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Plasmodium vivax and treatment

Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Kamala Thriemer, Maha E Elobied, Nouh S Mahgoub, Salah A Boshara, Hassan M H Elsafi, Suhaib A Gumaa, Tassneem Hamid, Hanadi Abdelbagi, Hamid M Basheir, Jutta Marfurt, Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Ric N Price, Benedikt Ley
BACKGROUND: First-line schizontocidal treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Republic of the Sudan is artesunate (total dose 12 mg/kg) plus Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (25/1.25 mg/kg) (AS/SP). Patients with Plasmodium vivax are also treated with 14 days primaquine (total dose 3.5 mg/kg) (PQ). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national policy. METHODS: Patients above 1 year, with microscopy-confirmed, Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria were treated with AS/SP...
March 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Zhou Hua-Yun, Wang Wei-Ming, Zhu Guo-Ding, Cao Yuan-Yuan, Gu Ya-Ping, Xu Sui, Zhang Chao, Lu Feng, Cao Jun
OBJECTIVE: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the strategy and measures for malaria elimination. METHODS: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRD-SIS) and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Totally, 308 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2016, and the cases decreased by 23...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
C Yan-Qiang, P Zhi-Zhao, L I Yun, J Cai-Xiao, L Li
Objective To analyze the overseas imported malaria situation of Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, so as to provide the evidence for exploring the prevention and control strategy. Methods The data of overseas imported malaria were collected and analyzed with the descriptive method including Plasmodium species, population characteristics, epidemic focus distribution, onset time, diagnosis and treatment in Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, and the time from the onset to first medical visit, time from first medical visit to being diagnosed, and time from onset to being diagnosed of different Plasmodium species were analyzed respectively with the statistical analysis method...
July 18, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Z Hua-Yun, W Wei-Ming, Z Guo-Ding, C Yuan-Yuan, L U Feng, G U Ya-Ping, Z Chao, X U Sui, C Jun
Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2015, so as to provide the evidence for malaria elimination. Methods The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2015 were collected from China's routine diseases surveillance information system. Results Totally 405 imported cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2015, and the cases increased by 14.08% compared with those in 2014. All the malaria cases were imported, and 5 cases (1.23%) were from Southeast Asia and 400 (98...
August 11, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Robert G E Krause, J P Dean Goldring
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is recognised as the main cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. The disease is often misdiagnosed as P. falciparum or P. malariae infections by microscopy, and the disease is difficult to eliminate due to its presence in both humans and monkeys. P. knowlesi infections can rapidly cause severe disease and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. No protein biomarker exists for the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detection of P. knowlesi infections. Plasmodium knowlesi infections can be diagnosed by PCR...
2018: PloS One
Xie Wei-Lin, Lan Zhi-Hui, Lin Yan-Feng, Xu Guo-Hong, Chen Yun-Hu, Tan Jia-Hui
OBJECTIVE: To understand the characteristics of imported malaria cases in Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City and explore the strategies and priorities in prevention and control, so as to provide the evidence for improving the diagnosis, treatment and management of imported malaria. METHODS: The data of imported malaria as well as the case epidemiological investigations were collected and retrospectively analyzed for the species composition, original countries, population distribution, regional distribution, onset situation, diagnosis, treatment, etc...
October 19, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Mohd Makmor-Bakry, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Hafizi A Hamid
Introduction: Primaquine is vital for the management of liver-stage Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria. However, primaquine effectiveness is dependent on various factors and differs between populations. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify factors that affect the length of stay and relapse during primaquine combination treatment in malaria-infected patients in the local setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on the use of primaquine combination among P...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura, Andrea Aparecida Moraes Fernandes, Graziela Maria Zanini, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Carina Guilhon Sequeira, Carlos Rodrigo Souza do Monte, Arnaldo Jorge Martins Filho, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Rosana Maria Feio Libonati, José Maria de Souza, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
Children and adolescents are at great risk for developing iron deficiency anaemia worldwide. In the tropical areas, malaria and intestinal parasites may also play an important role in anaemia pathogenesis. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and immunological aspects of anaemia in children and adolescents with Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the Pará State, Brazil. A longitudinal study was performed in two Reference Centres for malaria diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon in children and adolescents with malaria (n = 81), as compared to a control group (n = 40)...
February 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Adriana Calderaro, Giovanna Piccolo, Sara Montecchini, Mirko Buttrini, Sabina Rossi, Maria Loretana Dell'Anna, Valeria De Remigis, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
BACKGROUND: Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy since 1970 when the World Health Organization declared Italy malaria-free, but it is now the most commonly imported disease. The aim of the study was to analyse the trend of imported malaria cases in Parma, Italy, during January 2013-June 2017, reporting also the treatment and the outcome of cases, exploring the comparison of the three diagnostic tests used for malaria diagnosis: microscopy, immunochromatographic assay (ICT) (BinaxNOW®) and Real-time PCR assays detecting Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium knowlesi...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Stephen J Rogerson, Meghna Desai, Alfredo Mayor, Elisa Sicuri, Steve M Taylor, Anna M van Eijk
Over the past 10 years, knowledge of the burden, economic costs, and consequences of malaria in pregnancy has improved, and the prevalence of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has declined substantially in some geographical areas. In particular, studies outside of Africa have increased the evidence base of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy. Rapid diagnostic tests have been poor at detecting malaria in pregnant women, while PCR has shown a high prevalence of low density infection, the clinical importance of which is unknown...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Khan Muhammad Baloch, Khan Usmanghani, Ejaz Mohiuddin, Tasneem Qureshi, Muhammad Daniyal, Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari
Plasmodium falciparum is the most well-known reason for extreme and life-debilitating malaria. Falciparum malaria causes more than 1 million deaths annually. Malaria remains a noteworthy reason for major morbidity and mortality in the tropics, with Plasmodium falciparum accountable for the mainstream of the disease weight and Plasmodium vivax being the geologically greatest broadly dispersed cause of malaria. The controlling of severe malaria comprises quick direction of suitable parenteral anti-malarial agents and initial acknowledgement and treatment of the complications...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alejandra Ortiz-Ruiz, María Postigo, Sara Gil-Casanova, Daniel Cuadrado, José M Bautista, José Miguel Rubio, Miguel Luengo-Oroz, María Linares
BACKGROUND: Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers...
January 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jean Popovici, Lindsey R Friedrich, Saorin Kim, Sophalai Bin, Vorleak Run, Dysoley Lek, Matthew V Cannon, Didier Menard, David Serre
Plasmodium vivax parasites have a unique dormant stage that can cause relapses weeks or months after the initial infection. These dormant parasites are among the main challenges of vivax malaria control as they constitute a reservoir that is difficult to eliminate. Since field studies are confounded by reinfections and possible recrudescence of drug-resistant parasites, most analyses of P. vivax relapses have focused on travelers returning from regions of malaria endemicity. However, it is not clear whether these individuals accurately recapitulate the relapse patterns of repeatedly infected individuals residing in areas of endemicity...
January 23, 2018: MBio
André Daher, Dhelio Pereira, Marcus V G Lacerda, Márcia A A Alexandre, Cristiana T Nascimento, Júlio Castro Alves de Lima E Silva, Mauro Tada, Rosilene Ruffato, Ivan Maia, Tereza Cristina Dos Santos, Paola Marchesini, Ana Carolina Santelli, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: There is general international agreement that the importance of vivax malaria has been neglected, and there is a need for new treatment approaches in an effort to progress towards control and elimination in Latin America. This open label randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of three treatment regimens using either one of two fixed dose artemisinin-based combinations or chloroquine in combination with a short course of primaquine (7-9 days: total dose 3-4...
January 24, 2018: Malaria Journal
J Kevin Baird, Katherine E Battle, Rosalind E Howes
The hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax represents both the greatest obstacle and opportunity for ultimately eradicating this species. It is silent and cannot be diagnosed until it awakens and provokes a clinical attack with attendant morbidity, risk of mortality, and opportunities for onward transmission. The only licensed drug that kills hypnozoites is primaquine, which attacks the hypnozoite reservoir but imposes serious obstacles in doing so-at hypnozoitocidal doses, it invariably causes a threatening acute haemolytic anaemia in patients having an inborn deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), affecting about 8% of people living in malaria endemic nations...
January 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
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