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Tinhinane Fali, Hélène Vallet, Delphine Sauce
Life expectancy is continuously increasing due to major progress in preventing, delaying or curing various pathologies normally encountered in old age. However, both scientific and medical advances are still required to understand underlying cause of the disparate comorbidities occurrence with aging. In one hand, aging profoundly impairs the immune system; it is characterized by many changes in haematopoiesis, adaptive and innate systems, associated with pro-inflammatory environment. In another hand, stressful events (acute or chronic) can also impact the immune system through the secretion of hormones, which are also altered with aging...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asim Azhar, Ashraf Ali, Mohd Rehan, Qamar Zia, Mohammad Owais, Athanasios Alexiou, Ahmar Rauf, Magdah Ganash, Muhammad Amjad Kamal
Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as having dementia as a one of the major characteristics...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
F VoŽeh
Immunity plays an important role in the reactivity of the organism and, in this context, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basically, there is no system or organ in the body, whose dysfunction is not related to immunity consequences. In addition, there are also multisystem diseases simultaneously involving multiple body systems. They are not always caused by weak immunity, but also often by modified immune reactions known as overshooting. The essence of all these diseases is a change in the reactivity of the organism where immunity plays an important role...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
Daniela Rodrigues-Amorim, Tania Rivera-Baltanás, Carlos Spuch, Hector J Caruncho, África González-Fernandez, Jose M Olivares, Roberto C Agís-Balboa
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disease with complex interactions among the brain and the immune system. A psycho-immune relationship underling schizophrenia is supported by several studies and integrates a specific area of knowledge - psychoneuroimmunology. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by 2009 Preferred Reporting Items (PRISMA) recommendations. Based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria, publications with relevant information (evaluated by the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisals tools to quality assessment) were included...
November 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Milica J Nesic, Nadja P Maric
Among the highest incidences of schizophrenia is the one documented in second-generation migrants of African descent in the Western countries. Interestingly, people of African and European ancestry demonstrate significant genetic-based differences in immune system regulation and response. As a result, the pro-inflammatory phenotype is more pronounced in people of African descent than it is in Europeans. At the same time, the role of the immune system in the etiology of schizophrenia is gaining increased recognition...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Ursula Ann Kelly, Dian Dowling Evans, Helen Baker, Jessica Noggle Taylor
There is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Morgan L Sherer, Caitlin K Posillico, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Pregnancy is associated with a number of significant changes in maternal physiology. Perhaps one of the more notable changes is the significant alteration in immune function that occurs during pregnancy. This change in immune function is necessary to support a successful pregnancy, but also creates a unique period of life during which a female is susceptible to disease and, as we'll speculate here, may also contribute to mental health disorders associated with pregnancy and the postpartum period. Here, we review the known changes in peripheral immune function that occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, while highlighting the impact of hormones during these times on immune function, brain or neural function, as well as behavior...
October 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Virginia Soria, Javiera Uribe, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Diego Palao, José Manuel Menchón, Javier Labad
The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments...
October 6, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
January 6, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
Sickness is typically characterized by fever, anorexia, cachexia, and reductions in social, pleasurable, and sexual behaviors. These responses can be displayed at varying intensities both within and among individuals, and the adaptive nature of sickness responses can be demonstrated by the context-dependent nature of their expression. The study of sickness has become an important area of investigation for researchers in a wide range of areas, including psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and ecoimmunology (EI). The general goal of PNI is to identify key interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and behavior, and how disruptions in these processes might contribute to disease states...
December 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Ian Hunter Rutkofsky, Anser Saeed Khan, Sindhu Sahito, Vikram Kumar
Context • Psychoneuroimmunology is the interdisciplinary study that links behavioral health with the neuroendocrinal system and investigates that link's bidirectional impact on the human immune system. Mechanistic studies have shown how omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like those found in fish oil, can modulate key pathways involved in inflammation, sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokine production. Objective • The research team intended to investigate the effects that PUFAs have on the brain and the immune system, including the effects of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and their therapeutic benefits in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, either as an alternative monotherapy or a complementary adjunct treatment...
July 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Diego O Miranda, Elen Anatriello, Lucas R Azevedo, Jessica F C Cordeiro, Fernanda M Peria, Milena Flória-Santos, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva
Depression and anxiety, the most important psychological disorders in cancer patients, have now been considered as psychoneuroimmunological disorders, in which peripheral immune activation, through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, is implicated in the variety of behavioral, neuroendocrine and neurochemical alterations associated with these disorders. Along with the tumor itself, cancer treatment can also contribute to exacerbate the production of proinflammatory cytokines. This study aimed to investigate whether proinflammatory cytokine levels are related to depression and anxiety in CRC patients in different stages of the antitumor therapy We evaluated 60 patients in three stages of antitumor therapy (Pre-chemotherapy, Under-chemotherapy and Post-chemotherapy, n=20 in each group) and 20 healthy volunteers by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
September 29, 2017: Cytokine
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Anirudh Kumar Satsangi, Maria Paola Brugnoli
Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Michael T Bailey, John F Cryan
The focus on the microbiome for the 2017 Named Series in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity reflects the rapidly growing interest in commensal microbes and the effects that they can have on physiological processes often studied in PsychoNeuroImmunology Research. The studies included in this Named Series show that commensal microbes can impact immune system activity, as well as brain and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and are involved in behavioral and immunological responses to social stresses. The studies also show that dietary effects on brain, behavior, and immunity often involve alterations of the gut microbiota...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the National Institutes of Health, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
W Thomas Boyce
This article-presented on the celebratory occasion of Dr Robert Haggerty's 91st birthday-describes how a 1962 article by Dr Haggerty and his colleague Dr Roger Meyer launched a previously unexplored, pediatric research enterprise by asserting that: "There are little precise data to explain why one person becomes ill with an infecting agent and another not." Noting a prospective association between family stressors and the acquisition of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, the article introduced a generation of young academic pediatricians-the author of the present article among them-to the possibility of causal linkages among children's adversity exposures, compromised immunological processes, and the development of immune-mediated, acute or chronic diseases of childhood...
August 2017: Academic Pediatrics
Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo
Links between the central nervous stress system and peripheral immune cells in lymphoid organs have been detailed through 50 years of intensive research. The brain can interfere with the immune system, where chronic psychological stress inhibits many functions of the immune system. On the other hand, chronic peripheral inflammation-whether mild (during aging and psychological stress) or severe (chronic inflammatory diseases)-clearly interferes with brain function, leading to disease sequelae like fatigue but also to overt psychiatric illness...
June 9, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
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