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Mark R Hutchinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Martin G Frasch, Carlos J Baier, Marta C Antonelli, Gerlinde A S Metz
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early behavioral, neuroimmune, and cognitive development. Pregnant rat models have been very valuable in examining the mechanisms of such fetal programming. A newer pregnant sheep model of maternal stress offers the unique advantages of chronic in utero monitoring and manipulation. This chapter presents the techniques used to model single and multigenerational stress exposures and their pleiotropic effects on the offspring.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martin G Frasch, Patrick Burns, Javier Benito, Marina Cortes, Mingju Cao, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers
The non-neuronal, immunological effects of the cholinergic signaling are exerted on the system's scale of observation via the vagus nerve and on the cellular scale via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling in myeloid cells of the periphery or brain's microglia and astrocytes. The developmental effects of such multi-scale signaling can be conceived of as an example of psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) homeokinesis and, while reported in the literature, are not yet systematically well studied. To be better understood, the intricacy of the multi-scale interactions requires relevant preclinical animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kieran Ayling, Kavita Vedhara, Lucy Fairclough
Vaccine studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) provide an insight into biopsychosocial interactions and their role in infectious diseases. How to measure vaccine responses is therefore of critical importance for PNI researchers. In this chapter, traditional and modern immunoassays for the assessment of vaccine responses are discussed, highlighting how modern multiplex techniques provide researchers with greater capacity and opportunity for novel research relating to vaccine outcomes.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna C Whittaker
This chapter explores the reasoning behind using the vaccination model to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity. It then briefly discusses the mechanics of the vaccination response and the protocols used in psychoneuroimmunology vaccine research, before giving examples from the research literature of the studies examining relationships such as the association between stress and vaccination response. It also explores the ways the vaccination model can be used to answer key questions in psychoneuroimmunology, such as the following: "Does it matter when stressful life events occur relative to when the vaccine is received?" "What are the effects of prior exposure to the antigen?" "Do other psychosocial factors influence vaccine response besides stress?" Finally, it briefly considers the mechanisms underlying psychosocial factors and vaccination response associations and the future research needed to understand these better, and indeed to use current and future knowledge to improve and enhance vaccine responses in key at-risk populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonas Hannestad
Positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging is a valuable research tool that enables in vivo quantification of molecular targets in the brain or of a physiologic process. PET imaging can be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research. As PET imaging can be used in animals and humans, promising results can therefore often be translated from an animal model to human disease.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Albert E Towers, Jason M York, Tracy Baynard, Stephen J Gainey, Gregory G Freund
The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) aims to uncover the processes and consequences of nervous, immune, and endocrine system relationships. Behavior is a consequence of such interactions and manifests from a complex interweave of factors including immune-to-neural and neural-to-immune communication. Often the signaling molecules involved during a particular episode of neuroimmune activation are not known but behavioral response provides evidence that bioactives such as neurotransmitters and cytokines are perturbed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary Ann Fletcher, Zachary Barnes, Gordon Broderick, Nancy G Klimas
Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity. These lymphocytes are also sensitive barometers of the effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the immune system. This chapter describes a chromium (51 Cr)-release bioassay designed to measure to the target cell killing capacity of NK cells (NKCC). Key features of the cytotoxicity assay are that it is done with whole blood and that numbers of effector cells are determined for each sample by flow cytometry and lymphocyte count...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jessica A Jiménez, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills
Heart failure (HF) is a major and costly public health concern, and its prognosis is grim-with high hospitalization and mortality rates. HF affects millions of individuals across the world, and this condition is expected to become "the epidemic" of the twenty-first century (Jessup et al., 2016). It is well documented that individuals with HF experience disproportionately high rates of depression and that those who are depressed have worse clinical outcomes than their nondepressed counterparts. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the study of depression in HF, and how psychoneuroimmunologic principles have been applied to further elucidate mechanisms (i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qing Yan
Evidences from psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and systems biology studies support a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics" for understanding the "whole mind-body system." The Yin-Yang dynamical balances in the stress response networks may be critical for health and diseases, especially mental health and psychiatric disorders. Specifically, the neuroimmune imbalances have been found as the important features and potential biomarkers of stress, anxiety, depression, and systemic inflammation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eric C Shattuck
There is considerable research interest overlap between biological anthropology and psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), particularly given recent anthropological interest in endocrine and immune system functioning over the life span and in different environmental contexts. In this chapter, I argue that conducting research on non-WEIRD populations and applying an anthropological, evolutionary approach to PNI can greatly strengthen our understanding of immune-endocrine-behavior connections. This chapter reviews population-level variation in the human immune and endocrine systems, as well as genetic and environmental contributions to this variation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Elling Ulvestad
Accumulating evidence has made clear that experience-the knowledge an individual acquires during a lifetime of sensing and acting-is of fundamental biological relevance. Experience makes an impact on all adaptive systems, including the endocrine, immune, and nerve systems, and is of the essence, not only for the unfolding of an organisms' healthy status, but also for the development of malfunctional traits. Nevertheless, experience is often excluded from empirical approaches. A variety of complex interactions that influence life histories are thereby neglected...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Colette G Ngo Ndjom, Xavier F Gonzalez, Harlan P Jones
Multidiscipline-based research holds promise toward revealing complex mechanisms that determine health and disease. For decades, scientists have conducted studies defining the relationships between neuroendocrine and immune function culminating into the discipline of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). In addition, the discipline of microbial endocrinology has similarly enhanced our understanding of disease processes. With an increase in genetic-based sequencing technologies, the convergence of neuroendocrine-immunological-microbial research is expected to significantly further such knowledge needed for medical discoveries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qing Yan
Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) would provide better insights into the "whole mind-body system." Systems biology models of the complex adaptive systems (CASs), such as a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics," may be helpful for identifying systems-based biomarkers and targets for more effective prevention and treatment. The disturbances in the Yin-Yang dynamical balance may result in stress, inflammation, and various disorders including insomnia, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, skin disorders, and cancer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fatemeh Torkamani, Alireza Aghayousefi, Ahmad Alipour, Mohammad Nami
OBJECTIVES: Based on existing psychoneuroimmunological insights, the present study aimed at investigating possible effects of a single-session group mantra-meditation on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and affective states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A controlled pretest-posttest study enrolled 30 healthy women (mean age 44 ± 3 years) through a multi-stage random sampling method from yoga clubs in Shiraz (Feb-Dec, 2016). Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups...
March 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Murilo S de Abreu, Ana C V V Giacomini, Rodrigo Zanandrea, Bruna E Dos Santos, Rafael Genario, Gabriel G de Oliveira, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Allan V Kalueff
Despite the high prevalence of neural and immune disorders, their etiology and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. As the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized as a powerful model organism in biomedical research, mounting evidence suggests these fish as a useful tool to study neural and immune mechanisms and their interplay. Here, we discuss zebrafish neuro-immune mechanisms and their pharmacological and genetic modulation, the effect of stress on cytokines, as well as relevant models of microbiota-brain interplay...
March 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Andrea Danese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ad A Kaptein, Brian M Hughes, Michael Murray, Joshua M Smyth
Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers...
January 2018: Health Psychology Open
Tinhinane Fali, Hélène Vallet, Delphine Sauce
Life expectancy is continuously increasing due to major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age. However, both scientific and medical advances are still required to understand underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, associated with pro-inflammatory environment. In another hand, stressful events (acute or chronic) can also impact the immune system through the secretion of hormones, which are also altered with aging...
May 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asim Azhar, Ashraf Ali, Mohd Rehan, Qamar Zia, Mohammad Owais, Athanasios Alexiou, Ahmar Rauf, Magdah Ganash, Muhammad Amjad Kamal
Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as having dementia as a one of the major characteristics...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
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