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ANTIVIRAL DRUGS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161583/chrysin-sources-beneficial-pharmacological-activities-and-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#1
REVIEW
Renuka Mani, Vijayakumar Natesan
In recent years, public and scientific interest in plant flavonoids has tremendously increased because of their postulated health benefits. This review was mainly focuses on the flavone chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), which occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the therapeutic effects of chrysin against various diseases. In general, chrysin exhibits many biological activities and pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral activities...
November 18, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161006/top-dnj-a-selective-inhibitor-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-%C3%AE-glucosidase-ii-exhibiting-anti-flaviviral-activity
#2
J L Kiappes, Michelle L Hill, Dominic S Alonzi, Joanna L Miller, Ren Iwaki, Andrew C Sayce, Alessandro T Caputo, Atsushi Kato, Nicole Zitzmann
Iminosugars have therapeutic potential against a range of diseases, due to their efficacy as glycosidase inhibitors. A major challenge in the development of iminosugar drugs lies in making a compound that is selective for the glycosidase associated with a given disease. We report the synthesis of ToP-DNJ, an antiviral iminosugar-tocopherol conjugate. Tocopherol was incorporated into the design of the iminosugar in order to direct the drug to the liver and immune cells, specific tissues of interest for antiviral therapy...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158854/current-condition-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cuban-adults
#3
Castellanos Fernández Marlen Ivón, Dorta Guridi Zaily, Da Silva Conde-Eduardo Leda Patricia, Galbán García Enrique, Arús Soler Enrique, Martinez Pérez Yadina
Background: The reduction of the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Cuba can be attributed to the effectiveness of the national immunization program. However, the number of patients with chronic HBV observed in clinical practice is not negligible. Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the main clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Methods: A total of 146 patients who had at least a 6-month history of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity were recruited between 2013 and 2015...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157813/anti-inflammatory-and-antiviral-activities-of-cynanversicoside-a-and-cynanversicoside-c-isolated-from-cynanchun-paniculatum-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-mice-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#4
Panying Wei, Tao Zhang, Hong Dong, Qiaohong Chen, Xiang Mu, Ge Hu
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of the influenza A virus (IAV) often occur in various avian and mammalian species, including humans, causing serious respiratory injury worldwide. Therapeutic actions are limited to vaccines and a few antiviral drugs. Combination antiviral compounds and anti-inflammatory modulators to control the propagation of viruses would be more efficient therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases. PURPOSE: This study was designed to isolate anti-inflammatory and antiviral compounds from Cynanchun paniculatum and elucidate their potential molecular mechanisms...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156381/structure-based-methods-to-predict-mutational-resistance-to-diarylpyrimidine-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#5
Syeda Maryam Azeem, Alecia N Muwonge, Nehaben Thakkar, Kristina W Lam, Kathleen M Frey
Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is a leading cause of HIV treatment failure. Often included in antiviral therapy, NNRTIs are chemically diverse compounds that bind an allosteric pocket of enzyme target reverse transcriptase (RT). Several new NNRTIs incorporate flexibility in order to compensate for lost interactions with amino acid conferring mutations in RT. Unfortunately, even successful inhibitors such as diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) inhibitor rilpivirine are affected by mutations in RT that confer resistance...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#6
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155732/fabrication-and-characterization-of-griffithsin-modified-fiber-scaffolds-for-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#7
Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Electrospun fibers (EFs) have been widely used in a variety of therapeutic applications; however, they have only recently been applied as a technology to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Moreover, many EF technologies focus on encapsulating the active agent, relative to utilizing the surface to impart biofunctionality. Here we describe a method to fabricate and surface-modify poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers, with the potent antiviral lectin Griffithsin (GRFT)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#8
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155127/mdr1-gene-c3435t-polymorphism-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#9
Mehdi Parsanahad, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Shahram Jalilian, Gholamabas Kayedani, Sara Mahmoodi
BACKGROUND: MDR1 is a highly polymorphic gene that encodes P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This protein anchor to the cell membrane and transports toxins, xenobiotic, chemicals, and drugs from the intracellular to extracellular and thus protect cells. Polymorphism of the MDR1 gene seems to be effective in gene expression and response to treatment. Since one of the main mechanisms of drug resistance is the removal of the drug from the cell by ATP-dependent efflux proteins, thus MDR1, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C3435T can be used as a predictor for treatment outcomes...
November 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154807/rational-design-of-antiviral-drug-combinations-based-on-equipotency-using-hcv-subgenomic-replicon-as-an-in-vitro-model
#10
Mohamed Mandour, Inge Vliegen, Jan Paeshuyse, Johan Neyts
Combination therapy of directly acting antivirals (DAA's) for the treatment of chronic HCV infections has proven to be a highly effective strategy to cure chronic infections with this virus. Here we studied, using HCV as an example, how to best design in vitro studies that explore the combined antiviral efficiency of combinations of three or more DAA's. To that end we used a HCV NS3 protease inhibitor, a NS5A targeting compound and two non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitors (each one targeting a different drug binding site)...
November 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154053/acupuncture-and-kinesio-taping-for-the-acute-management-of-bell-s-palsy-a-case-report
#12
Derya Özmen Alptekin
BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy is an idiopathic, acute peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that supplies the muscles of facial expression. Despite an expected 70% full recovery rate, up to 30% of patients are left with potentially disfiguring facial weakness, involuntary movements, or persistent lacrimation. The most frequently used treatment options are corticosteroids and antiviral drugs. However, accompanying clinical conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, gastrointestinal disturbances, polypharmacy of geriatric patients, and significant sequelae ratios, indicate the need for safe and effective complementary therapies that would enhance the success of the conventional interventions...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153860/the-antimicrobial-peptide-hs-1-inhibits-dengue-virus-infection
#13
Juliana M C Monteiro, Michelle D Oliveira, Roberto S Dias, Lorena Nacif-Marçal, Renato N Feio, Sukarno O Ferreira, Leandro L Oliveira, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O Paula
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Studies reveal that peptides secreted by amphibians have many functions, such as antiviral and antimicrobial activities. As there is no antiviral drug effective against the DENV, the antiviral activity of a synthetic peptide called HS-1, derived from the secretion of the anuran Hypsiboas semilineatus, has been evaluated. The assays of neutralization in the Vero cells show a complete inhibition of infection of the serotypes 2 and 3...
November 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153265/hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-as-prevention-in-an-extended-network-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-usa-a-modelling-study
#14
Alexei Zelenev, Jianghong Li, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sanjay Basu, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. METHODS: Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#15
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152877/rapid-risk-assessment-during-the-early-weeks-of-the-2015-2016-influenza-season-in-ukraine
#16
Sophie Newitt, Alla Mironenko, Olha Holubka, Oleksandr Zaika, Olga Gubar, Katri Jalava, Caroline Brown, Iryna Demchyshyna, Tetiana Dykhanovska
BACKGROUND: Several eastern European countries reported a severe influenza season to the World Health Organization (WHO) during late 2015. A country-specific rapid risk assessment for Ukraine was conducted to assess the season's severity and inform public health action.. METHODS: The exposure and hazard were assessed using acute respiratory infection (ARI), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), laboratory surveillance, virological and vaccine data from weeks 40/2015 to 7/2016 with comparison to four previous seasons to describe the influenza season start (five week consecutive increase in ARI or SARI),, predominant virus types, geographical spread and affected age groups ...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152781/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-in-patients-with-hcv-genotype-1-or-4-and-prior-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-failure
#17
Fred Poordad, Stanislas Pol, Armen Asatryan, Maria Buti, David Shaw, Christophe Hézode, Franco Felizarta, Robert W Reindollar, Stuart C Gordon, Stephen Pianko, Michael W Fried, David E Bernstein, Joel Gallant, Chih-Wei Lin, Yang Lei, Teresa I Ng, Preethi Krishnan, Sarah Kopecky-Bromberg, Jens Kort, Federico Mensa
METHODS: MAGELLAN-1 Part 2 was a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ribavirin (RBV)-free glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P; 300 mg/120 mg) in patients with chronic HCV and prior virologic failure on at least one NS3/4A protease and/or NS5A inhibitor-containing therapy. Patients with compensated liver disease, with or without cirrhosis, and HCV genotype (GT) 1, 4, 5, or 6 were randomized 1:1 to receive 12 or 16 weeks of G/P. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12)...
November 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151344/computation-of-hemagglutinin-free-energy-difference-by-the-confinement-method
#18
Sander Boonstra, Patrick R Onck, Erik Van der Giessen
Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates membrane fusion, a crucial step during influenza virus cell entry. How many HAs are needed for this process is still subject to debate. To aid in this discussion, the confinement free energy method was used to calculate the conformational free energy difference between the extended intermediate and postfusion state of HA. Special care was taken to comply with general guidelines for free energy calculations, thereby obtaining convergence and demonstrating reliability of the results...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148875/repurposing-of-kinase-inhibitors-as-broad-spectrum-antiviral-drugs
#19
Stanford Schor, Shirit Einav
The high cost of drug development and the narrow spectrum of coverage typically provided by direct-acting antivirals limit the scalability of this antiviral approach. This review summarizes progress and challenges in the repurposing of approved kinase inhibitors as host-targeted broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
November 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147793/pharmacophoric-characteristics-of-dengue-virus-ns2b-ns3pro-inhibitors-a-systematic-review-of-the-most-promising-compounds
#20
REVIEW
Camyla Alves Leonel, William Gustavo Lima, Michelli Dos Santos, Ariane Coelho Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Carlos de Magalhães, Luciana Lara Dos Santos, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira
Dengue virus (DENV) infection can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, including fatal hemorrhagic complications. There is a need to find effective pharmacotherapies to treat this disease due to the lack of specific immunotherapies and antiviral drugs. That said, the DENV NS2B/NS3pro protease complex is essential in both the viral multiplication cycle and in disease pathogenesis, and is considered a promising target for new antiviral therapies. Here, we performed a systematic review to evaluate the pharmacophoric characteristics of promising compounds against NS2B/NS3pro reported in the past 10 years...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
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