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Plasmodium vivax and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778768/prevalence-of-g6pd-deficiency-and-associated-haematological-parameters-in-children-from-botswana
#1
Thato Motshoge, Grace Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, Sajini Souda, Charles Waithaka Muthoga, Naledi Mutukwa, Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Lesego Gabaitiri, Simon Chihanga, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Shimeles Hamda, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies Ntebela, Elias Peloewetse, Loeto Mazhani, Jeffrey M Pernica, John Read, Isaac K Quaye, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequency of G6PD deficiency is imperative...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761766/factors-associated-with-the-rapid-and-durable-decline-in-malaria-incidence-in-el-salvador-1980-2017
#2
Robert A Burton, José Eduardo Romero Chévez, Mauricio Sauerbrey, Caterina Guinovart, Angela Hartley, Geoffrey Kirkwood, Matthew Boslego, Mirna Elizabeth Gavidia, Jaime Enrique Alemán Escobar, Rachel Turkel, Richard W Steketee, Laurence Slutsker, Kammerle Schneider, Carlos C Kent Campbell
A decade after the Global Malaria Eradication Program, El Salvador had the highest burden of malaria in Mesoamerica, with approximately 20% due to Plasmodium falciparum . A resurgence of malaria in the 1970s led El Salvador to alter its national malaria control strategy. By 1995, El Salvador recorded its last autochthonous P. falciparum case with fewer than 20 Plasmodium vivax cases annually since 2011. By contrast, its immediate neighbors continue to have the highest incidences of malaria in the region. We reviewed and evaluated the policies and interventions implemented by the Salvadoran National Malaria Program that likely contributed to this progress toward malaria elimination...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739900/bone-marrow-is-a-major-parasite-reservoir-in-plasmodium-vivax-infection
#3
Nicanor Obaldia, Elamaran Meibalan, Juliana M Sa, Siyuan Ma, Martha A Clark, Pedro Mejia, Roberto R Moraes Barros, William Otero, Marcelo U Ferreira, James R Mitchell, Danny A Milner, Curtis Huttenhower, Dyann F Wirth, Manoj T Duraisingh, Thomas E Wellems, Matthias Marti
Plasmodium vivax causes heavy burdens of disease across malarious regions worldwide. Mature P. vivax asexual and transmissive gametocyte stages occur in the blood circulation, and it is often assumed that accumulation/sequestration in tissues is not an important phase in their development. Here, we present a systematic study of P. vivax stage distributions in infected tissues of nonhuman primate (NHP) malaria models as well as in blood from human infections. In a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of P...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724225/towards-development-of-aptamers-that-specifically-bind-to-lactate-dehydrogenase-of-plasmodium-falciparum-through-epitopic-targeting
#4
Kelly-Anne Frith, Ronen Fogel, J P Dean Goldring, Robert G E Krause, Makobetsa Khati, Heinrich Hoppe, Mary E Cromhout, Meesbah Jiwaji, Janice L Limson
BACKGROUND: Early detection is crucial for the effective treatment of malaria, particularly in those cases infected with Plasmodium falciparum. There is a need for diagnostic devices with the capacity to distinguish P. falciparum from other strains of malaria. Here, aptamers generated against targeted species-specific epitopes of P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (rPfLDH) are described. RESULTS: Two classes of aptamers bearing high binding affinity and specificity for recombinant P...
May 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723168/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2015
#5
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin, Kathrine R Tan
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720181/multiplicity-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-east-africa
#6
Daibin Zhong, Eugenia Lo, Xiaoming Wang, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guofa Zhou, Harrysone E Atieli, Andrew Githeko, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Ming-Chieh Lee, Yaw Afrane, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Parasite genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) affect clinical outcomes, response to drug treatment and naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. Traditional methods often underestimate the frequency and diversity of multiclonal infections due to technical sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing techniques provide a novel opportunity to study complexity of parasite populations and molecular epidemiology. METHODS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax samples were collected from health centres/hospitals and schools, respectively, from 2011 to 2015 in Ethiopia...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718903/patients-costs-socio-economic-and-health-system-aspects-associated-with-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-an-endemic-area-of-colombia
#7
Elisa Sicuri, Azucena Bardají, Sergi Sanz, Sergi Alonso, Silke Fernandes, Kara Hanson, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Clara Menendez
Malaria in pregnancy threatens birth outcomes and the health of women and their newborns. This is also the case in low transmission areas, such as Colombia, where Plasmodium vivax is the dominant parasite species. Within the Colombian health system, which underwent major reforms in the '90s, malaria treatment is provided free of charge to patients. However, patients still incur costs, such as transportation and value of time lost due to the disease. We estimated such costs among 40 pregnant women with clinical malaria (30% Plasmodium falciparum, 70% Plasmodium vivax) in the municipality of Tierralta, Northern Colombia...
May 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690878/efficacy-and-safety-of-methylene-blue-in-the-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review
#8
G Lu, M Nagbanshi, N Goldau, M Mendes Jorge, P Meissner, A Jahn, F P Mockenhaupt, O Müller
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) was the first synthetic antimalarial to be discovered and was used during the late 19th and early 20th centuries against all types of malaria. MB has been shown to be effective in inhibiting Plasmodium falciparum in culture, in the mouse model and in rhesus monkeys. MB was also shown to have a potent ex vivo activity against drug-resistant isolates of P. falciparum and P. vivax. In preclinical studies, MB acted synergistically with artemisinin derivates and demonstrated a strong effect on gametocyte reduction in P...
April 25, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661873/characterising-blood-stage-antimalarial-drug-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-in-vivo-using-reinfection-patterns
#9
James Watson, Cindy S Chu, Joel Tarning, Nicholas J White
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is an essential quantitative measure of the asexual blood stage effect of an antimalarial drug. In areas of high malaria transmission, and thus frequent individual infection, patients who are treated with slowly eliminated antimalarials become reinfected as drug concentrations decline. In the frequent relapse forms of P. vivax and in P. ovale malaria, recurrent infection occurs from relapses which begin to emerge from the liver approximately two weeks after the primary illness...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649190/updated-cdc-recommendations-for-using-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#10
Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Allison Salinger, Paul M Arguin, Meghna Desai, Kathrine R Tan
Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In the United States, treatment options for uncomplicated, chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pregnant women are limited to mefloquine or quinine plus clindamycin (1). However, limited availability of quinine and increasing resistance to mefloquine restrict these options. Strong evidence now demonstrates that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) (Coartem) is effective and safe in the treatment of malaria in pregnancy...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625586/a-17-year-trend-analysis-of-malaria-at-adi-arkay-north-gondar-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#11
Habtie Tesfa, Abebe Genetu Bayih, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This study aimed to determine the trend of malaria among febrile patients seeking treatment over 17 year (1997-2013) at Adi Arkay, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A 17-year malaria microscopy data were extracted retrospectively at Adi Arkay health centre. Time series and curve estimation analysis were used to evaluate trends in the data. Pearson's Chi square test was also used to describe associations of variables...
April 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615054/anti-plasmodial-effect-of-plant-extracts-from-picrolemma-huberi-and-picramnia-latifolia
#12
Wendy Berthi, Alexa González, Alexandra Rios, Silvia Blair, Álvaro Cogollo, Adriana Pabón
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, of which Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are the major species that cause the disease in humans. As there are relatively few alternatives for malaria treatment, it is necessary to search for new chemotherapeutic options. Colombia possesses a great diversity of plants, which are potential sources of new compounds of medical interest. Thus, in this study the antiplasmodial effect of extracts from two species of plants from the families Simaroubaceae and Picramniaceae (Picramnia latifolia and Picrolemma huberi) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
April 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614536/-prophylaxis-and-therapy-of-malaria-current-recommendations
#13
Christof D Vinnemeier, Thierry Rolling
Malaria incidence is decreasing on a global scale, while the number of imported cases has remained at a high level in Germany. To decrease this number, counselling of travellers to malaria-endemic regions is important. Patients to high risk countries need regular chemoprophylaxis. The alternative of stand-by emergency treatment for travellers to regions with low or medium risk has been met with growing criticism. For the treatment of all malaria cases, artemisinins are a mainstay of treatment. Regular follow-up is warranted to prevent relapses...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614088/malaria-burden-and-treatment-targets-in-kachin-special-region-ii-myanmar-from-2008-to-2016-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Hui Liu, Jian-Wei Xu, Yaw Bi
Although drug-based treatment is the primary intervention for malaria control and elimination, optimal use of targeted treatments remains unclear. From 2008 to 2016, three targeted programs on treatment were undertaken in Kachin Special Region II (KR2), Myanmar. Program I (2008-2011) treated all confirmed, clinical and suspected cases; program II (2012-2013) treated confirmed and clinical cases; and program III (2014-2016) targeted confirmed cases only. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the three programs on malaria burden individually based on the annual parasite incidence (API), slide positivity rate (SPR) and their relative values...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580244/simultaneous-detection-of-plasmodium-vivax-dhfr-dhps-mdr1-and-crt-o-resistance-associated-mutations-in-the-colombian-amazonian-region
#15
Juan Ricardo Cubides, Paola Andrea Camargo-Ayala, Carlos Hernando Niño, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Anggie Ortega-Ortegón, Estefany Ospina-Cantillo, María Fernanda Orduz-Durán, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Malaria continues being a public health problem worldwide. Plasmodium vivax is the species causing the largest number of cases of malaria in Asia and South America. Due to the lack of a completely effective anti-malarial vaccine, controlling this disease has been based on transmission vector management, rapid diagnosis and suitable treatment. However, parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs has become a major yet-to-be-overcome challenge. This study was thus aimed at determining pvmdr1, pvdhfr, pvdhps and pvcrt-o gene mutations and haplotypes from field samples obtained from an endemic area in the Colombian Amazonian region...
March 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579195/negligible-impact-of-mass-screening-and-treatment-on-meso-endemic-malaria-transmission-at-west-timor-in-eastern-indonesia-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#16
Inge Sutanto, Ayleen Kosasih, Iqbal R F Elyazar, Deddy R Simanjuntak, Tri A Larasati, M Sopiyudin Dahlan, Isra Wahid, Ivo Mueller, Cristian Koepfli, Rita Kusriastuti, Asik Surya, Ferdinand J Laihad, William A Hawley, Frank H Collins, J Kevin Baird, Neil F Lobo
Background: Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected without regard to illness. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial evaluated malaria incidence with and without MST. Clusters were randomized to three, two, or no MST interventions: MST3=6 clusters (156 households/670 individuals); MST2=5 clusters (89 households/423 individuals); and MST0=5 clusters (174 households/777 individuals). All clusters completed the study with 15 residents withdrawing...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548285/low-risk-of-recurrence-following-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-plus-primaquine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-the-republic-of-the-sudan
#17
Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Kamala Thriemer, Maha E Elobied, Nouh S Mahgoub, Salah A Boshara, Hassan M H Elsafi, Suhaib A Gumaa, Tassneem Hamid, Hanadi Abdelbagi, Hamid M Basheir, Jutta Marfurt, Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Ric N Price, Benedikt Ley
BACKGROUND: First-line schizontocidal treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Republic of the Sudan is artesunate (total dose 12 mg/kg) plus Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (25/1.25 mg/kg) (AS/SP). Patients with Plasmodium vivax are also treated with 14 days primaquine (total dose 3.5 mg/kg) (PQ). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national policy. METHODS: Patients above 1 year, with microscopy-confirmed, Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria were treated with AS/SP...
March 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536704/-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-prevalence-in-jiangsu-province-in-2016
#18
Zhou Hua-Yun, Wang Wei-Ming, Zhu Guo-Ding, Cao Yuan-Yuan, Gu Ya-Ping, Xu Sui, Zhang Chao, Lu Feng, Cao Jun
OBJECTIVE: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the strategy and measures for malaria elimination. METHODS: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRD-SIS) and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Totally, 308 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2016, and the cases decreased by 23...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522113/a-controlled-trial-of-mass-drug-administration-to-interrupt-transmission-of-multi-drug-resistant-falciparum-malaria-in-cambodian-villages
#19
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510711/the-ethics-of-using-placebo-in-randomised-controlled-trials-a-case-study-of-a-plasmodium-vivax-antirelapse-trial
#20
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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