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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335029/the-challenge-of-assessing-microcephaly-in-the-context-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#1
Llorenç Quintó, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Azucena Bardají, Raquel González, Norma Padilla, Flor E Martinez-Espinosa, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez
The present article examines the impact of the current limitations of the microcephaly definition in the context of the Zika virus outbreak. It highlights its dependence on the method used for determining gestational age and other anthropometric parameters, and includes original results of prevalence of microcephaly in four countries from two different continents (Mozambique, Brazil, Guatemala and Colombia). Alternative definitions of microcephaly are proposed to allow the identification of true cases of microcephaly in a more accurate manner...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335004/barriers-and-facilitators-for-institutional-delivery-among-poor-mesoamerican-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Bernardo Hernandez, Danny V Colombara, Marielle C Gagnier, Sima S Desai, Annie Haakenstad, Casey Johanns, Claire R McNellan, Jennifer Nelson, Erin B Palmisano, Diego Ríos-Zertuche, Alexandra Schaefer, Paola Zúñiga-Brenes, Emma Iriarte, Ali H Mokdad
Professional skilled care has shown to be one of the most promising strategies to reduce maternal mortality, and in-facility deliveries are a cost-effective way to ensure safe births. Countries in Mesoamerica have emphasized in-facility delivery care by professionally skilled attendants, but access to good-quality delivery care is still lacking for many women. We examined the characteristics of women who had a delivery in a health facility and determinants of the decision to bypass a closer facility and travel to a distant one...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318393/pathways-to-adolescent-childbearing-among-kaqchikel-women-in-guatemala
#3
Emily Lemon, Monique Hennink, Nely Amparo Can Saquic
One-in-five children in Guatemala is born to a mother aged 15-19 years, which poses social, economic and health risks to both mother and child. In Guatemala, adolescent childbearing is directly associated with education, ethnicity and poverty, which increases vulnerability among Indigenous young women living in poverty. This study examines the context and experiences of adolescent childbearing from the perspectives of young mothers in the Kaqchikel Indigenous ethnic group of Sololá, Guatemala. Data were collected in 19 qualitative in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to one or more children when aged 15 to 19 years...
March 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288633/expectations-of-health-care-quality-among-rural-maya-villagers-in-solol%C3%A3-department-guatemala-a-qualitative-analysis
#4
Matthew Ippolito, Anita Chary, Michael Daniel, Joaquin Barnoya, Anne Monroe, Michelle Eakin
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations in Latin America have worse health outcomes than their nonindigenous counterparts. Differences in access to and use of biomedical resources may explain some of the observed disparities. Efforts to address these differences could be aided in part by better understanding the socio-medical contexts in which they occur. METHODS: We performed a qualitative analysis of field notes collected during a 2008 program evaluation of a health post in a rural Maya village in Sololá Department, Guatemala...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280081/myxoedema-in-a-patient-with-achondroplasia-in-rural-area-of-guatemala
#5
Michel Juarez, Peter Rohloff
A 43-year-old indigenous Guatemalan woman with achondroplasia presented to our clinic with chronic fatigue and generalised oedema. She had limited contact with the formal healthcare system. However, 1 year prior, she had sought medical evaluation from a private physician. Her symptoms had been attributed to a combination of heart failure and physical disability due to the musculoskeletal complications of her achondroplasia. She was lost to follow-up due to inability to pay for further testing or treatment...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278747/the-weight-of-obesity-hunger-and-global-health-in-postwar-guatemala
#6
Melissa Fuster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272955/linking-public-health-and-individual-medicine-the-health-policy-approach-of-surgeon-general-thomas-parran
#7
Daniel Sledge
Surgeon General Thomas Parran Jr was once viewed as a path-breaking leader, but his legacy is now highly contested. Scholars of national health insurance have viewed Parran as an impediment to government-backed insurance, and revelations about his role in the Tuskegee Study and in the Public Health Service's experiments in Guatemala have cast a shadow over his career. Surgeon General from 1936 to 1948, Parran led the Public Health Service during the development of key features of the modern American health system and was involved in critical debates over the role of the national government in health...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267284/impact-of-teachers-practices-on-students-reading-comprehension-growth-in-guatemala
#8
REVIEW
Fernando Rubio, Leslie Rosales de Véliz, María Cristina Perdomo Mosquera, Ventura Salanic López
This article discusses an educational intervention, with a strong emphasis on reading development in a bilingual context, in the Western Highlands of Guatemala (WH), a highly disadvantaged region, where the majority of the population is of Mayan origin and primary education is poor. The majority of the students in the Western Highlands speak a Mayan language as their mother tongue, yet they are generally taught in Spanish. We assisted in the development and implementation of a bilingual/intercultural education model including teacher training at the university level and bilingual materials development...
March 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264313/the-taxonomic-status-of-long-tailed-shrews-mammalia-genus-i-sorex-i-%C3%A2-from-nuclear-central-america
#9
John O Matson, Nicté Ordóñez-Garza
We examined 256 specimens of long-tailed shrews (Sorex) from 53 localities throughout the highlands of Nuclear Central America. We evaluate the efficacy of using three qualitative characteristics to identify populations of Sorex from Nuclear Central America: 1) the presence or the absence of a postmandibular foramen and canal; 2) relative size of U3 compared to U4; and, 3) the presence or absence of a pigmented ridge on the lingual side of each unicuspid tooth. In our data, the first character is invariable for the specimens we examined...
February 23, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261219/naturally-acquired-binding-inhibitory-antibodies-to-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-in-pregnant-women-are-associated-with-higher-birth-weight-in-a-multicenter-study
#10
Pilar Requena, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Michela Menegon, Flor E Martínez-Espinosa, Norma Padilla, Camila Bôtto-Menezes, Adriana Malheiro, Dhiraj Hans, Maria Eugenia Castellanos, Leanne Robinson, Paula Samol, Swati Kochar, Sanjay K Kochar, Dhanpat K Kochar, Meghna Desai, Sergi Sanz, Llorenç Quintó, Alfredo Mayor, Stephen Rogerson, Ivo Mueller, Carlo Severini, Hernando A Del Portillo, Azucena Bardají, Chetan C Chitnis, Clara Menéndez, Carlota Dobaño
A vaccine to eliminate malaria would need a multi-stage and multi-species composition to achieve robust protection, but the lack of knowledge about antigen targets and mechanisms of protection precludes the development of fully efficacious malaria vaccines, especially for Plasmodium vivax (Pv). Pregnant women constitute a risk population who would greatly benefit from a vaccine preventing the adverse events of Plasmodium infection during gestation. We hypothesized that functional immune responses against putative targets of naturally acquired immunity to malaria and vaccine candidates will be associated with protection against malaria infection and/or poor outcomes during pregnancy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259053/reconstructive-considerations-following-a-necrotic-spider-bite-on-the-face-a-case-report
#11
Joachim Mikkelsen, Grethe Schmidt, Rikke Holmgaard
INTRODUCTION: Spider bites as the cause of necrotic skin and soft tissue lesions occur very rarely in Central and Northern Europe. Recluse spiders, distributed almost worldwide, are one of two genera of spiders with confirmed capability of causing necrotic lesions. In the facial region, the resulting defects represent a potential reconstructive challenge, especially in younger patients. METHODS: This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257475/awareness-and-attitudes-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-physicians-in-guatemala-implications-for-country-wide-implementation
#12
Ian Ross, Carlos Mejia, Johanna Melendez, Philip A Chan, Amy C Nunn, William Powderly, Katherine Goodenberger, Jingxia Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Rupa R Patel
INTRODUCTION: HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243758/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-guatemala
#13
N Medina, B Samayoa, D Lau-Bonilla, D W Denning, R Herrera, D Mercado, B Guzmán, J C Pérez, E Arathoon
Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240381/the-global-network-neonatal-cause-of-death-algorithm-for-low-resource-settings
#14
Ana L Garces, Elizabeth M McClure, Wilton Pérez, K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs, Lester Figueroa, Carl L Bose, Waldemar A Carlo, Constance Tenge, Fabian Esamai, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Sarah Saleem, Archana B Patel, Melody Chiwila, Elwyn Chomba, Antoinette Tshefu, Richard J Derman, Patricia L Hibberd, Sherri Bucher, Edward A Liechty, Melissa Bauserman, Janet L Moore, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, Robert L Goldenberg
AIM: This study estimated the causes of neonatal death using an algorithm for low-resource areas, where 98% of the world's neonatal deaths occur. METHODS: We enrolled women in India, Pakistan, Guatemala, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Zambia from 2014-2016 and tracked their delivery and newborn outcomes for up to 28 days. Antenatal care and delivery symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire, clinical observation and, or, a physical examination...
February 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238120/hiv-risk-behaviors-and-correlates-of-inconsistent-condom-use-among-substance-using-migrants-at-the-mexico-guatemala-border
#15
Erin E Conners, Kate Swanson, Sonia Morales-Miranda, Carmen Fernández Casanueva, Valerie J Mercer, Kimberly C Brouwer
This study assessed correlates of inconsistent condom use with casual partners and the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and STIs in the Mexico/Guatemala border region using a sample of 392 migrants (303 men, 85 women) who reported current substance use or problem drinking. We ran separate univariate logistic regression models for men and women, and multivariate logistic regression models for men only. Prevalence of syphilis was 1.2% among women and 2.3% among men; HIV prevalence was 2.4% among women and 1...
February 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229941/dual-high-resolution-inhibition-profiling-and-hplc-hrms-spe-nmr-analysis-for-identification-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-radical-scavenging-inhibitors-in-solanum-americanum-mill
#16
Eder L Silva, Rita C Almeida-Lafetá, Ricardo M Borges, Dan Staerk
Solanum americanum is one of the most prominent species used to treat type 2 diabetes in Guatemala. In our ongoing efforts to find antidiabetic and antioxidative compounds from natural sources, an ethyl acetate extract of this medicinal herb was investigated using dual high-resolution α-glucosidase/radical scavenging inhibition profiling. The high-resolution biochromatograms obtained by this technique were used to target subsequent structural elucidation by HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis towards the bioactive constituents...
February 13, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202639/dietary-protein-intake-in-young-children-in-selected-low-income-countries-is-generally-adequate-in-relation-to-estimated-requirements-for-healthy-children-except-when-complementary-food-intake-is-low
#17
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187628/an-analytical-review-of-halffter-s-mexican-transition-zone-and-its-relevance-for-evolutionary-biogeography-ecology-and-biogeographical-regionalization
#18
Gonzalo Halffter, Juan J Morrone
The Mexican transition zone (MTZ) is the complex area where the Neotropical and Nearctic biotas overlap, including south-western United States, Mexico and a large part of Central America extending to the Nicaraguan lowlands. In a strict sense, it corresponds to the mountain highlands of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. We review Halffter's theory explaining the biotic evolution of the MTZ, including the description and discussion of the distributional patterns and cenocrons recognized within it...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187564/a-review-of-the-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-ferrugineus-i-and-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-goeldii-i-species-groups-acacia-ants-and-relatives-hymenoptera-formicidae
#19
Philip S Ward
The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179114/medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-snakebite-in-central-america-review-and-assessment-of-scientific-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Every year between 1.2 and 5.5 million people worldwide are victims of snakebites, with about 400,000 left permanently injured. In Central America an estimated 5,500 snakebite cases are reported by health centres, but this is likely to be an underestimate due to unreported cases in rural regions. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat snakebites in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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