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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202639/dietary-protein-intake-in-young-children-in-selected-low-income-countries-is-generally-adequate-in-relation-to-estimated-requirements-for-healthy-children-except-when-complementary-food-intake-is-low
#1
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187628/an-analytical-review-of-halffter-s-mexican-transition-zone-and-its-relevance-for-evolutionary-biogeography-ecology-and-biogeographical-regionalization
#2
Gonzalo Halffter, Juan J Morrone
The Mexican transition zone (MTZ) is the complex area where the Neotropical and Nearctic biotas overlap, including south-western United States, Mexico and a large part of Central America extending to the Nicaraguan lowlands. In a strict sense, it corresponds to the mountain highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. We review Halffter's theory explaining the biotic evolution of the MTZ, including the description and discussion of the distributional patterns and cenocrons recognized within it...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187564/a-review-of-the-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-ferrugineus-i-and-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-goeldii-i-species-groups-acacia-ants-and-relatives-hymenoptera-formicidae
#3
Philip S Ward
The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179114/medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-snakebite-in-central-america-review-and-assessment-of-scientific-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5,500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166710/latin-american-guidelines-for-opioid-use-in-chronic-nononcologic-pain
#5
Argelia Lara-Solares, Carlos Aguayo Zamora, César Amescua García, João Batista Santos Garcia, María Del Rosario Berenguel Cook, Patricia Bonilla Sierra, Durval Campos Kraychete, José Alberto Flores Cantisani, Carlos Guerrero, María Del Rocío Guillén Núñez, John Jairo Hernández Castro, Andrés Hernández Ortíz, Aziza Jreige Iskandar, Osvandré Lech, Jacqueline Macías Guerra, Gerardo Ramírez Samayoa, Edwin Rangel Morillo, María Antonieta Rico Pazos, Manuel Sempértegui Gallegos
AIM: Latin-American experts in the use of opioids in patients with chronic nononcologic pain (CNOP) have updated existing recommendations to current Latin-American reality. METHODS: Several key opinion leaders from Latin America participated in a face-to-face meeting in Guatemala (April 2015) to discuss the use of opioids in CNOP. Subgroups of experts worked on specific topics, reviewed the literature and shaped the final manuscript. RESULTS: The expert panel developed guidelines taking into consideration the utility of both opioid and nonopioid analgesics and factors pertaining to their efficacy, safety, adherence, administration and risks for abuse/addiction...
February 7, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162001/genetic-affiliation-of-pre-hispanic-and-contemporary-mayas-through-maternal-linage
#6
Mirna Isabel Ochoa-Lugo, María de Lourdes Muñoz, Gerardo Pérez-Ramírez, Kristine G Beaty, Mauro López-Armenta, Javiera Cervini-Silva, Miguel Moreno-Galeana, Adrián Martínez Meza, Eduardo Ramos, Michael H Crawford, Arturo Romano-Pacheco
Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158229/prenatal-care-and-child-growth-and-schooling-in-four-low-and-medium-income-countries
#7
Xiaoying Liu, Jere R Behrman, Aryeh D Stein, Linda S Adair, Santosh K Bhargava, Judith B Borja, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Bernardo L Horta, Reynaldo Martorell, Shane A Norris, Linda M Richter, Harshpal S Sachdev
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prenatal care for improving birth and subsequent child outcomes in low-income countries remains controversial, with much of the evidence to date coming from high-income countries and focused on early-life outcomes. We examined associations between prenatal care visits and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months and attained schooling in four low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We pooled data from prospective birth-cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, Philippines and South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156531/spirituality-religiosity-spiritual-pain-and-quality-of-life-among-caregivers-of-latin-american-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-multicenter-study
#8
Alejandra Palma, Eva Rossina Duarte, Monica Grez, Laura Tupper, Diane D Liu, Andrea Octavia Ferguson, Hilda Cantu, Jewel Ochoa, Janet L Williams, Eduardo Bruera
: 245 Background: Caregivers of cancer patients often face physical, and psychosocial hardship. The association between spirituality (S), religiosity (R), spiritual pain (SP), coping, and quality of life (QOL) have not been well characterized. The main purpose of this multicenter study was to determine these associations among LACs. METHODS: We interviewed 319 LACs at palliative care clinics in Chile, Guatemala, and the US. LACs completed FICA (S/R assessment), ESAS-FS, PSWQ (worry), B-COPE/B-R-COPE (coping), and FACIT-Sp (spiritual well-being)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156529/spirituality-religiosity-spiritual-pain-and-quality-of-life-among-latin-american-patients-with-advanced-cancer-laadca-a-multicenter-study
#9
Alejandra Palma, Eva Rossina Duarte, Monica Grez, Laura Tupper, Diane D Liu, Andrea Octavia Ferguson, Eduardo Bruera
: 246 Background: The associations between spirituality (S), religiosity (R), spiritual pain (SP), symptom, coping and quality of life (QOL) have not been well characterized in LAAdCa. The main purpose of this Multicenter study was to analyze these associations. METHODS: We interviewed 325 LAAdCa at a Palliative Care clinic in Chile, Guatemala, and USA. They completed FICA (S/R assessment), ESAS-FS (including SP), PSWQ (Worry), B-COPE and B-R-COPE (coping), FACIT-sp-ex (Spiritual Well-being)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151447/ceramic-pot-filters-lifetime-study-in-coastal-guatemala
#10
C Salvinelli, A C Elmore, B R García Hernandez, K D Drake
Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) are an effective means of household water treatment, but the characterization of CPF lifetimes is ongoing. This paper describes a lifetime field study in Guatemala which was made possible by a collaboration between researchers, CPF-using households, and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Disinfection data were collected periodically for two years using field coliform enumeration kits as were flow rate data with the assistance of NGO staff. Consumer acceptance was characterized by surveying householders in the four subject villages at the beginning and end of the study...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141877/evolved-navigation-illusion-provides-universal-human-perception-measure
#11
Russell E Jackson, Jule Gómez de García
The ability to replicate an experiment across any scientific discipline rests on the assumption that different experimenters are capable of perceiving the same methods and outcomes. However, the large individual differences in experimenters' visual perception undermine this tenet of the scientific process. Further, common devices for measuring similarity in perceptual capacity do not replicate across human groups. Here, we used evolved navigation theory to predict a universal way to measure human perceptual capacity via a distance illusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139875/global-network-for-women-s-and-children-s-health-research-probable-causes-of-stillbirth-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-using-a-prospectively-defined-classification-system
#12
E M McClure, A Garces, S Saleem, J L Moore, C L Bose, F Esamai, S S Goudar, E Chomba, M Mwenechanya, O Pasha, A Tshefu, A Patel, S M Dhaded, C Tenge, I Marete, M Bauserman, S Sunder, B S Kodkany, W A Carlo, R J Derman, P L Hibberd, E A Liechty, K M Hambidge, N F Krebs, M Koso-Thomas, M Miodovnik, D D Wallace, R L Goldenberg
OBJECTIVE: We sought to classify causes of stillbirth for six low-middle-income countries using a prospectively defined algorithm. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Communities in India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia and Kenya. POPULATION: Pregnant women residing in defined study regions. METHODS: Basic data regarding conditions present during pregnancy and delivery were collected...
January 31, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138056/outbreak-investigation-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-a-region-of-guatemala-targeted-for-malaria-elimination
#13
Robert Cohen, Joel Sarceño Cardona, Eliana Solares Navarro, Norma Padilla, Lisette Reyes, Rodrigo Javier Pinto Villar, Penny Masuoka, Chris Bernart, Leonard F Peruski, Joe P Bryan
The Department of Santa Rosa, Guatemala, is targeted for malaria elimination. However, compared with 2011, a 13-fold increase in cases was reported in 2012. To describe the epidemiology of malaria in Santa Rosa in the setting of the apparent outbreak, demographic and microscopic data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. In April 2012, a new surveillance strategy, funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, was introduced involving more active case detection, centralized microscopy, increased community engagement, and expanded vector control...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134795/black-white-and-country-of-birth-disparities-in-retention-in-hiv-care-and-viral-suppression-among-latinos-with-hiv-in-florida-2015
#14
Diana M Sheehan, Daniel E Mauck, Kristopher P Fennie, Elena A Cyrus, Lorene M Maddox, Spencer Lieb, Mary Jo Trepka
The study's purpose was to identify HIV, Black-White race, and birth country disparities in retention in HIV care and HIV viral load (VL) suppression among Latinos, in 2015. Florida's surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000-2014) were merged with American Community Survey data. Multi-level (random effects) models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for non-retention in care and non-viral load suppression. Blacks and Whites experienced similar odds of non-retention in care. Racial differences in VL suppression disappeared after controlling for neighborhood factors...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128731/adaptation-implementation-plan-and-evaluation-of-an-online-tobacco-cessation-training-program-for-health-care-professionals-in-three-spanish-speaking-latin-american-countries-protocol-of-the-fruitful-study
#15
Cristina Martínez, Assumpta Company, Olga Guillen, Mercè Margalef, Martha Alicia Arrien, Claudia Sánchez, Paula Cáceres de León, Esteve Fernández
BACKGROUND: Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients' smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries...
January 27, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126542/contraceptive-knowledge-and-use-among-women-living-in-the-poorest-areas-of-five-mesoamerican-countries
#16
Diego Rios-Zertuche, Laura C Blanco, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Erin B Palmisano, Danny V Colombara, Ali H Mokdad, Emma Iriarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with contraceptive use among women in need living in the poorest areas in five Mesoamerican countries: Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and State of Chiapas (Mexico). STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed baseline data of 7049 women of childbearing age (15-49years old) collected for the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative. Data collection took place in the 20% poorest municipalities of each country (July, 2012-August, 2013). RESULTS: Women in the poorest areas were very poorly informed about family planning methods...
January 23, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117514/improved-nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-adult-human-capital-and-health
#17
Reynaldo Martorell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review why the first 1000 days of life are a vulnerable period of human development and the long-term effects of a nutrition experiment carried out in Guatemala (1969-1977). METHODS: In 1969-77, a supplement called Atole, containing high quality protein, energy and micronutrients, was provided to women during pregnancy and lactation and to children <7 years of age in two villages while in two control villages a low-energy drink called Fresco was provided...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115691/high-precision-radiocarbon-dating-of-political-collapse-and-dynastic-origins-at-the-maya-site-of-ceibal-guatemala
#18
Takeshi Inomata, Daniela Triadan, Jessica MacLellan, Melissa Burham, Kazuo Aoyama, Juan Manuel Palomo, Hitoshi Yonenobu, Flory Pinzón, Hiroo Nasu
The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates, combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109614/onil-stove-innovation-in-the-highlands-of-guatemala
#19
Paul Schultz, Gary Boeke, Stephen Miller, Donald O'Neal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107771/a-prospective-study-of-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-the-setting-of-cesarean-section-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Margo S Harrison, Omrana Pasha, Sarah Saleem, Sumera Ali, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A Carlo, Ana L Garces, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Bhala Kodkany, Sangappa Dhaded, Richard J Derman, Archana Patel, Patricia L Hibberd, Fabian Esamai, Edward A Liechty, Janet L Moore, Dennis Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure, Menachem Miodovnik, Marion Koso-Thomas, Jose Belizan, Robert L Goldenberg
Cesarean section (CS) rates are increasing globally with an unclear effect on pregnancy outcomes. The study objective was to quantify maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries associated with CS compared to vaginal delivery (VD) both within and across sites MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective population-based study including home and facility births in 337,153 women with a VD and 47,308 women with a CS from 2010 to 2015 was performed in Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Zambia, and Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 20, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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