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Psychoneuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150991/population-based-differences-in-immune-system-response-contribute-to-an-increased-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-african-migrants
#1
Milica J Nesic, Nadja P Maric
Among the highest incidences of schizophrenia is the one documented in second-generation migrants of African descent in the Western countries. Interestingly, people of African and European ancestry demonstrate significant genetic-based differences in immune system regulation and response. As a result, the pro-inflammatory phenotype is more pronounced in people of African descent than it is in Europeans. At the same time, the role of the immune system in the etiology of schizophrenia is gaining increased recognition...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130314/determining-psychoneuroimmunologic-markers-of-yoga-as-an-intervention-for-persons-diagnosed-with-ptsd-a-systematic-review
#2
Ursula Ann Kelly, Dian Dowling Evans, Helen Baker, Jessica Noggle Taylor
There is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#3
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110974/the-psychoneuroimmunology-of-pregnancy
#4
Morgan L Sherer, Caitlin K Posillico, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Pregnancy is associated with a number of significant changes in maternal physiology. Perhaps one of the more notable changes is the significant alteration in immune function that occurs during pregnancy. This change in immune function is necessary to support a successful pregnancy, but also creates a unique period of life during which a female is susceptible to disease and, as we'll speculate here, may also contribute to mental health disorders associated with pregnancy and the postpartum period. Here, we review the known changes in peripheral immune function that occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, while highlighting the impact of hormones during these times on immune function, brain or neural function, as well as behavior...
October 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993125/psychoneuroimmunology-of-mental-disorders
#5
Virginia Soria, Javiera Uribe, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Diego Palao, José Manuel Menchón, Javier Labad
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments...
October 6, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992428/inflammatory-mediators-in-mood-disorders-therapeutic-opportunities
#6
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992281/a-return-to-wisdom-using-sickness-behaviors-to-integrate-ecological-and-translational-research
#7
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
Sickness is typically characterized by fever, anorexia, cachexia, and reductions in social, pleasurable, and sexual behaviors. These responses can be displayed at varying intensities both within and among individuals, and the adaptive nature of sickness responses can be demonstrated by the context-dependent nature of their expression. The study of sickness has become an important area of investigation for researchers in a wide range of areas, including psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and ecoimmunology (EI). The general goal of PNI is to identify key interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and behavior, and how disruptions in these processes might contribute to disease states...
August 25, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987035/the-psychoneuroimmunological-role-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#8
Ian Hunter Rutkofsky, Anser Saeed Khan, Sindhu Sahito, Vikram Kumar
Context • Psychoneuroimmunology is the interdisciplinary study that links behavioral health with the neuroendocrinal system and investigates that link's bidirectional impact on the human immune system. Mechanistic studies have shown how omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like those found in fish oil, can modulate key pathways involved in inflammation, sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokine production. Objective • The research team intended to investigate the effects that PUFAs have on the brain and the immune system, including the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and their therapeutic benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, either as an alternative monotherapy or a complementary adjunct treatment...
July 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969939/elevated-serum-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-potentially-correlate-with-depression-and-anxiety-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-in-different-stages-of-the-antitumor-therapy
#9
Diego O Miranda, Elen Anatriello, Lucas R Azevedo, Jessica F C Cordeiro, Fernanda M Peria, Milena Flória-Santos, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva
Depression and anxiety, the most important psychological disorders in cancer patients, have now been considered as psychoneuroimmunological disorders, in which peripheral immune activation, through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, is implicated in the variety of behavioral, neuroendocrine and neurochemical alterations associated with these disorders. Along with the tumor itself, cancer treatment can also contribute to exacerbate the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This study aimed to investigate whether proinflammatory cytokine levels are related to depression and anxiety in CRC patients in different stages of the antitumor therapy We evaluated 60 patients in three stages of antitumor therapy (Pre-chemotherapy, Under-chemotherapy and Post-chemotherapy, n=20 in each group) and 20 healthy volunteers by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
September 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930219/qigong-in-cancer-care-theory-evidence-base-and-practice
#10
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866901/anxiety-and-psychosomatic-symptoms-in-palliative-care-from-neuro-psychobiological-response-to-stress-to-symptoms-management-with-clinical-hypnosis-and-meditative-states
#11
Anirudh Kumar Satsangi, Maria Paola Brugnoli
Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843452/the-microbiome-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-behavior-and-immunity-commentary-on-the-2017-named-series
#12
Michael T Bailey, John F Cryan
The focus on the microbiome for the 2017 Named Series in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity reflects the rapidly growing interest in commensal microbes and the effects that they can have on physiological processes often studied in PsychoNeuroImmunology Research. The studies included in this Named Series show that commensal microbes can impact immune system activity, as well as brain and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and are involved in behavioral and immunological responses to social stresses. The studies also show that dietary effects on brain, behavior, and immunity often involve alterations of the gut microbiota...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818559/to-boldly-go-where-one-has-gone-before
#13
REVIEW
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the National Institutes of Health, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652068/epigenomic-susceptibility-to-the-social-world-plausible-paths-to-a-newest-morbidity
#14
W Thomas Boyce
This article-presented on the celebratory occasion of Dr Robert Haggerty's 91st birthday-describes how a 1962 article by Dr Haggerty and his colleague Dr Roger Meyer launched a previously unexplored, pediatric research enterprise by asserting that: "There are little precise data to explain why one person becomes ill with an infecting agent and another not." Noting a prospective association between family stressors and the acquisition of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, the article introduced a generation of young academic pediatricians-the author of the present article among them-to the possibility of causal linkages among children's adversity exposures, compromised immunological processes, and the development of immune-mediated, acute or chronic diseases of childhood...
August 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600777/psychoneuroimmunology-developments-in-stress-research
#15
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo
Links between the central nervous stress system and peripheral immune cells in lymphoid organs have been detailed through 50 years of intensive research. The brain can interfere with the immune system, where chronic psychological stress inhibits many functions of the immune system. On the other hand, chronic peripheral inflammation-whether mild (during aging and psychological stress) or severe (chronic inflammatory diseases)-clearly interferes with brain function, leading to disease sequelae like fatigue but also to overt psychiatric illness...
June 9, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450222/probiotic-treatment-protects-against-the-pro-depressant-like-effect-of-high-fat-diet-in-flinders-sensitive-line-rats
#16
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Sten Lund, Gregers Wegener
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD...
April 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151830/religiousness-spirituality-and-salivary-cortisol-in-breast-cancer-survivorship-a-pilot-study
#17
Jennifer M Hulett, Jane M Armer, Emily Leary, Bob R Stewart, Roxanne McDaniel, Kandis Smith, Rami Millspaugh, Joshua Millspaugh
BACKGROUND: Psychoneuroimmunological theory suggests a physiological relationship exists between stress, psychosocial-behavioral factors, and neuroendocrine-immune outcomes; however, evidence has been limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine feasibility and acceptability of a salivary cortisol self-collection protocol with a mail-back option for breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to examine relationships between religiousness/spirituality (R/S), perceptions of health, and diurnal salivary cortisol (DSC) as a proxy measure for neuroendocrine activity...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129680/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr-and-its-effects-on-psychoimmunological-factors-of-chemically-pulmonary-injured-veterans
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zahra Arefnasab, Abdolreza Babamahmoodi, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Ahmad Alipour, Yunes Panahi, Jamal Shams, Farhad Riazi Rad, Vahid Khaze, Mostafa Ghanei
Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a treatment program for relieving stress and coping with chronic illnesses. In recent three decades, studies have shown that MBSR has a positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. Chemically pulmonary injured veterans have chronic pulmonary and psychological problems due to mustard gas exposure and complications of Iran-Iraq war. These stresses have negative effects on their general health and immune system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted on psychoneuroimmunology and MBSR in these patients...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061967/stress-anxiety-and-immunomodulation-a-pharmacological-analysis
#19
REVIEW
A Ray, K Gulati, N Rai
Stress and stressful events are common occurrences in our daily lives and such aversive situations bring about complex changes in the biological system. Such stress responses influence the brain and behavior, neuroendocrine and immune systems, and these responses orchestrate to increase or decrease the ability of the organism to cope with such stressors. The brain via expression of complex behavioral paradigms controls peripheral responses to stress and a bidirectional link exists in the modulation of stress effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890661/studying-brain-regulation-of-immunity-with-optogenetics-and-chemogenetics-a-new-experimental-platform
#20
REVIEW
Tamar Ben-Shaanan, Maya Schiller, Asya Rolls
The interactions between the brain and the immune system are bidirectional. Nevertheless, we have far greater understanding of how the immune system affects the brain than how the brain affects immunity. New technological developments such as optogenetics and chemogenetics (using DREADDs; Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) can bridge this gap in our understanding, as they enable an unprecedented mechanistic and systemic analysis of the communication between the brain and the immune system...
November 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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