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Rebecca Sommerville, Ashleigh F Brown, Melissa Upjohn
The majority of horses, donkeys and mules (equids) are in low- and middle-income countries, where they remain a key source of labour in the construction, agriculture and tourism industries, as well as supporting households daily through transporting people and staple goods. Globally, approximately 600 million people depend on working equids for their livelihood. Safeguarding the welfare of these animals is essential for them to work, as well as for the intrinsic value of the animal's quality of life. In order to manage animal welfare, it must be measured...
2018: PloS One
Takeshi Inomata, Daniela Triadan, Flory Pinzón, Melissa Burham, José Luis Ranchos, Kazuo Aoyama, Tsuyoshi Haraguchi
Although the application of LiDAR has made significant contributions to archaeology, LiDAR only provides a synchronic view of the current topography. An important challenge for researchers is to extract diachronic information over typically extensive LiDAR-surveyed areas in an efficient manner. By applying an architectural chronology obtained from intensive excavations at the site center and by complementing it with surface collection and test excavations in peripheral zones, we analyze LiDAR data over an area of 470 km2 to trace social changes through time in the Ceibal region, Guatemala, of the Maya lowlands...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo Castro, Nicolas Nin, Fernando Ríos, Leyla Alegría, Elisa Estenssoro, Gastón Murias, Gilberto Friedman, Manuel Jibaja, Gustavo Ospina-Tascon, Javier Hurtado, María Del Carmen Marín, Flavia R Machado, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Arnaldo Dubin, Luciano Azevedo, Maurizio Cecconi, Jan Bakker, Glenn Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Intensive care medicine is a relatively young discipline that has rapidly grown into a full-fledged medical subspecialty. Intensivists are responsible for managing an ever-increasing number of patients with complex, life-threatening diseases. Several factors may influence their performance, including age, training, experience, workload, and socioeconomic context. The aim of this study was to examine individual- and work-related aspects of the Latin American intensivist workforce, mainly with academic appointments, which might influence the quality of care provided...
February 21, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Lianne Fuino Estefan, Katie A Ports, Tracy Hipp
Purpose of Review: Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. Recent Findings: The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention...
April 2017: Current Trauma Reports
Joseph W Saelens, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Anneliese Moller, Ana M Xet-Mull, Narda Medina, Brenda Guzmán, Maylena Calderón, Raúl Herrera, Jason E Stout, Eduardo Arathoon, Blanca Samayoa, David M Tobin
Whole-genome sequencing has resulted in new insights into the phylogeography of Mycobacterium tuberculosis However, only limited genomic data are available from M. tuberculosis strains in Guatemala. Here we report 16 complete genomes of clinical strains belonging to the Euro-American lineage 4, the most common lineage found in Guatemala and Central America.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Diaz-Artiga, John R Weinstein, Margaret A Handley
BACKGROUND: Three billion people use solid cooking fuels, and 4 million people die from household air pollution annually. Shifting households to clean fuels, like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may protect health only if stoves are consistently used. Few studies have used an implementation science framework to systematically assess "de-implementation" of traditional stoves, and none have done so with pregnant women who are more likely to adopt new behaviors. We evaluated an introduced LPG stove coupled with a phased behavioral intervention to encourage exclusive gas stove use among pregnant women in rural Guatemala...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Preeti Chhabra, Kshama Aswath, Nikail Collins, Tahmeed Ahmed, Maribel Paredes Olórtegui, Margaret Kosek, Elizabeth Cebelinski, Phil J Cooper, Filemon Bucardo, Maria Renee Lopez, Christina J Castro, Rachel L Marine, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Jan Vinjé
We report here the near-complete genome sequences of 13 norovirus strains detected in stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis from Bangladesh, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Nicaragua, and the United States that are classified into one existing (genotype II.22 [GII.22]), 3 novel (GII.23, GII.24 and GII.25), and 3 tentative novel (GII.NA1, GII.NA2, and GII.NA3) genotypes.
February 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Marcela Colom, Kirsten Austad, Neftali Sacuj, Karen Larson, Peter Rohloff
The utilization of existing social networks is increasingly being recognized as a powerful strategy for delivering healthcare services to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. In Guatemala, multiple barriers prevent access to healthcare services for rural and indigenous populations, and strategies for delivering healthcare in more efficient ways are needed. The case study we describe here is a unique collaboration between a microfinance institution (Friendship Bridge) and a primary care organization (Wuqu' Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance) to scale up healthcare through an existing lending-borrowing social network...
February 7, 2018: Healthcare
Claire Schultz, Nicole Larrea, Marco Celada, Gretchen Heinrichs
Introduction Our aim was to identify beliefs about and specific barriers to use of birth spacing methods that married and cohabitating women in the Trifinio Sur-Oeste region of Guatemala report in order to design future family planning educational programs. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with community health workers and focus groups with married or cohabitating women. We used inductive and deductive coding to identify common themes. Using these themes, we created explanatory models for decision-making context and identified barriers to family planning use, community educational needs, and potential interventions...
February 8, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Marieke Bierhoff, Wences Arvelo, Alejandra Estevez, Joe Bryan, John P McCracken, María Reneé López, Beatriz López, Umesh D Parashar, Kim A Lindblade, Aron J Hall
Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity worldwide, particularly among children in developing countries. With the decline of rotavirus disease rates following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, the relative importance of norovirus will likely increase. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based surveillance study conducted in Guatemala from 2008-2013...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Naiara Sperandio, Dayane de Castro Morais, Silvia Eloiza Priore
The scope of this systematic review was to compare the food insecurity scales validated and used in the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and analyze the methods used in validation studies. A search was conducted in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. The publications were pre-selected by titles and abstracts, and subsequently by a full reading. Of the 16,325 studies reviewed, 14 were selected. Twelve validated scales were identified for the following countries: Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Argentina and Guatemala...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jeremy Oldfield, Andrew Stevenson, Emily Ortiz, Bethany Haley
Adolescent attachment relationships formed with parents are salient predictors of mental health. Few studies, however, have demonstrated whether peer attachment or school connectedness can predict resilience to mental health difficulties when a young person is at risk due to poor parental attachment. Ninety adolescents (44 females and 46 males) living in economically disadvantaged areas and attending informal schooling projects in and around Guatemala City participated. Participants completed self-report measures of parental and peer attachment, school connectedness and mental health...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Cristina Martínez, Yolanda Castellano, Assumpta Company, Olga Guillen, Mercè Margalef, Martha Alicia Arrien, Claudia Sánchez, Paula Cáceres, Joaquín Barnoya, Esteve Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in hospital workers' interventions before and after online training. METHOD: Pre-post evaluation of the self-reported performance of the 5A's by hospital workers from the three organizations involved. We assessed individual, behavioural, and organisational-level factors through a questionnaire that included 43 items (0 = none to 10 = most possible) completed before and 6 months after the training. Medians and interquartile ranges were calculated...
February 2, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Shira M Goldenberg, Teresita Rocha Jiménez, Kimberly C Brouwer, Sonia Morales Miranda, Jay G Silverman
BACKGROUND: Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border...
February 2, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Katherine Lucarelli, Kevin Wyne, James E Svenson
INTRODUCTION: Installation of ventilated cookstoves has been shown to improve 24-h carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate exposure in the Guatemalan highlands. However, a survey of villagers around San Lucas Tolimán found much higher than expected CO levels. Our purpose is to evaluate the effects of improved cookstoves on CO levels in these villagers. METHODS: This is cross sectional observational study in six rural communities. Blood carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) was measured at three different times during the day...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Jaime Butler-Dawson, Lyndsay Krisher, Claudia Asensio, Alex Cruz, Liliana Tenney, David Weitzenkamp, Miranda Dally, Edwin J Asturias, Lee S Newman
OBJECTIVES: To characterize kidney function of sugarcane workers in Guatemala over the 6-month harvest and identify risk factors associated with changes in kidney function. METHODS: Demographic and biological data were collected for 330 sugarcane cutters at the beginning and end of the harvest. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess factors related to kidney function. RESULTS: A decline in kidney function across the harvest was observed in 36% of the participants...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Brad M Taicher, Shannon Tew, Ligia Figueroa, Fausto Hernandez, Sherry S Ross, Henry E Rice
BACKGROUND: Universal protocol implementation can be challenging in low-income or middle-income countries, particularly when providers work together across language barriers. The aim of this quality improvement initiative was to test the implementation of a colour-coded universal protocol in a Guatemalan hospital staffed by US and Guatemalan providers. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, a US and Guatemalan team implemented a universal protocol at a Guatemalan surgical centre for children undergoing general surgical or urologic procedures...
January 23, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Claudia Susana Caxaj, Kolol Qnan Tx'otx' Parroquia de San Miguel Ixtahuacan
The presence of large-scale mining operations poses many threats to communities. In a rural community in Guatemala, community leaders were motivated to address divisiveness and local conflict that have been exacerbated since the arrival of a mining company in the region. Prior research by our team identified spiritual and cultural strengths as important sources of strength and resilience in the community. We piloted a community-based intervention centred on spiritual and cultural practices in the region, to address divisiveness and build community harmony...
January 24, 2018: Global Public Health
David Flood, Pablo Garcia, Kate Douglas, Jessica Hawkins, Peter Rohloff
OBJECTIVE: Screening is a key strategy to address the rising burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in low-income and middle-income countries. However, there are few reports regarding the implementation of screening programmes in resource-limited settings. The objectives of this study are to (1) to share programmatic experiences implementing CKD screening in a rural, resource-limited setting and (2) to assess the burden of renal disease in a community-based diabetes programme in rural Guatemala...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Lynne Duffy
This research examined rural and urban women's experiences of gender-based violence in Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Photovoice methodology was used to describe and analyze local realities and vulnerabilities, and ethnographic techniques added cultural and contextual factors. While the initial focus was on intimate partner violence, results showed that violence for women exists from childhood to senior years. Participants noted gaps in services and participated in a public strategy workshop to address these. Challenges and opportunities are presented around the enduring and complex global crisis of gendered violence...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
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