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Plasmodium vivax and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626547/structure-guided-optimization-of-quinoline-inhibitors-of-plasmodium-n-myristoyltransferase
#1
Victor Goncalves, James A Brannigan, Alice Laporte, Andrew S Bell, Shirley M Roberts, Anthony J Wilkinson, Robin J Leatherbarrow, Edward W Tate
The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed cause of recurring malaria. N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme that catalyses the covalent attachment of myristate to the N-terminal glycine of substrate proteins, has been described as a potential target for the treatment of this disease. Herein, we report the synthesis and the structure-guided optimization of a series of quinolines with balanced activity against both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum N-myristoyltransferase (NMT).
January 1, 2017: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#2
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571216/plasmodium-vivax-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-dilemma-in-preeclampsia
#3
Richa Sharma, Amita Suneja, Anu Yadav, Kiran Guleria
Malaria during pregnancy can cause various feto-maternal complications. Life threatening respiratory involvement is rare with vivax malaria but common with Plasmodium falciparum. In most of the cases severe respiratory involvement occurs, after beginning of anti-malarial treatment. We are reporting a case which involved a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as the pregnant woman with severe preeclampsia developed acute respiratory distress, actually caused by Plasmodium vivax.
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571194/bilateral-cervical-lymphadenopathy-atypical-presentation-of-malaria-a-rare-case-report
#4
Dwijen Das, Kallol Bhattacharjee, Surinder Ghintala, Amit Kr Kalwar
Malaria, the most common parasitic disease of humans, remains a major health and economic burden in most tropical countries. An 18-year-old male from rural north eastern India presented with four days fever with chill. The patient was conscious, oriented but confused. Physical examination revealed bilateral multiple, discrete cervical lymphadenitis without organomegaly or sternal tenderness. Blood parameters were normal except transient thrombocytopenia. Blood smear and antigen were positive for both Plasmodium vivax and falciparum with negative viral markers...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558712/molecular-and-immunological-analyses-of-confirmed-plasmodium-vivax-relapse-episodes
#5
Sarunya Maneerattanasak, Panita Gosi, Srivicha Krudsood, Pattamawan Chimma, Jarinee Tongshoob, Yuvadee Mahakunkijcharoen, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Mallika Imwong, Georges Snounou, Srisin Khusmith
BACKGROUND: Relapse infections resulting from the activation hypnozoites produced by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale represent an important obstacle to the successful control of these species. A single licensed drug, primaquine is available to eliminate these liver dormant forms. To date, investigations of vivax relapse infections have been few in number. RESULTS: Genotyping, based on polymorphic regions of two genes (Pvmsp1F3 and Pvcsp) and four microsatellite markers (MS3...
May 30, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542194/using-g6pd-tests-to-enable-the-safe-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infections-with-primaquine-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#6
Angela Devine, Minnie Parmiter, Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Ric N Price, Yoel Lubell, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542123/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2014
#7
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537265/a-tetraoxane-based-antimalarial-drug-candidate-that-overcomes-pfk13-c580y-dependent-artemisinin-resistance
#8
Paul M O'Neill, Richard K Amewu, Susan A Charman, Sunil Sabbani, Nina F Gnädig, Judith Straimer, David A Fidock, Emma R Shore, Natalie L Roberts, Michael H-L Wong, W David Hong, Chandrakala Pidathala, Chris Riley, Ben Murphy, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Francisco Javier Gamo, Laura Sanz, Janneth Rodrigues, Carolina Gonzalez Cortes, Esperanza Herreros, Iñigo Angulo-Barturén, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Santiago Ferrer Bazaga, María Santos Martínez-Martínez, Brice Campo, Raman Sharma, Eileen Ryan, David M Shackleford, Simon Campbell, Dennis A Smith, Grennady Wirjanata, Rintis Noviyanti, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt, Michael J Palmer, Ian M Copple, Amy E Mercer, Andrea Ruecker, Michael J Delves, Robert E Sinden, Peter Siegl, Jill Davies, Rosemary Rochford, Clemens H M Kocken, Anne-Marie Zeeman, Gemma L Nixon, Giancarlo A Biagini, Stephen A Ward
K13 gene mutations are a primary marker of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria that threatens the long-term clinical utility of artemisinin-based combination therapies, the cornerstone of modern day malaria treatment. Here we describe a multinational drug discovery programme that has delivered a synthetic tetraoxane-based molecule, E209, which meets key requirements of the Medicines for Malaria Venture drug candidate profiles. E209 has potent nanomolar inhibitory activity against multiple strains of P...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533315/malaria-pathogenesis
#9
Danny A Milner
In the mosquito-human life cycle, the six species of malaria parasites infecting humans (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale wallickeri, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) undergo 10 or more morphological states, replicate from single to 10,000+ cells, and vary in total population from one to many more than 10(6) organisms. In the human host, only a small number of these morphological stages lead to clinical disease and the vast majority of all malaria-infected patients in the world produce few (if any) symptoms in the human...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510573/comparison-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-chloroquine-with-and-without-primaquine-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-in-ethiopia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tesfay Abreha, Jimee Hwang, Kamala Thriemer, Yehualashet Tadesse, Samuel Girma, Zenebe Melaku, Ashenafi Assef, Moges Kassa, Mark D Chatfield, Keren Z Landman, Stella M Chenet, Naomi W Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Zhiyong Zhou, Ya Ping Shi, S Patrick Kachur, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Hiwot Solomon, Addis Mekasha, Bereket Hailegiorgis Alemayehu, Joseph L Malone, Gunewardena Dissanayake, Hiwot Teka, Sarah Auburn, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts in malaria control have resulted in great gains in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, but P. vivax has been more refractory. Its ability to form dormant liver stages confounds control and elimination efforts. To compare the efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens for radical cure, we undertook a randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status with symptomatic P...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490540/the-biology-of-plasmodium-vivax
#11
John H Adams, Ivo Mueller
Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent cause of malaria worldwide and the leading cause of malaria outside of Africa. Although infections are seldom fatal clinical disease can be debilitating and imposes significant health and economic impacts on affected populations. Estimates of transmission and prevalence intensity can be problematic because many episodes of vivax originate from hypnozoite stages in the liver that have remained dormant from previous infections by an unknown mechanism. Lack of treatment options to clear hypnozoites and the ability to infect mosquitoes before disease symptoms present represent major challenges for control and eradication of vivax malaria...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464945/private-sector-opportunities-and-threats-to-achieving-malaria-elimination-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-results-from-malaria-outlet-surveys-in-cambodia-the-lao-pdr-myanmar-and-thailand
#12
Sochea Phok, Saysana Phanalasy, Si Thu Thein, Asawin Likhitsup
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to review multi-country evidence of private sector adherence to national regulations, guidelines, and quality-assurance standards for malaria case management and to document current coverage of private sector engagement and support through ACTwatch outlet surveys implemented in 2015 and 2016. RESULTS: Over 76,168 outlets were screened, and approximately 6500 interviews were conducted (Cambodia, N = 1303; the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), N = 724; Myanmar, N = 4395; and Thailand, N = 74)...
May 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440745/primaquine-in-plasma-and-methemoglobinemia-in-patients-with-malaria-due-to-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#13
José Luiz Vieira, Michelle E S Ferreira, Michelle V D Ferreira, Margarete M Gomes
AbstractPrimaquine is the only licensed drug available for the elimination of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites. Methemoglobinemia is currently reported in the course of treatment. There is evidence that metabolites of primaquine formed by the cytochrome pathway are responsible for methemoglobin formation; a genetic polymorphism of cytochrome isoforms; and a potential influence of gender in the activities of these enzymes requiring the establishment of dose × response curves profiles in different population groups...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438155/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-the-southern-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#14
Saysana Phanalasy
BACKGROUND: In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#15
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410610/an-intricate-case-of-multidrug-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-isolate-imported-from-cambodia
#16
Raffaele Dell'Acqua, Claudia Fabrizio, Francesco Di Gennaro, Sergio Lo Caputo, Annalisa Saracino, Michela Menegon, Mariangela L'Episcopia, Carlo Severini, Laura Monno, Francesco Castelli, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND: Imported cases of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and treatment failure with artemisinin-based regimens, although rare, have been described also in Western countries and their management is often challenging. This is also due to an inadequate knowledge and implementation of health prevention measures. CASE REPORT: A complex case of imported malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax/P. falciparum isolates in a patient who was not taking chemoprophylaxis while he was travelling in Cambodia is reported in this article...
April 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384505/the-vivax-surveyor-online-mapping-database-for-plasmodium-vivax-clinical-trials
#17
REVIEW
R J Commons, K Thriemer, G Humphreys, I Suay, C H Sibley, P J Guerin, R N Price
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent P. vivax infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although radical cure can reduce recurrent infection, it is confounded by antimalarial resistance and the lack of safe and effective hypnozoitocidal treatment. This study documents the available literature of published clinical trials of P. vivax, providing an up to date, online, open access tool to view and download available information. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective P...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381261/challenges-for-achieving-safe-and-effective-radical-cure-of-plasmodium-vivax-a-round-table-discussion-of-the-apmen-vivax-working-group
#18
REVIEW
Kamala Thriemer, Benedikt Ley, Albino Bobogare, Lek Dysoley, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Ayodhia P Pasaribu, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Elodie Jambert, Gonzalo J Domingo, Robert Commons, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Angela Devine, Mohammad M Aktaruzzaman, Nayeem Sohel, Rinzin Namgay, Tobgyel Drukpa, Surender Nath Sharma, Elvieda Sarawati, Iriani Samad, Minerva Theodora, Simone Nambanya, Sonesay Ounekham, Rose Nanti Binti Mudin, Garib Da Thakur, Leo Sora Makita, Raffy Deray, Sang-Eun Lee, Leonard Boaz, Manjula N Danansuriya, Santha D Mudiyanselage, Nipon Chinanonwait, Suravadee Kitchakarn, Johnny Nausien, Esau Naket, Thang Ngo Duc, Ha Do Manh, Young S Hong, Qin Cheng, Jack S Richards, Rita Kusriastuti, Ari Satyagraha, Rintis Noviyanti, Xavier C Ding, Wasif Ali Khan, Ching Swe Phru, Zhu Guoding, Gao Qi, Akira Kaneko, Olivo Miotto, Wang Nguitragool, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Katherine Battle, Rosalind E Howes, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Stephan Duparc, Ipsita Pal Bhowmick, Enny Kenangalem, Jo-Anne Bibit, Alyssa Barry, David Sintasath, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Carol H Sibley, James McCarthy, Lorenz von Seidlein, J Kevin Baird, Ric N Price
The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia-Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes...
April 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359340/world-malaria-report-time-to-acknowledge-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria
#19
Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia...
March 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357581/malaria-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Srikanta Basu, Puneet Kaur Sahi
India is endemic for malaria with unstable transmission inhibiting the development of immunity and predisposing all age groups to the disease. Children under five are the greatest sufferers with maximum mortality. P. falciparum and P. vivax cause majority of cases. Fever is the cardinal symptom, though no set of signs and symptoms reliably distinguishes malaria from other causes of fever. In all suspected cases parasitological diagnosis should be confirmed before starting the treatment. Microscopy of blood smears is the gold standard for diagnosis...
March 30, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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