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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139241/porcine-respiratory-disease-complex-after-the-introduction-of-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-in-brazil
#1
R R Rech, D Gava, M C Silva, L T Fernandes, V Haach, J R Ciacci-Zanella, R Schaefer
From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus (IAV), IHC and nested PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo), PCR for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), RT-qPCR for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and bacterial culture...
November 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128032/acute-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lower-respiratory-infections-in-hanoi-children-an-eight-year-time-series-study
#2
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Christian Schindler, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126755/-cannabis-and-lung-what-we-know-and-everything-we-don-t-know-yet
#3
REVIEW
T Urban, J Hureaux
Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer...
November 7, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122495/up-regulation-of-serum-periostin-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen-levels-in-infants-with-acute-bronchitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#4
Hiroaki Nakamura, Kenichi Akashi, Masako Watanabe, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono, Yoshinori Azuma, Noriko Ogasawara, Keisuke Yamamoto, Norikazu Shimizu, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Kenji Izuhara, Toshio Katsunuma
BACKGROUND: Periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during infancy exhibits an asthma-like pathogenesis, suggesting that it may be associated with the subsequent development of asthma. However, the mechanism by which RSV infection leads to development of asthma has not yet been fully elucidated. METHODS: Infants younger than 36 months were enrolled and classified into three groups...
November 6, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119851/clinical-characteristics-of-children-infected-with-enterovirus-d68-in-an-outpatient-clinic-and-the-association-with-bronchial-asthma
#5
Tsutomu Itagaki, Yoko Aoki, Yohei Matoba, Shizuka Tanaka, Tatsuya Ikeda, Katsumi Mizuta, Yoko Matsuzaki
BACKGROUND: All reports of increases in severe respiratory disease associated with human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) are from hospital settings. However, there are few reports describing clinical characteristics in less severely affected populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2015 in Yamagata, Japan. Using regional passive surveillance, 5794 respiratory specimens were collected from children who initially presented to an outpatient clinic with acute respiratory symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119837/eps-7630-is-effective-and-safe-in-children-under-6-years-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-clinical-studies-revisited
#6
Wolfgang Kamin, Petra Funk, Georg Seifert, Andrea Zimmermann, Walter Lehmacher
Objective - Pelargonium sidoides preparation EPs 7630 has been proven safe and effective in acute respiratory tract infections (aRTIs), but data for young children have not been presented separately. We reviewed clinical studies and present an overview of known and newly analyzed data from children <6 years. Methods - We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for interventional and non-interventional studies which investigated the effects of EPs 7630 in aRTIs and included children <6 years of age. Subgroup analyses for this age range were performed for symptom scales, global efficacy or effectiveness assessments, and safety outcomes...
November 9, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118578/changes-in-definition-lead-to-changes-in-the-clinical-characteristics-across-copd-categories-according-to-gold-2017-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-in-china
#7
Lina Sun, Yahong Chen, Rui Wu, Ming Lu, Wanzhen Yao
Purpose: To investigate how the changes of definition in assessment of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification 2017 lead to changes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient clinical characteristics across categories in China. Patients and methods: COPD patients from 11 medical centers in China were stratified into old and new groups A-D twice according to the GOLD 2011 and 2017 comprehensive assessment. Demography and clinical characteristics were compared between old and new groups A-D...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090990/handgrip-strength-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-associations-with-acute-exacerbations-and-body-composition
#8
Carlos H Martinez, Alejandro A Diaz, Catherine A Meldrum, Merry-Lynn N McDonald, Susan Murray, Gregory L Kinney, John E Hokanson, Jeffrey L Curtis, Russell P Bowler, MeiLan K Han, George R Washko, Elizabeth A Regan
RATIONALE: Handgrip strength (HGS) predicts mortality in the elderly, but its determinants and clinical significance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been defined. OBJECTIVES: We tested associations of HGS with pectoralis muscle area (PMA), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), imaging characteristics, and lung function in smokers with COPD, and evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of HGS with acute respiratory events. METHODS: We analyzed demographic, clinical, spirometry, HGS, and imaging data of 272 subjects with COPD, obtaining measures of airway thickness, emphysema, PMA, and SAT from chest computed tomography scans...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080708/classification-of-cough-as-a-symptom-in-adults-and-management-algorithms-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#9
Richard S Irwin, Cynthia L French, Anne B Chang, Kenneth W Altman
BACKGROUND: We performed systematic reviews using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) format to answer the following key clinical question: Are the CHEST 2006 classifications of acute, subacute and chronic cough and associated management algorithms in adults that were based on durations of cough useful? METHODS: We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework...
November 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077003/antibiotic-prescribing-for-uncomplicated-acute-bronchitis-is-highest-in-younger-adults
#10
Larissa Grigoryan, Roger Zoorob, Jesal Shah, Haijun Wang, Monisha Arya, Barbara W Trautner
Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is currently a global health priority. Current guidelines recommend against antibiotic treatment for acute uncomplicated bronchitis. We studied antibiotic prescribing patterns for uncomplicated acute bronchitis and identified predictors of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. We used the Epic Clarity database (electronic medical record system) to identify all adult patients with acute bronchitis in family medicine clinics from 2011 to 2016. We excluded factors that could justify antibiotic use, such as suspected pneumonia, COPD or immunocompromising conditions...
October 27, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069930/long-term-health-effects-of-chemical-warfare-agents-on-children-following-a-single-heavy-exposure
#11
J M Talabani, A I Ali, A M Kadir, R Rashid, F Samin, D Greenwood, Awm Hay
In the 1980s, villages in the Kurdistan region of Iraq were exposed to chemical weapons (CWs), which killed and injured thousands of civilians. There has been no clinical assessment of the long-term effects of CWs exposure on those injured. We report the first such evaluation of CW effects on long-term health of children. Patients from the CW-exposed areas were interviewed to assess previous and current clinical history and underwent clinical examination. The status of organs known to be targets of CWs, including skin, eyes, respiratory and neuromuscular systems, was assessed...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069917/the-association-between-serological-features-of-chronic-chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection-and-markers-of-systemic-inflammation-and-nutrition-in-copd-patients
#12
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Renata Rubinsztajn, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Tadeusz Przybyłowski, Rafał Krenke, Ryszarda Chazan
INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligatory human pathogen involved in lower and upper airway infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis. Asymptomatic C. pneumoniae carriage is also relatively common. The association of C. pneumoniae infections with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) course is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between chronic C. pneumoniae infection and clinical features of COPD, markers of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction...
October 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054443/development-of-an-xtag-multiplex-pcr-array-for-the-detection-of-four-avian-respiratory-viruses
#13
Feng Cong, Yujun Zhu, Xiangnan Liu, Xiuzhen Li, Meili Chen, Ren Huang, Pengju Guo
Acute respiratory tract infections are of paramount importance in the poultry industry. We developed an xTAG bead assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The assay lacked nonspecific reactions with other common avian viruses and the limit of detection was 6.75 × 10(2)- 3.52 × 10(3)copies/μL. We examined 60 clinical specimens and found 18 positive for respiratory viruses...
October 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042990/changes-of-treg-and-th17-cells-as-well-as-cytokines-in-children-with-acute-bronchitis
#14
Zhiqiang Tu, Haiyan Xue, Wei Chen, Lanfang Cao, Weiqi Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate changes of T-regulatory (Treg) and T-helper (Th)17 cells as well as cytokines in peripheral blood of children with acute bronchitis, and to explore the roles of these cells in the pathogenesis of acute bronchitis. A total of 126 children who had presented at Renji Hospital (Shanghai, China) with acute bronchitis were selected as the observation group and 30 healthy children were selected as the control group. Th17/Tregs in the peripheral blood of the children of the observation group and the control group was detected by flow cytometry...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037960/effect-of-procalcitonin-guided-antibiotic-treatment-on-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-infections-a-patient-level-meta-analysis
#15
Philipp Schuetz, Yannick Wirz, Ramon Sager, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm, Lila Bouadma, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Jean Chastre, Florence Tubach, Kristina B Kristoffersen, Olaf Burkhardt, Tobias Welte, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Long Wei, Heiner C Bucher, Djillali Annane, Konrad Reinhart, Ann R Falsey, Angela Branche, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Dylan W de Lange, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Carolina F Oliveira, Vera Maravić-Stojković, Alessia Verduri, Bianca Beghé, Bin Cao, Yahya Shehabi, Jens-Ulrik S Jensen, Caspar Corti, Jos A H van Oers, Albertus Beishuizen, Armand R J Girbes, Evelien de Jong, Matthias Briel, Beat Mueller
BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of procalcitonin-guided treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections from different clinical settings. METHODS: Based on a prespecified Cochrane protocol, we did a systematic literature search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, and pooled individual patient data from trials in which patients with respiratory infections were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin concentrations (procalcitonin-guided group) or control...
October 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019091/preventive-and-therapeutic-effects-of-thymol-in-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-mice-model
#16
Limei Wan, Dongmei Meng, Hong Wang, Shanhe Wan, Shunjun Jiang, Shanshan Huang, Li Wei, Pengjiu Yu
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. In traditional medicine, lots of aromatic plants-such as some Thymus species-are used for treatment of various lung diseases including pertussis, bronchitis, and asthma. Thymol, one of the primary active constituent derived from Thymus vulgaris (thyme), has been reported to exhibit potent anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of thymol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury mice model...
October 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017220/-bronchitis-plastica-acute-dyspnea-and-branching-airway-casts
#17
P Wischmann, S Keymel, M Kelm, S Krüger
A 65 year old female presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and progressive cough with very viscous elongated secretion plugs. She suffered from multiple cardiac comorbidities and chronic heart failure. The CT scan of the thorax demonstrated extensive pulmonary infiltrates, unspecific mediastinal lymphadenopathy and enlargement of pulmonary lymph vessels. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed extensive occlusive bronchial casts. We diagnosed a case of bronchitis plastica. Therapy with inhalative heparin led to clinical improvement...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985369/reducing-early-career-general-practitioners-antibiotic-prescribing-for-respiratory-tract-infections-a-pragmatic-prospective-non-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Parker Magin, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Joshua S Davis, Patrick McElduff, Lucy Yardley, Kim Henderson, Anthea Dallas, Lawrie McArthur, Katie Mulquiney, Andrew Davey, Paul Little, Neil Spike, Mieke L van Driel
Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and consequent antibacterial resistance is a major threat to healthcare. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention in reducing early career general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Methods: A pragmatic non-randomized trial employing a non-equivalent control group design nested within an existing cohort study of GP registrars' (trainees') clinical practice...
July 17, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981235/-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-immunocompetent-adult
#19
F Jacobs
Lower respiratory tract infections represent one of the main causes of mortality in the world. They essentially consist of bronchitis, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary diseases (COPD) and acute pneumonia. If acute bronchitis is mainly of viral origin, acute exacerbations of COPD and pneumonia are mainly due to a trio of bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Other pathogens as many viruses and atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella, some Enterobacteriaceae and very rarely Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also implicated...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961815/quality-of-antibiotic-prescribing-of-swiss-primary-care-physicians-with-high-prescription-rates-a-nationwide-survey
#20
Dominik Glinz, Selene Leon Reyes, Ramon Saccilotto, Andreas F Widmer, Andreas Zeller, Heiner C Bucher, Lars G Hemkens
Objectives: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing of Swiss primary care physicians with high prescription rates. Methods: In January 2015, we mailed a structured questionnaire to 2900 primary care physicians in Switzerland. They were included in a nationwide pragmatic randomized controlled trial on routine antibiotic prescription monitoring and feedback based on health insurance claims data. We asked them to record the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment for 44 consecutive patients with the most common conditions associated with antibiotic prescribing in primary care...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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