can be recommended for clinical practice...
December 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202431/triple-negative-breast-cancer-emerging-therapeutic-modalities-and-novel-combination-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Alice Lee, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a complex and aggressive subtype of breast cancer which lacks oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification, thereby making it difficult to target therapeutically. In addition, TNBC has the highest rates of metastatic disease and the poorest overall survival of all breast cancer subtypes. Resultantly, development of targeted therapies for TNBC is urgently needed. Recent efforts aimed at molecular characterisation of TNBCs have revealed various emerging therapeutic targets including PARP1, receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, immune-checkpoints, androgen receptor and epigenetic proteins...
January 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199920/consumers-understanding-and-expectations-of-a-community-based-recovery-oriented-mental-health-rehabilitation-unit-a-pragmatic-grounded-theory-analysis
#7
Stephen Parker, Frances Dark, Ellie Newman, Dominic Hanley, William McKinlay, Carla Meurk
AIMS: Incorporating consumer perspectives into mental health services design is important in working to deliver recovery-oriented care. One of the challenges faced in mental health rehabilitation services is limited consumer engagement with the available support. Listening to consumers' expectations of mental health services, and what they hope to achieve, provides an opportunity to examine the alignment between existing services and the priorities and preferences of the people who use them...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145507/light-sensors-for-objective-light-measurement-in-ambulatory-polysomnography
#8
Rachel Schembri, Jo Spong, Allison Peters, Peter Rochford, Philip Wilksch, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Kenneth M Greenwood, Maree Barnes, Gerard A Kennedy, David J Berlowitz
Ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) does not commonly include an objective measure of light to determine the time of lights off (Loff), and thus cannot be used to calculate important indices such as sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency. This study examined the technical specifications and appropriateness of a prototype light sensor (LS) for use in ambulatory Compumedics Somte PSG.Two studies were conducted. The first examined the light measurement characteristics of the LS when used with a portable PSG device, specifically recording trace range, linearity, sensitivity, and stability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129183/targeting-mental-health-care-attributes-by-diagnosis-and-clinical-stage-the-views-of-youth-mental-health-clinicians
#9
Matthew P Hamilton, Sarah E Hetrick, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, David Baker, Vivienne Browne, Andrew M Chanen, Kerryn Pennell, Rosemary Purcell, Heather Stavely, Patrick D McGorry
OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential utility of clinical stage and mental disorder categories as a basis for determining which attributes of youth mental health care should be offered to which groups of young people. METHODS: In June 2017, we conducted an online survey of youth mental health clinicians that collected information on the participants' background and areas of expertise, then presented vignettes describing young people with different stages of six mental disorders (disorder-based vignettes were matched to participants' area of expertise)...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118576/psychosocial-therapy-for-parkinson-s-related-dementia-intervention-development
#10
Sheree A McCormick, Kathryn R McDonald, Sabina Vatter, Vasiliki Orgeta, Ellen Poliakoff, Sarah J Smith, Iracema Leroi
Background: Group-based psychosocial therapy, such as group Cognitive Stimulation Therapy, improves cognition and quality of life in people living with dementia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and restricted mobility are common complications for people with Parkinson's-related dementia (PRD) and may limit access to, and participation in, group activities. This study describes the development of a condition-specific, home-based psychosocial therapy for people with PRD ready to be trialled in a clinical population...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107055/native-and-synthetic-scaffolds-for-limbal-epithelial-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Kim N Nguyen, Samantha Bobba, Alexander Richardson, Mijeong Park, Stephanie L Watson, Denis Wakefield, Nick Di Girolamo
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a complex blinding disease of the cornea, which cannot be treated with conventional corneal transplants. Instead, a stem cell (SC) graft is required to replenish the limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) reservoir, which is ultimately responsible for regenerating the corneal epithelium. Current therapies utilize limbal tissue biopsies that harbor LESCs as well as tissue culture expanded cells. Typically, this tissue is placed on a scaffold that supports the formation of corneal epithelial cell sheets, which are then transferred to diseased eyes...
November 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066662/dysphagia-management-in-bilateral-frontal-opercular-syndrome-foix-chavany-marie-syndrome
#12
Thomas Richards, Thomas Tudor Hughes, Jake Moss, Tessa Lomax
An 80-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with acute anarthria and severe dysphagia, characterised by loss of voluntary control of the muscles of facial expression, mastication, bolus manipulation (tongue) and pharyngeal constriction, with relative preservation of involuntary movements. Brain imaging revealed an acute infarct in the left frontal operculum and an area of gliosis consistent with an old infarct in the right frontal operculum. A clinical and radiological diagnosis of bilateral anterior frontal opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie-syndrome) was made...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041866/-progressive-ms-macro-views-the-need-for-novel-clinical-trial-paradigms-to-enable-drug-development-for-progressive-ms
#13
P Zaratin, G Comi, D Leppert
This article outlines the principal challenges to establish a standard phase-2 approach for progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) and presents referring strategies to accelerate the registration process via a guidance approved by regulatory agencies. Accordingly, the contribution of 'big datasets' for a better understanding of the natural history of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and of their prognostic factors and the value of novel biomarkers are discussed...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020606/using-tdcs-priming-to-improve-brain-function-can-metaplasticity-provide-the-key-to-boosting-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Roanne Hurley, Liana Machado
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been trialled by many researchers attempting to improve brain function. Outcomes have been quite variable with seemingly similar protocols yielding either inconsistent or insufficiently robust improvements for clinical translation. A potentially fruitful avenue for increasing benefits conferred by tDCS stems from findings from motor and visual cortex studies that indicate tDCS priming prior to a subsequent period of stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation) can in some cases boost outcomes compared to protocols without priming...
October 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984677/advances-in-the-understanding-and-management-of-mucositis-during-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Joanne M Bowen, Hannah R Wardill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mucositis is a severe and common side effect of anticancer treatments, with an incidence of between 40 and 80% depending on the cytotoxic regimen used. The most profound mucositis burden is experienced during conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), where the use of highly mucotoxic agents with or without total body irradiation leads to serious damage throughout the alimentary tract. Currently, the assessment and management of both oral and gastrointestinal mucositis lack authoritative guideline, with recommendations only achieved in narrow clinical scenarios...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982809/understanding-the-health-economic-burden-of-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-tsc-with-epilepsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd
#16
Charles Shepherd, Matthias Koepp, Melissa Myland, Keyur Patel, Cristiana Miglio, Vathani Siva, Elizabeth Gray, Maureen Neary
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is highly prevalent in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a multi-system genetic disorder. The clinical and economic burden of this condition is expected to be substantial due to treatment challenges, debilitating co-morbidities and the relationship between TSC-related manifestations. This study estimated healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) and costs for patients with TSC with epilepsy (TSC+E) in the UK. METHODS: Patients with TSC+E in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episodes Statistics were identified from April 1997 to March 2012...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968896/recent-pharmacological-advances-in-the-management-of-gout
#17
Kristen Davies, Marwan A S Bukhari
Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide, and reports show that despite availability of therapies, management is still suboptimal. The new EULAR 2016 recommendations for the treatment of gout highlight the huge development in gout therapies, and the number of drugs being trialled only continues to increase. A clinical review of the evidence that underlies the recommendations from EULAR can reveal possible gaps in the literature and avenues for future research into gout therapies.
September 14, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965486/quantitative-mechanical-assessment-of-the-whole-prostate-gland-ex-vivo-using-dynamic-instrumented-palpation
#18
Steven J Hammer, Daniel W Good, Paul Scanlan, Javier Palacio-Torralba, Simon Phipps, Grant D Stewart, Will Shu, Yuhang Chen, S Alan McNeill, Robert L Reuben
An instrumented palpation sensor, designed for measuring the dynamic modulus of tissue in vivo, has been developed and trialled on ex vivo whole prostate glands. The sensor consists of a flexible membrane sensor/actuator with an embedded strain gauge and is actuated using a dynamically varying airflow at frequencies of 1 and 5 Hz. The device was calibrated using an indentation stiffness measurement rig and gelatine samples with a range of static modulus similar to that reported in the literature for prostate tissue...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947622/use-of-the-electronic-frailty-index-to-identify-vulnerable-patients-a-pilot-study-in-primary-care
#19
Lynn N Lansbury, Helen Clare Roberts, Esther Clift, Annie Herklots, Nicola Robinson, Avan A Sayer
BACKGROUND: Identifying frailty is key to providing appropriate treatment for older people at high risk of adverse health outcomes. Screening tools proposed for primary care often involve additional workload. The electronic Frailty Index (eFI) has the potential to overcome this issue. AIM: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of using the eFI in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pilot study in one suburban primary care practice in southern England in 2016...
November 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915215/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#20
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
October 2017: Shock
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