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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910619/loss-of-hyperdirect-pathway-cortico-subthalamic-inputs-following-degeneration-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#1
Hong-Yuan Chu, Eileen L McIver, Ryan F Kovaleski, Jeremy F Atherton, Mark D Bevan
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to abnormally correlated and coherent activity in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, in parkinsonian mice we found that cortico-STN transmission strength had diminished by 50%-75% through loss of axo-dendritic and axo-spinous synapses, was incapable of long-term potentiation, and less effectively patterned STN activity. Optogenetic, chemogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological interrogation suggested that downregulation of cortico-STN transmission in PD mice was triggered by increased striato-pallidal transmission, leading to disinhibition of the STN and increased activation of STN NMDA receptors...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833676/the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-loop-biases-exploratory-decisions-towards-known-alternatives-a-neuro-computational-study
#2
Javier Baladron, Atsushi Nambu, Fred H Hamker
Theories and models of the basal ganglia have mainly focused on the role of three different cortico-thalamic pathways: direct, indirect and hyperdirect. Although the indirect and the hyperdirect pathways are linked through the bidirectional connections between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external globus pallidus (GPe), the role of their interactions has been mainly discussed in the context of a dysfunction (abnormal oscillations in Parkinson's disease) and not of its function. We here propose a novel role for the loop formed by the STN and the GPe...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711737/subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-sweet-spots-and-hyperdirect-cortical-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Harith Akram, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Dejan Georgiev, Philipp Mahlknecht, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Ludvic Zrinzo
OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to identify subthalamic region stimulation clusters that predict maximum improvement in rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor, or emergence of side-effects; and secondly, to map-out the cortical fingerprint, mediated by the hyperdirect pathways which predict maximum efficacy. METHODS: High angular resolution diffusion imaging in twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease was acquired prior to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671648/acute-in-vivo-electrophysiological-recordings-of-local-field-potentials-and-multi-unit-activity-from-the-hyperdirect-pathway-in-anesthetized-rats
#4
Jens K Haumesser, Johanna Kühn, Christopher Güttler, Dieu-Huong Nguyen, Maximilian H Beck, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph van Riesen
Converging evidence shows that many neuropsychiatric diseases should be understood as disorders of large-scale neuronal networks. To better understand the pathophysiological basis of these diseases, it is necessary to precisely characterize in which way the processing of information is disturbed between the different neuronal parts of the circuit. Using extracellular in vivo electrophysiological recordings, it is possible to accurately delineate neuronal activity within a neuronal network. The application of this method has several advantages over alternative techniques, e...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441410/creating-and-parameterizing-patient-specific-deep-brain-stimulation-pathway-activation-models-using-the-hyperdirect-pathway-as-an-example
#5
Kabilar Gunalan, Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Bryan Howell, Yuval Duchin, Scott F Lempka, Remi Patriat, Guillermo Sapiro, Noam Harel, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. OBJECTIVE: Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420978/resting-state-fmri-reveals-increased-subthalamic-nucleus-and-sensorimotor-cortex-connectivity-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-under-medication
#6
Bo Shen, Yang Gao, Wenbin Zhang, Liyu Lu, Jun Zhu, Yang Pan, Wenya Lan, Chaoyong Xiao, Li Zhang
Functional connectivity (FC) between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the sensorimotor cortex is increased in off-medication patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the status of FC between STN and sensorimotor cortex in on-medication PD patients remains unclear. In this study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed on 31 patients with PD under medication and 31 healthy controls. Two-sample t-test was used to study the change in FC pattern of the STN, the FC strength of the bilateral STN was correlated with overall motor symptoms, while unilateral STN was correlated with offside motor symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269510/network-effects-and-pathways-in-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa
Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) became a standard therapeutic option in Parkinson's disease (PD), even though the underlying modulated network of STN-DBS is still poorly described. Probabilistic tractography and connectivity analysis as derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed together with modelling of implanted electrode positions and linked postoperative clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with idiopathic PD without dementia were selected for DBS treatment. After pre-processing, probabilistic tractography was run from cortical and subcortical seeds of the hypothesized network to targets represented by the positions of the active DBS contacts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227763/network-effects-and-pathways-in-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa, N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa
Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) became a standard therapeutic option in Parkinson's disease (PD), even though the underlying modulated network of STN-DBS is still poorly described. Probabilistic tractography and connectivity analysis as derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed together with modelling of implanted electrode positions and linked postoperative clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with idiopathic PD without dementia were selected for DBS treatment. After pre-processing, probabilistic tractography was run from cortical and subcortical seeds of the hypothesized network to targets represented by the positions of the active DBS contacts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062203/semi-mechanistic-computer-simulation-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-with-a-model-of-a-humanized-cortico-striatal-thalamocortical-loop
#9
Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Hugo Geerts
Despite new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and clinical trials with highly selective drugs, no new therapeutic breakthroughs have been identified. We present a semi-mechanistic Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) computer model of a biophysically realistic cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical loop. The model incorporates the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia and CNS drug targets that modulate neuronal firing, based on preclinical data about their localization and coupling to voltage-gated ion channels...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013397/cortico-subthalamic-inputs-from-the-motor-limbic-and-associative-areas-in-normal-and-dopamine-depleted-rats-are-not-fully-segregated
#10
Marcus L F Janssen, Yasin Temel, Claire Delaville, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Tjitske Heida, Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Abdelhamid Benazzouz
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives monosynaptic glutamatergic afferents from different areas of the cortex, known as the "hyperdirect" pathway. The STN has been divided into three distinct subdivisions, motor, limbic, and associative parts in line with the concept of parallel information processing. The extent to which the parallel information processing coming from distinct cortical areas overlaps in the different territories of the STN is still a matter of debate and the proposed role of dopaminergic neurons in maintaining the coherence of responses to cortical inputs in each territory is not documented...
December 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#11
REVIEW
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859579/sixty-hertz-stimulation-improves-bradykinesia-and-amplifies-subthalamic-low-frequency-oscillations
#12
REVIEW
Zack Blumenfeld, Mandy Miller Koop, Thomas E Prieto, Lauren A Shreve, Anca Velisar, Emma J Quinn, Megan H Trager, Helen Brontë-Stewart
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that attenuation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) alpha-/beta-band oscillations is causal to improvement in bradykinesia. METHODS: STN local field potentials from a sensing neurostimulator (Activa(®) PC+S; Medtronic, Inc.) and kinematics from wearable sensors were recorded simultaneously during 60- and 140-Hz deep brain stimulation (DBS) in 9 freely moving PD subjects (15 STNs) performing repetitive wrist flexion-extension...
November 8, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648848/hyperactivity-in-motor-response-inhibition-networks-in-unmedicated-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Isabelle Massat, Hichem Slama, Thomas Villemonteix, Alison Mary, Simon Baijot, Ariadna Albajara Sáenz, Danièle Balériaux, Thierry Metens, Martin Kavec, Philippe Peigneux
OBJECTIVES: Hypo/reduced activity in motor response inhibition (RI) cerebral networks was recently proposed as a promising specific neurobiological marker of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Before adopting such a pattern as a key diagnosis tool, we aim to replicate in an independent study the mechanisms underlying reduced RI-related activity in ADHD, after controlling for potentially confounding effects. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we investigated the neural networks mediating successful and failed motor RI in children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC) using the stop-signal task (SST) paradigm...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392264/probabilistic-versus-deterministic-tractography-for-delineation-of-the-cortico-subthalamic-hyperdirect-pathway-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-selected-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
Mikkel V Petersen, Torben E Lund, Niels Sunde, Jesper Frandsen, Frederikke Rosendal, Niels Juul, Karen Østergaard
OBJECTIVE Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and tractography allows noninvasive mapping of the structural connections of the brain, and may provide important information for neurosurgical planning. The hyperdirect pathway, connecting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the motor cortex, is assumed to play a key role in mediating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS), which is an effective but poorly understood treatment for Parkinson disease. This study aimed to apply recent methodological advances in DWI acquisition and analysis to the delineation of the hyperdirect pathway in patients with Parkinson disease selected for surgery...
May 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378864/ultra-high-field-mri-post-mortem-structural-connectivity-of-the-human-subthalamic-nucleus-substantia-nigra-and-globus-pallidus
#15
Birgit R Plantinga, Alard Roebroeck, Valentin G Kemper, Kâmil Uludağ, Maartje Melse, Jürgen Mai, Mark L Kuijf, Andreas Herrler, Ali Jahanshahi, Bart M Ter Haar Romeny, Yasin Temel
INTRODUCTION: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. METHODS: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017189/deep-brain-stimulation-modulates-synchrony-within-spatially-and-spectrally-distinct-resting-state-networks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Ashwini Oswal, Martijn Beudel, Ludvic Zrinzo, Patricia Limousin, Marwan Hariz, Tom Foltynie, Vladimir Litvak, Peter Brown
Chronic dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease leads to progressive motor and cognitive impairment, which is associated with the emergence of characteristic patterns of synchronous oscillatory activity within cortico-basal-ganglia circuits. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but its influence on synchronous activity in cortico-basal-ganglia loops remains to be fully characterized. Here, we demonstrate that deep brain stimulation selectively suppresses certain spatially and spectrally segregated resting state subthalamic nucleus-cortical networks...
May 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973474/the-striatum-and-subthalamic-nucleus-as-independent-and-collaborative-structures-in-motor-control
#17
REVIEW
Alia Tewari, Rachna Jog, Mandar S Jog
The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are two separate input structures into the basal ganglia (BG). Accordingly, research to date has primarily focused on the distinct roles of these structures in motor control and cognition, often through investigation of Parkinson's disease (PD). Both structures are divided into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic subdivisions based on cortical connectivity. The more recent discovery of the STN as an input structure into the BG drives comparison of these two structures and their respective roles in cognition and motor control...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779936/tractographical-model-of-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-and-corticothalamic-connections-improving-our-understanding-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#18
Josué M Avecillas-Chasin, Fernando Rascón-Ramírez, Juan A Barcia
The cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic projections have been extensively studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to modulate many of these pathways to produce the desired clinical effect. The aim of this work is to describe the anatomy of the main circuits of the basal ganglia using tractography in a surgical planning station. We used imaging studies of 20 patients who underwent DBS for movement and psychiatric disorders. We segmented the putamen, caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and we also segmented the cortical areas connected with these subcortical areas...
May 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26737783/a-computational-model-of-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-aberrant-learning-in-basal-ganglia
#19
Chiara Baston, Mauro Ursino
Basal Ganglia (BG) are implied in many motor and cognitive tasks, such as action selection, and have a central role in many pathologies, primarily Parkinson Disease. In the present work, we use a recently developed biologically inspired BG model to analyze how the dopamine (DA) level can affect the temporal response during action selection, and the capacity to learn new actions following rewards and punishments. The model incorporates the 3 main pathways (direct, indirect and hyperdirect) working in BG functioning...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640481/a-biologically-inspired-computational-model-of-basal-ganglia-in-action-selection
#20
Chiara Baston, Mauro Ursino
The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning...
2015: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
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