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Calcium acetate

Dilawar Farhan Shams, Alexandre Rubio, Panagiotis Elefsiniotis, Naresh Singhal
Nitrate concentration in the final effluent is a key issue in pre-denitrification biological treatment systems. This study investigated post-denitrification with alginate beads containing immobilized activated sludge microorganisms and organic carbon source. A batch study was first performed to identify suitable carbon sources among acetate, glucose, calcium tartrate, starch and canola oil on the basis of nitrate removal and bead stability. Canola oil and starch beads exhibited significantly higher denitrification rates, greater bead stability and lower nitrite accumulation (6 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively)...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Batinica, A Stephan, J Steiger, I Tantcheva-Poόr, S A Eming, M Fabri
Neutrophils eject neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), complexes of DNA and proteins [1]. As NETs contain antimicrobial proteins, they have been implicated in host defence [1, 2]. Moreover, NETs trigger inflammation [2, 3]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent (e.g. by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)) and ROS-independent (e.g. by calcium ionophore (CaI)) inducers of NETosis have been described [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 12, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Po-Min Yang, Yu-Ting Huang, Yu-Qi Zhang, Chia-Wen Hsieh, Being-Sun Wung
The production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study elucidated the potential role of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) in NO production and explored the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. We observed that 25μM CORM-2 could increase NO production and stimulate an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. Furthermore, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid caused CORM-2-induced NO production, which was abolished by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) release plays a major role in eNOS activation...
October 5, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Tarik Emre Sener, Goksel Sener, Ozge Cevik, Pinar Eker, Sule Cetinel, Olivier Traxer, Yiloren Tanidir, Cem Akbal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of melatonin (Mel) on an ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis model in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups; control, ethylene glycol (EG), melatonin prevention (Mel+EG+Mel), melatonin treatment (EG+Mel) groups. 0.75% EG was added to drinking water to create nephrolithiasis model. EG group received EG and Mel+EG+Mel group received both EG and melatonin for 8 weeks. In EG+Mel group, EG is given for 8 weeks and melatonin is given for the last 4 weeks of the experiment...
October 4, 2016: Urology
Grace O'Neill, Christa Musto, George Gomez
Neuronal development and differentiation is modulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that stimulate endogenous neurogenesis and differentiation to promote adaptive survival of the organism. Studies on bird odor imprinting have shown how sensory stimuli or environmental influences can affect neonatal behavior, presumably by remodeling the developing nervous system. It is unclear whether these changes originate from the sensory neurons themselves or from the brain. Thus, we attempted to address this by using an in vitro system to separate the peripheral neurons from their central connections...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Hee-Yun Kim, Sun-Young Nam, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
KMP6 (Pyeongwee-San) is a Korean Medicine used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, we reported KMP6 had beneficial effects on allergic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atractylone (Atr), a constituent of KMP6, on allergic rhinitis (AR) and to identify the mechanism responsible for these effects. The anti-allergic inflammatory effects of Atr were evaluated on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry methods...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
Steven M Swift, D Treva Rowley, Carly Young, Ashley Franks, Paul Hyman, David M Donovan
Bacteriophage produce endolysins (peptidoglycan hydrolases) to lyse the host cell from within and release nascent bacteriophage particles. Recombinant endolysins can lyse Gram-positive bacteria when added exogenously. As a potential alternative antimicrobial, we cloned and expressed the enterococcal VD13 bacteriophage endolysin. VD13 endolysin has a CHAP catalytic domain with 92% identity with the bacteriophage IME-EF1 endolysin. The predicted size of VD13 endolysin is ∼27 kDa as verified by SDS-PAGE. The VD13 endolysin lyses Enterococcus faecalis strains, but not Enterococcus faecium or other non-enterococci...
September 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Diana Jalal, Molly McFadden, Jamie P Dwyer, Kausik Umanath, Erwin Aguilar, Yoram Yagil, Barbara Greco, Mohammed Sika, Julia B Lewis, Tom Greene, Simin Goral
Introduction Oral phosphate binders are the main stay of treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Adherence rates to ferric citrate, a recently approved phosphate binder, are unknown. Methods We conducted a post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether adherence rates were different for ferric citrate vs. active control in 412 subjects with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) who were randomized to ferric citrate vs. active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Adherence was defined as percent of actual number of pills taken to total number of pills prescribed...
September 12, 2016: Hemodialysis International
S Sabiu, F H O'Neill, A O T Ashafa
This study evaluated membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Zea mays L., Stigma maydis in acetaminophen-induced oxidative onslaughts in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Nephrotoxic rats were orally pre- and posttreated with the fraction and vitamin C for 14 days. Kidney function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The acetaminophen-mediated significant elevations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and tissue levels of oxidized glutathione, protein-oxidized products, lipid peroxidized products, and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently assuaged in the fraction-treated animals...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Na-Ra Han, Phil-Dong Moon, Sun-Young Nam, Ka-Jung Ryu, Myoung-Schook Yoou, Jung-Hye Choi, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
This study investigated a salutary effect of atractylone (Atr) which is an active constituent of Pyeongwee-San (KMP6) on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. Our previous report indicated that KMP6 regulated allergic reactions. Thus, this study sought to determine the potential of Atr in vitro models, compound 48/80-stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated human mast cell line (HMC-1) cells, and stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated RPMCs as well as in vivo models, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, and compound 48/80-induced ear swelling...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Masafumi Otsuka, Yusuke Maeno, Toshiro Fukami, Motoki Inoue, Tatsuaki Tagami, Tetsuya Ozeki
Drug absorption into the body is known to be greatly affected by the solubility of the drug itself. The active pharmaceutical ingredient efonidipine hydrochloride ethanolate (NZ-105) is a novel 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that has a very low solubility in water. It is classified as a poorly soluble drug, and improvements in its solubility and higher bioavailability with oral administration are needed. In this study, employing microwave technology as a new means to improve solubility, we established a method for preparing solid dispersions using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as a polymeric carrier and urea as a third component...
August 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Nachiket Patel, Darshan Lalwani, Steven Gollmer, Elisha Injeti, Youssef Sari, Jerry Nesamony
The purpose of this work was to develop a multiparticulate system exploiting the pH-sensitive property and biodegradability of calcium alginate beads for intestinal delivery of ceftriaxone sodium (CS). CS was entrapped in beads made of sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), acacia, HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M as drug release modifiers. Beads were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent, followed by enteric coating with cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The beads were then evaluated for entrapment efficiency using HPLC, in vitro drug release examined in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1...
2016: Progress in biomaterials
Siti Hajar Md Ramli, Tin Wui Wong, Idanawati Naharudin, Anirbandeep Bose
Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and failed to exert colon targeting unless subjected to complex coating. This study designed coatless delayed-release oral colon-specific alginate pellets for ulcerative colitis treatment. Alginate pellets, formulated with water-insoluble ethylcellulose and various calcium salts, were prepared using solvent-free melt pelletization technique which prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed reaction to initiate only in dissolution...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kwesi Teye, Sanae Numata, Norito Ishii, Rafal P Krol, Atsunari Tsuchisaka, Takahiro Hamada, Hiroshi Koga, Tadashi Karashima, Chika Ohata, Daisuke Tsuruta, Hideyuki Saya, Marek Haftek, Takashi Hashimoto
CD44, a cell surface proteoglycan, is involved in many biological events. CD44 transcripts undergo complex alternative splicing, resulting in many functionally distinct isoforms. To date, however, the nature of these isoforms in human epidermis has not been adequately determined. In this study, we isolated all CD44 transcripts from normal human epidermis, and studied how their expressions are regulated. By RT-PCR, we found that a number of different CD44 transcripts were expressed in human epidermis, and we obtained all these transcripts from DNA bands in agarose and acrylamide gels by cloning...
2016: PloS One
Udayraj P Nakade, Abhishek Sharma, Soumen Choudhury, Rajkumar Singh Yadav, Satish Kumar Garg
Modulation of myometrial spontaneity by lead acetate trihydrate (Pb) and its regulatory pathways were studied in estrogenized rats. Isometric tension in myometrial strips under a resting tension of 1 g was measured using data acquisition system-based physiograph and Lab Chart Pro v7.3.7 software. Lead produced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat myometrium with a major effect on phasic contractions compared to tonic contractions along with a reduction in both amplitude and frequency of contraction. Lead (3 μM) significantly (p < 0...
August 9, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Rie Murai, Naoto Yoshida
Fresh Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius cells grown on soybean-casein digest nutrient agar were inoculated as a parent colony 1 cm in diameter on the surface of an agar gel containing acetate and calcium ions (calcite-promoting hydrogel) and incubated at 60 °C for 4 days, after which magnesium-calcite single crystals of 50-130 µm in size formed within the parent colony. Addition of EDTA, polyacrylic acid or N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to the calcite-forming hydrogel inhibited the parent colony from forming magnesium-calcite crystals...
November 2016: Current Microbiology
Chand D Basha, Rajarami G Reddy
Our earlier studies showed that lactational exposure to lead (Pb) caused irreversible neurochemical alterations in rats. The present study was carried out to examine whether gestational exposure to Pb can cause long-term changes in the brain cholinergic system and behavior of rats. The protective effect of calcium (Ca) supplementation against Pb toxicity was also examined. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2% Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 21. The results showed decrease in body weight gain (GD 6-21) of dams, whereas no changes were observed in offspring body weight at different postnatal days following Pb exposure...
December 2015: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
Sangeeta Shukla, Yamini Sharma, Sadhana Shrivastava
Lead (Pb) is a pleiotropic toxicant. The potential role of oxidative stress injury that is associated with Pb poisoning suggests that antioxidants may enhance the efficacy of treatment designed to mitigate Pb-induced toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparative ameliorative potential of lipoic acid (LA) alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Pb acetate (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 3 d. After 24 h of the last toxicant dose, LA (100 mg/kg, orally [po]) alone or in conjuction with Ca (50 mg/kg, po) and Zn (10 mg/kg, po) was administered for 3 d...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Li Li, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Guang-Rong Liu, Chang Liu, Yin-Mao Dong
Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm. Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events, producing an array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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