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Ferric citrate

Tyler Albright, Akram Al-Makki, Rabih Kalakeche, Brian Shepler
PURPOSE: The objective of this short review is to evaluate the efficacy of ferric pyrophosphate citrate and to determine its place in therapy based on the current published literature. METHODS: A literature search was conducted and pared down to yield 4 placebo controlled Phase II and III clinically relevant trials. FINDINGS: Ferric pyrophosphate citrate is a new intradialytic iron supplementation product that has been found to reduce the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron supplementation and to increase serum ferritin concentrations...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Diana Jalal, Molly McFadden, Jamie P Dwyer, Kausik Umanath, Erwin Aguilar, Yoram Yagil, Barbara Greco, Mohammed Sika, Julia B Lewis, Tom Greene, Simin Goral
Introduction Oral phosphate binders are the main stay of treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Adherence rates to ferric citrate, a recently approved phosphate binder, are unknown. Methods We conducted a post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether adherence rates were different for ferric citrate vs. active control in 412 subjects with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) who were randomized to ferric citrate vs. active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Adherence was defined as percent of actual number of pills taken to total number of pills prescribed...
September 12, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Fan Yang, Gege Yan, Yuan Li, Zhenbo Han, Lai Zhang, Simon Chen, Chao Feng, Qi Huang, Fengzhi Ding, Ying Yu, Chongwei Bi, Benzhi Cai, Lei Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multilineage cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli participates in the development of diseases such as osteoporosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a commonly used anti-aging herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APS protects against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Devika Kir, Manju Saluja, Shrey Modi, Annapoorna Venkatachalam, Erica Schnettler, Sabita Roy, Sundaram Ramakrishnan
Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. Hypoxia in tumors drives this angiogenic response by stabilizing Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) and target genes like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). HIF stability is regulated by Prolylhydroxylases (PHD)-mediated modification. Iron is an important cofactor in regulating the enzymatic activity of PHDs. Reducing intracellular iron, for instance, mimics hypoxia and induces a pro-angiogenic response. It is hypothesized that increasing the intracellular iron levels will have an opposite, anti-angiogenic effect...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Patrick Thomas Gormley, Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Tyson James MacCormack, Christopher Anthony Dieni
Citrated Sprague-Dawley rat blood plasma was used as a biologically relevant exposure medium to assess the acellular toxic potential of two metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), zinc oxide (nZnO), and cerium oxide (nCeO2). Plasma was incubated at 37 °C for up to 48 h with ENM concentrations ranging between 0 and 200 mg/L. The degree of ENM-induced oxidation was assessed by assaying for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels using dichlorofluorescein (DCF), pH, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), lipase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (PC)...
August 25, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Kazuomi Yamashita, Sonoo Mizuiri, Yoshiko Nishizawa, Shigemoto Kenichiro, Shigehiro Doi, Takao Masaki
BACKGROUND/AIM: Iron deficiency stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) transcription. This study aimed to determine whether oral ferrous iron (Fe(2+) ) reduces the serum FGF23 levels of iron-deficient maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients in the same way as oral ferric iron (Fe(3+) ). METHODS: Thirty-one MHD patients with iron deficiency were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients who had taken iron supplements during the 8 weeks before the study were excluded...
August 25, 2016: Nephrology
Raymond D Pratt, Dorine W Swinkels, T Alp Ikizler, Ajay Gupta
Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (Triferic) is a water-soluble iron salt that is administered via dialysate to maintain iron balance and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-, ascending-dose study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate in 48 healthy iron-replete subjects (drug, n = 36; placebo, n = 12). Single doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 4 hours, and single doses of 15 or 20 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 12 hours via intravenous infusion...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
Iron (Fe) is essential for plant growth and development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its distribution to different organs are poorly understood. We found that OsFRDL1 (FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE LIKE 1), a plasma membrane-localized transporter for citrate, was highly expressed in the upper nodes of rice at the reproductive growth stage. OsFRDL1 was expressed in most cells of enlarged vascular bundles, diffuse vascular bundles, and the interjacent parenchyma cell bridges of uppermost node I, as well as vascular tissues of the leaf blade, leaf sheath, peduncle, rachis, husk, and stamen...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ling-Xue Tao, Xiao-Tian Huang, Yu-Ting Chen, Xi-Can Tang, Hai-Yan Zhang
AIM: Iron dyshomeostasis is one of the primary causes of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United Sates. Here, we investigated the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced injury in neurons. METHODS: Rat cortical neurons were treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and cell viability was assessed with MTT assays...
August 8, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Dong Gil Lee, Junghyung Park, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Iron is necessary for neuronal functions; however, excessive iron accumulation caused by impairment of iron balance could damage neurons. Neuronal iron accumulation has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying iron toxicity in neuron cells are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying iron overload-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells that were incubated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC)...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology
Huailin Fan, Ruiting Niu, Jiaqi Duan, Wei Liu, Wenzhong Shen
Fe3O4@carbon nanosheet composites were synthesized using ammonium ferric citrate as the Fe3O4/carbon precursor and graphene oxide as the structure-directing agent under a hydrothermal process. The surface chemical compositions, pore structures, and morphology of the composite were analyzed and characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, TG analysis, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron energy spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The composites showed excellent specific capacitance of 586 F/g, 340 F/g at 0...
August 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jessica K Choi, Madhavi Shah, Nathan Yee
A Gram-stain-negative, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium designated strain RU4T was isolated from a saprolite core collected from Oak Ridge, Tennessee USA. The cells are slightly curved rods and exhibit an outer membrane exterior to a thin cell wall. Strain RU4T forms heat-resistant endospores in late-log phase and stationary phase cultures. Under anaerobic conditions, strain RU4T grows by fermenting fumarate and maleate, but not on glucose, glycerol, pyruvate, lactate, succinate, citrate, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, or valerate...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sanjukta Chakrabarti, Colin J Barrow, Rupinder K Kanwar, Venkata Ramana, Jagat R Kanwar
Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Motoko Tanaka, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Tadashi Imafuku, Yuna Tominaga, Hitoshi Maeda, Makoto Anraku, Keishi Yamasaki, Daisuke Kadowaki, Yu Ishima, Hiroshi Watanabe, Tomoko Okuda, Kazuko Itoh, Kazutaka Matsushita, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
A ferric citrate formulation for treating hyperphosphatemia is a new therapeutic that not only suppresses the accumulation of phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD), but also ameliorates anemia caused by iron deficiency. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that intravenous iron injection markedly increases oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a ferric citrate formulation on oxidative stress in CKD-MBD patients receiving hemodialysis therapy...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Geoffrey A Block
Ferric citrate (FC) is an iron-containing phosphate binder that has been shown to effectively decrease serum phosphate, increase hemoglobin, and replete iron stores in patients with chronic kidney disease. Intestinal absorption of iron from FC results in increases in serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation, effects that occur over 12 to 24 weeks and subsequently appear to plateau. As a result, use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron is reduced significantly and in clinical trials in patients receiving hemodialysis, the majority of subjects were able to discontinue intravenous iron use completely...
March 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Hitesh H Shah, Azzour D Hazzan, Steven Fishbane
Management of anemia remains an integral component in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. In addition to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, iron-replacement agents remain a key strategy for anemia treatment in this patient population. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC), a novel iron-replacement agent, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2015 for use in adult patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD). This iron product is administered to patients on HD via the dialysate...
March 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Nosratola D Vaziri
Intravenous iron products are essential for the treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease patients maintained on hemodialysis. Although proper use of these compounds is necessary for the prevention of iron deficiency, their indiscriminate use could potentially cause insidious adverse consequences. Iron overload can intensify the chronic kidney disease-associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease; increase the risk of infections; worsen the severity of type 2 diabetes; and exacerbate neurologic and cognitive dysfunction...
March 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Ui-Gi Min, So-Jeong Kim, Heeji Hong, Song-Gun Kim, Joo-Han Gwak, Man-Young Jung, Jong-Geol Kim, Jeong-Geol Na, Sung-Keun Rhee
A strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain B5(T), was isolated from sediment of an abandoned coal mine in Taebaek, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain B5(T) were non-spore-forming, straight, Gram-positive rods. The optimum pH and temperature for growth were pH 7.0 and 30°C, respectively, while the strain was able to grow within pH and temperature ranges of 5.5-7.5 and 25-45°C, respectively. Growth of strain B5(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0 to 6.0% (w/v) with an optimum at 3.0-4.0% (w/v). The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown polar lipids...
June 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Byung-Wook Kim, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, Jae-Hong Kim, Myungwon Jin, Jong-Heon Kim, Maan-Gee Lee, Dong-Kug Choi, So-Yoon Won, Catriona McLean, Min-Tae Jeon, Ho-Won Lee, Sang Ryong Kim, Kyoungho Suk
UNLABELLED: Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the highly heterogeneous secretory protein family of lipocalins and increases in its levels can contribute to neurodegeneration in the adult brain. However, there are no reports on the role of LCN2 in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report for the first time that LCN2 expression is increased in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with PD. In mouse brains, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment for a neurotoxin model of PD significantly upregulated LCN2 expression, mainly in reactive astrocytes in both the SN and striatum...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Milena M Awad, Jackie K Cheung, Joanne E Tan, Alastair G McEwan, Dena Lyras, Julian I Rood
Bacterial pathogens have adopted numerous mechanisms for acquiring iron from host proteins during an infection, including the direct acquisition of ferric iron from heme-associated proteins or from iron-scavenging siderophores. Ferric iron then is transported into the cytosol, where it can be utilized by the bacterial pathogen. Under anaerobic conditions bacteria can also transport ferrous iron using the transmembrane complex FeoAB, but little is known about iron transport systems in anaerobic bacteria such as the pathogenic clostridia...
May 10, 2016: Anaerobe
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