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immunohistochemistry heart valve

Jessica Perez, Nancy Diaz, Ishita Tandon, Rachel Plate, Christopher Martindale, Kartik Balachandran
While the valvulopathic effects of serotonin (5HT) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) individually are known, it was not clear how 5HT and Ang-II might interact, specifically in the context of the mechanobiological responses due to altered valve mechanics potentiated by these molecules. In this context, the hypothesis of this study was that increased serotonin levels would result in accelerated progression toward disease in the presence of angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. C57/BL6 J mice were divided into four groups and subcutaneously implanted with osmotic pumps containing: PBS (control), 5HT (2...
February 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Natalia Smorodinova, Martin Bláha, Vojtěch Melenovský, Karolína Rozsívalová, Jaromír Přidal, Mária Ďurišová, Jan Pirk, Josef Kautzner, Tomáš Kučera
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and despite obvious clinical importance remains its pathogenesis only partially explained. A relation between inflammation and AF has been suggested by findings of increased inflammatory markers in AF patients. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterize morphologically and functionally CD45-positive inflammatory cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with AF as compared to sinus rhythm (SR)...
2017: PloS One
Bongkun Choi, Sahmin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Ro Lee, Dae-Hee Kim, Jeong Yoon Jang, Sang-Wook Kang, Ki-Up Lee, Eun-Ju Chang, Jae-Kwan Song
Background -Calcification of the aortic valve leads to increased leaflet stiffness, and consequently to the development of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD); however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of calcification remain unclear. Here, we identified that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, also known as CD26) increases valvular calcification and promotes CAVD progression. Methods -We obtained the aortic valve tissues from humans and murine models (wild type and eNOS(-/-) mice), and cultured the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) and valvular endothelial cells (VECs) from the cusps...
February 8, 2017: Circulation
Christian Dullin, Roser Ufartes, Emanuel Larsson, Sabine Martin, Marcio Lazzarini, Giuliana Tromba, Jeannine Missbach-Guentner, Diana Pinkert-Leetsch, Dörthe M Katschinski, Frauke Alves
The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos...
2017: PloS One
Ulrich Krause, Filipe D Abreu da Cunha, David Backhoff, Claudius Jacobshagen, Sophia Klehs, Heike E Schneider, Thomas Paul
To improve long-term outcome after cryoablation of substrates of supraventricular tachycardia, application of two and three consecutive freeze-thaw cycles has been performed. The effect of triple freeze-thaw cycles on lesion formation within developing myocardium and coronary arteries, however, has not been studied yet. In eight piglets (mean age 15 weeks, weight 15-20 kg), 30 cryolesions (three consecutive freeze-thaw cycles) were applied to the atrial aspect of both AV valve annuli (n = 18) as well as to ventricular myocardium below the valves (n = 12)...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
Tayyebeh Vafaee, Daniel Thomas, Amisha Desai, Louise M Jennings, Helen Berry, Paul Rooney, John Kearney, John Fisher, Eileen Ingham
The clinical use of decellularised cardiac valve allografts is increasing. Long term data will be required to determine whether they outperform conventional cryopreserved allografts. Valves decellularised using different processes may show varied long-term outcomes. It is therefore important to understand the effects of specific decellularisation technologies on the characteristics of donor heart valves. Human cryopreserved aortic and pulmonary valved conduits were decellularised using hypotonic buffer, 0.1% (w/v) SDS and nuclease digestion...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Eliran Moshe Reuven, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Tal Marshanski, Michael E Breimer, Hai Yu, Imen Fellah-Hebia, Jean-Christian Roussel, Cristina Costa, Manuel Galiñanes, Rafael Mañez, Thierry Le Tourneau, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Emanuele Cozzi, Xi Chen, Vered Padler-Karavani
BACKGROUND: The two common sialic acids (Sias) in mammals are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated form N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Unlike most mammals, humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc that is considered foreign and recognized by circulating antibodies. Thus, Neu5Gc is a potential xenogenic carbohydrate antigen in bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) that tend to deteriorate in time within human patients. METHODS: We investigated Neu5Gc expression in non-engineered animal-derived cardiac tissues and in clinically used commercial BHV, and evaluated Neu5Gc immunogenicity on BHV through recognition by human anti-Neu5Gc IgG...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
Thomas A Treibel, Marianna Fontana, Janet A Gilbertson, Silvia Castelletti, Steven K White, Paul R Scully, Neil Roberts, David F Hutt, Dorota M Rowczenio, Carol J Whelan, Michael A Ashworth, Julian D Gillmore, Philip N Hawkins, James C Moon
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic stenosis (cAS) affects 3% of individuals aged >75 years, leading to heart failure and death unless the valve is replaced. Wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloid is also a disorder of ageing individuals. Prevalence and clinical significance of dual pathology are unknown. This study explored the prevalence of wild-type transthyretin amyloid in cAS by myocardial biopsy, its imaging phenotype and prognostic significance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 146 patients with severe AS requiring surgical valve replacement underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance and intraoperative biopsies; 112 had cAS (75±6 years; 57% men)...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Josephin Mosch, Christian A Gleissner, Simon Body, Elena Aikawa
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valvular heart disease and likely evolves from inflammatory pre-conditions in the valve. Type II diabetes mellitus (DMII) has been associated with pathogenesis of CAVD, however, the mechanism initiating CAVD in DMII is not well understood and the human valve pathology in DMII has not been described. We therefore performed quantitative histological analyses of aortic valves of CAVD patients with and without DMII. METHODS: CAVD human aortic valves (n=45) obtained after surgical valve replacement were examined macroscopically with gross measurements of calcified areas...
March 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Eetu Niinimäki, Ari A Mennander, Timo Paavonen, Ivana Kholová
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) has been identified as part of several acute and chronic inflammation. Sparse data exist on lymphatics during endocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with surgically resected valves were included. Endocarditis was present in 18 aortic and 10 mitral valves. Controls consisted of 15 degenerative aortic and 9 degenerative mitral valves. There were 22 males with endocarditis and 17 males in controls...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Shu-Ling Diao, Hui-Pu Xu, Bei Zhang, Bao-Xin Ma, Xian-Liang Liu
BACKGROUND To examine changes of mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-2, Bcl-2, and BAX in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, and investigate the correlations among these 3 biomarkers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rheumatic heart disease patients (n=158) undergoing cardiac surgical procedures for mitral valve repair or replacement were included as the AF group (n=123), containing paroxysmal AF (n=42), persistent AF (n=36), and permanent AF (n=45). Rheumatic heart disease patients with sinus rhythm (SR) (n=35) were enrolled as the SR group (control group)...
May 4, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Y N Wang, T Li, J R Gu, B Y Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on rheumatic myocardial fibrosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). METHODS: The papillary muscles samples were obtained from patients with RHD during mitral valve replacement.The expression of TGF-β1, CTGF mRNA and CTGF protein were detected with semiquantitative RT-PCR technique and immunohistochemistry technologyin the papillary muscles cell from 41RHD patients and 20 normal papillary muscles samples...
April 19, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Qi Liu, Wei-Hua Qiao, Fei-fei Li, Peg Deng, Zhi-Wei Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Interleukin (IL)-13 is a major inducer of fibrosis in many chronic infectious diseases, yet few studies have reported its role in valvular fibrosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The study aim was to investigate the role of IL-13 in mitral valvular fibrosis in patients with RHD. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from surgical patients with RHD (n = 18) and from healthy controls (n = 9). Serum levels of IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were analyzed using ELISA...
July 2015: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Maria Jose Dikhoff, Mimi ter Weeme, Alexander B A Vonk, Koba Kupreishvili, Anna M Blom, Paul A J Krijnen, Wim Stooker, Hans W M Niessen
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: It has been found recently that activated complement is more widespread in diseased aortic valves compared to the endogenous complement inhibitors C1-inhibitor and clusterin. Previously, another endogenous inhibitor of complement, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has been described in atherosclerotic diseased coronary arteries. The study aim was to analyze C4BP levels in diseased aortic valves. METHODS: Aortic valve tissue was derived from surgical procedures and classified as 'degenerative', 'atherosclerotic' or 'atherosclerotic with bacterial infection'...
July 2015: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Yong-Ming Zhou, Ming-Jiang Li, Yan-Li Zhou, Le-Le Ma, Xin Yi
OBJECTIVE: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been identified as a strong biomarker of cardiovascular diseases; however, no evidence are available concerning the relationship of GDF-15 and atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). METHODS: Twenty patients with rheumatic heart disease were divided into two groups, 10 cases with AF and 10 cases with sinus rhythm (SR). Clinical data and blood samples were collected; left atrial appendage was taken by the surgeon in the process of valve replacement...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Rui Wang, Xin Yi, Xiaoyan Li, Xuejun Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) has been discovered as a strong hormone, plays an important role in lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, associated with several diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular events; however, no evidence is available concerning the relationship of FGF-21 and atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). METHODS: Twenty-four rheumatic heart disease patients were divided into two groups, 12 cases with AF and 12 cases with sinus rhythm (SR)...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Wenting Li, Zhiyu Zeng, Chun Gui, Huilei Zheng, Weiqiang Huang, Heng Wei, Danping Gong
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) makes a heavy burden in human lives and economy. The proteomic analysis of acute rheumatic heart disease (ARHD) can provide precious data to study RHD at the early stages, but no one has looked into. So based on our early research we applied the method of continuous GAS stimulation on Lewis rats to duplicate the animal model of ARHD. And the mitral valves of rats in control group (n=10) and ARHD group (n=10) were selected for proteomic analysis of ARHD with the iTRAQ labeling based 2D LC-ESI-MS/MS quantitative technology...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Maria E Baardman, Mathijs V Zwier, Lambertus J Wisse, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Wilhelmina S Kerstjens-Frederikse, Robert M W Hofstra, Angelika Jurdzinski, Beerend P Hierck, Monique R M Jongbloed, Rolf M F Berger, Torsten Plösch, Marco C DeRuiter
Lipoprotein-related receptor protein 2 (LRP2) is important for development of the embryonic neural crest and brain in both mice and humans. Although a role in cardiovascular development can be expected, the hearts ofLrp2knockout (KO) mice have not yet been investigated. We studied the cardiovascular development ofLrp2KO mice between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E15.5, applying morphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against Tfap2α (neural crest cells), Nkx2.5 (second heart field), WT1 (epicardium derived cells), tropomyosin (myocardium) and LRP2...
April 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Ryan J Coram, Samantha J Stillwagon, Anuradha Guggilam, Michael W Jenkins, Maurice S Swanson, Andrea N Ladd
BACKGROUND: Development of the valves and septa of the heart depends on the formation and remodeling of the endocardial cushions in the atrioventricular canal and outflow tract. These cushions are populated by mesenchyme produced from the endocardium by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The endocardial cushions are remodeled into the valves at post-EMT stages via differentiation of the mesenchyme and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling has been implicated in both the induction of EMT in the endocardial cushions and the remodeling of the valves at post-EMT stages...
October 15, 2015: BMC Developmental Biology
Caitlin M Pierlot, Andrew D Moeller, J Michael Lee, Sarah M Wells
Recent studies have demonstrated remodeling of aortic and mitral valves leaflets under the volume loading and cardiac expansion of pregnancy. Those valves' leaflets enlarge with altered collagen fiber architecture, content, and cross-linking and biphasic changes (decreases, then increases) in extensibility during gestation. This study extends our analyses to right-sided valves, with additional compositional measurements for all valves. Valve leaflets were harvested from nonpregnant heifers and pregnant cows...
November 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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