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Plasmodium vivax and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693552/chloroquine-efficacy-for-plasmodium-vivax-in-myanmar-in-populations-with-high-genetic-diversity-and-moderate-parasite-gene-flow
#1
Myo Win Htun, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Khin Myo Aye, Chan Myae Hlaing, Myat Phone Kyaw, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Ric N Price, Sarah Auburn, Kamala Thriemer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. METHODS: Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28...
July 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683750/use-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-by-community-health-workers-in-afghanistan-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Toby Leslie, Mark Rowland, Amy Mikhail, Bonnie Cundill, Barbara Willey, Asif Alokozai, Ismail Mayan, Anwar Hasanzai, Sayed Habibullah Baktash, Nader Mohammed, Molly Wood, Habib-U-Rahman Rahimi, Baptiste Laurent, Cyril Buhler, Christopher J M Whitty
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment of febrile illness. METHODS: A cluster randomised trial in community health services was undertaken in Afghanistan. The primary outcome was the proportion of suspected malaria cases correctly treated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed malaria and PCR negative cases receiving no antimalarial drugs measured at the level of the patient...
July 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683669/development-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-plasmodium-falciparum-unique-genes-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-human-malaria
#3
Yijing Zhang, Yi Yao, Weixing Du, Kai Wu, Wenyue Xu, Min Lin, Huabing Tan, Jian Li
In order to achieve better outcomes for treatment and in the prophylaxis of malaria, it is imperative to develop a sensitive, specific, and accurate assay for early diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which is the major cause of malaria. In this study, we aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with P. falciparum unique genes for sensitive, specific, and accurate detection of P. falciparum infection. The unique genes of P. falciparum were randomly selected from PlasmoDB...
July 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676055/malaria-in-brazil-colombia-peru-and-venezuela-current-challenges-in-malaria-control-and-elimination
#4
REVIEW
Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Sonia M Herrera, Sócrates Herrera, Marcus V G Lacerda
In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...
July 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673348/anti-malarial-treatment-outcomes-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Mohammed Assen Seid, Henok Getachew Tegegn
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is among countries with a high malaria burden. There are several studies that assessed the efficacy of anti-malarial agents in the country and this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to obtain stronger evidence on treatment outcomes of malaria from the existing literature in Ethiopia. METHODS: A systematic literature search using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement was conducted on studies from Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases to identify published and unpublished literature...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667326/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-plasmodium-vivax-induced-alterations-in-human-serum-during-the-acute-and-convalescent-phases-of-infection
#6
Sandipan Ray, Sandip K Patel, Apoorva Venkatesh, Gangadhar Chatterjee, Naziya N Ansari, Nithya J Gogtay, Urmila M Thatte, Prajakta Gandhe, Santosh G Varma, Swati Patankar, Sanjeeva Srivastava
The radial distribution of Plasmodium vivax malaria burden has evoked enormous concern among the global research community. In this study, we have investigated the serum proteome alterations in non-severe vivax malaria patients before and during patient recuperation starting from the early febrile to the defervescence and convalescent stages of the infection. We have also performed an extensive quantitative proteomics analysis to compare the serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with low (LPVM) and moderately-high (MPVM) parasitemia with healthy community controls...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626547/structure-guided-optimization-of-quinoline-inhibitors-of-plasmodium-n-myristoyltransferase
#7
Victor Goncalves, James A Brannigan, Alice Laporte, Andrew S Bell, Shirley M Roberts, Anthony J Wilkinson, Robin J Leatherbarrow, Edward W Tate
The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed cause of recurring malaria. N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme that catalyses the covalent attachment of myristate to the N-terminal glycine of substrate proteins, has been described as a potential target for the treatment of this disease. Herein, we report the synthesis and the structure-guided optimization of a series of quinolines with balanced activity against both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum N-myristoyltransferase (NMT).
January 1, 2017: MedChemComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#8
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571216/plasmodium-vivax-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-dilemma-in-preeclampsia
#9
Richa Sharma, Amita Suneja, Anu Yadav, Kiran Guleria
Malaria during pregnancy can cause various feto-maternal complications. Life threatening respiratory involvement is rare with vivax malaria but common with Plasmodium falciparum. In most of the cases severe respiratory involvement occurs, after beginning of anti-malarial treatment. We are reporting a case which involved a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as the pregnant woman with severe preeclampsia developed acute respiratory distress, actually caused by Plasmodium vivax.
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571194/bilateral-cervical-lymphadenopathy-atypical-presentation-of-malaria-a-rare-case-report
#10
Dwijen Das, Kallol Bhattacharjee, Surinder Ghintala, Amit Kr Kalwar
Malaria, the most common parasitic disease of humans, remains a major health and economic burden in most tropical countries. An 18-year-old male from rural north eastern India presented with four days fever with chill. The patient was conscious, oriented but confused. Physical examination revealed bilateral multiple, discrete cervical lymphadenitis without organomegaly or sternal tenderness. Blood parameters were normal except transient thrombocytopenia. Blood smear and antigen were positive for both Plasmodium vivax and falciparum with negative viral markers...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558712/molecular-and-immunological-analyses-of-confirmed-plasmodium-vivax-relapse-episodes
#11
Sarunya Maneerattanasak, Panita Gosi, Srivicha Krudsood, Pattamawan Chimma, Jarinee Tongshoob, Yuvadee Mahakunkijcharoen, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Mallika Imwong, Georges Snounou, Srisin Khusmith
BACKGROUND: Relapse infections resulting from the activation hypnozoites produced by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale represent an important obstacle to the successful control of these species. A single licensed drug, primaquine is available to eliminate these liver dormant forms. To date, investigations of vivax relapse infections have been few in number. RESULTS: Genotyping, based on polymorphic regions of two genes (Pvmsp1F3 and Pvcsp) and four microsatellite markers (MS3...
May 30, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542194/using-g6pd-tests-to-enable-the-safe-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infections-with-primaquine-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#12
Angela Devine, Minnie Parmiter, Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Ric N Price, Yoel Lubell, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542123/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2014
#13
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537265/a-tetraoxane-based-antimalarial-drug-candidate-that-overcomes-pfk13-c580y-dependent-artemisinin-resistance
#14
Paul M O'Neill, Richard K Amewu, Susan A Charman, Sunil Sabbani, Nina F Gnädig, Judith Straimer, David A Fidock, Emma R Shore, Natalie L Roberts, Michael H-L Wong, W David Hong, Chandrakala Pidathala, Chris Riley, Ben Murphy, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Francisco Javier Gamo, Laura Sanz, Janneth Rodrigues, Carolina Gonzalez Cortes, Esperanza Herreros, Iñigo Angulo-Barturén, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Santiago Ferrer Bazaga, María Santos Martínez-Martínez, Brice Campo, Raman Sharma, Eileen Ryan, David M Shackleford, Simon Campbell, Dennis A Smith, Grennady Wirjanata, Rintis Noviyanti, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt, Michael J Palmer, Ian M Copple, Amy E Mercer, Andrea Ruecker, Michael J Delves, Robert E Sinden, Peter Siegl, Jill Davies, Rosemary Rochford, Clemens H M Kocken, Anne-Marie Zeeman, Gemma L Nixon, Giancarlo A Biagini, Stephen A Ward
K13 gene mutations are a primary marker of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria that threatens the long-term clinical utility of artemisinin-based combination therapies, the cornerstone of modern day malaria treatment. Here we describe a multinational drug discovery programme that has delivered a synthetic tetraoxane-based molecule, E209, which meets key requirements of the Medicines for Malaria Venture drug candidate profiles. E209 has potent nanomolar inhibitory activity against multiple strains of P...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533315/malaria-pathogenesis
#15
Danny A Milner
In the mosquito-human life cycle, the six species of malaria parasites infecting humans (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale wallickeri, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) undergo 10 or more morphological states, replicate from single to 10,000+ cells, and vary in total population from one to many more than 10(6) organisms. In the human host, only a small number of these morphological stages lead to clinical disease and the vast majority of all malaria-infected patients in the world produce few (if any) symptoms in the human...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510573/comparison-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-chloroquine-with-and-without-primaquine-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-in-ethiopia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tesfay Abreha, Jimee Hwang, Kamala Thriemer, Yehualashet Tadesse, Samuel Girma, Zenebe Melaku, Ashenafi Assef, Moges Kassa, Mark D Chatfield, Keren Z Landman, Stella M Chenet, Naomi W Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Zhiyong Zhou, Ya Ping Shi, S Patrick Kachur, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Hiwot Solomon, Addis Mekasha, Bereket Hailegiorgis Alemayehu, Joseph L Malone, Gunewardena Dissanayake, Hiwot Teka, Sarah Auburn, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts in malaria control have resulted in great gains in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, but P. vivax has been more refractory. Its ability to form dormant liver stages confounds control and elimination efforts. To compare the efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens for radical cure, we undertook a randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status with symptomatic P...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490540/the-biology-of-plasmodium-vivax
#17
John H Adams, Ivo Mueller
Plasmodium vivax is the second most prevalent cause of malaria worldwide and the leading cause of malaria outside of Africa. Although infections are seldom fatal clinical disease can be debilitating and imposes significant health and economic impacts on affected populations. Estimates of transmission and prevalence intensity can be problematic because many episodes of vivax originate from hypnozoite stages in the liver that have remained dormant from previous infections by an unknown mechanism. Lack of treatment options to clear hypnozoites and the ability to infect mosquitoes before disease symptoms present represent major challenges for control and eradication of vivax malaria...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464945/private-sector-opportunities-and-threats-to-achieving-malaria-elimination-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-results-from-malaria-outlet-surveys-in-cambodia-the-lao-pdr-myanmar-and-thailand
#18
Sochea Phok, Saysana Phanalasy, Si Thu Thein, Asawin Likhitsup
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to review multi-country evidence of private sector adherence to national regulations, guidelines, and quality-assurance standards for malaria case management and to document current coverage of private sector engagement and support through ACTwatch outlet surveys implemented in 2015 and 2016. RESULTS: Over 76,168 outlets were screened, and approximately 6500 interviews were conducted (Cambodia, N = 1303; the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), N = 724; Myanmar, N = 4395; and Thailand, N = 74)...
May 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440745/primaquine-in-plasma-and-methemoglobinemia-in-patients-with-malaria-due-to-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin
#19
José Luiz Vieira, Michelle E S Ferreira, Michelle V D Ferreira, Margarete M Gomes
AbstractPrimaquine is the only licensed drug available for the elimination of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites. Methemoglobinemia is currently reported in the course of treatment. There is evidence that metabolites of primaquine formed by the cytochrome pathway are responsible for methemoglobin formation; a genetic polymorphism of cytochrome isoforms; and a potential influence of gender in the activities of these enzymes requiring the establishment of dose × response curves profiles in different population groups...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438155/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-the-southern-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#20
Saysana Phanalasy
BACKGROUND: In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
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