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Ivan Koychev, John Francis William Deakin, Wael El-Deredy, Corinna Haenschel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological studies suggest that impaired early visual processing may contribute to impaired WM in the visual domain. Abnormal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function has been implicated both in WM and in early visual processing deficits in schizophrenia. We investigated whether ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, would replicate in healthy volunteers the WM performance and early visual processing abnormalities we and others have reported in patients with schizophrenia...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Eleana Georgiou, Sandra Mai, Katya C Fernandez, Olga Pollatos
Interoception describes the mapping of the body's internal landscape and has been connected to greater intensity of emotional experience. The goal of the current study was to explore the relationship between interoception and emotion face recognition in healthy adolescents. The heartbeat perception task was used to assess interoceptive accuracy(IAC) and participants were asked to recognize different facial expressions. EEG activity was recorded, providing data for the P100, the N170 and the P300 ERP components...
March 8, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L Farmer, Scott E Lukas
Adolescence is a period during which a number of critical neuromaturation processes occur and the vulnerability for developing nicotine dependence is extremely high. Thus, early-onset (EO; age < 16 years old), relative to late-onset (LO; age ≥ 16 years old), tobacco smoking may be uniquely deleterious for developmentally immature systems that regulate neural signaling reactivity. This study investigated how age of tobacco smoking onset affects neurophysiological measures of smoking cue reactivity and reported craving in adult smokers...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Dan Gao, Fu-Sen Liang
The ability to edit specific epigenetic modifications at defined gene loci is pivotal to understand the biological function of these epigenetic marks. Here we describe a new inducible method to integrate the dCas9-based genome targeting with abscisic acid (ABA)-based chemically induced proximity (CIP) technologies to modify histone tail modifications at specific genome loci in living cells. ABA leads to rapid hetero-dimerization of the PYL and ABI proteins, which can be individually fused to dCas9 and a histone-modifying enzyme core domain...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Catharine A Rhodes, D Gareth Beevers, David Churchill
To assess the feasibility of a prospective randomised trial of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) versus clinic blood pressure (CBP) readings for managing pregnancy hypertension. The primary outcome measure was admission to hospital. The secondary measures were number of antenatal attendances, use of anti-hypertensive drugs and duration of hospital stay. In general, there were no statistical differences between the two groups including the primary outcome, the rate of hospital admission p=0.76. 89% of participants would undergo ABPM in future pregnancies...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Chao Wang, Paul Rapp, David Darmon, Amy Trongnetrpunya, Michelle E Costanzo, Dominic E Nathan, Christopher J Cellucci, Michael J Roy, David Keyser
Military service members (SMs) returning from combat are at high risk of developing neuropsychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Symptom dynamics following reintegration into civilian life may be magnified over time such that some SMs present with delayed onset and may not reach a diagnostic threshold for months to years. Monitoring the trajectory of mental health in the aftermath of combat trauma can therefore be particularly important in enhancing diagnosis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hongzhi Qi, Yuqi Xue, Lichao Xu, Yong Cao, Xuejun Jiao
P300 spellers are among the most popular brain-computer interface paradigms, and they are used for many clinical applications. However, building the classifier for identifying event-related potential (ERP) responses, i.e., calibrating the P300 speller, is still a time-consuming and user-dependent problem. This paper proposes a novel method to reduce calibration times significantly. In the proposed method, a small number of ERP epochs from the current user were used to build a reference epoch. Based on this reference, the Riemannian distance measurement was used to select similar ERP samples from an existing data pool, which contained other-subject ERP responses...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Jianxin Wei, Su Dong, Kangning Yao, Maria Francesca Ysabelle M Martinez, Paine R Fleisher, Yutong Zhao, Haichun Ma, Jing Zhao
Ubiquitin E3 ligases mediate ubiquitination and degradation of intracellular proteins. We have shown that a relatively new Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) protein E3 ligase, SCF FBXL19, has an anti-inflammatory effect and controls actin cytoskeleton dynamics via targeting cell membrane receptor and small GTPases for their ubiquitination and degradation, but the molecular regulation of its subunit FBXL19 stability remains unclear. Here we show that FBXL19 degradation is controlled by the balance between its ubiquitination and acetylation...
March 9, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Xiaobo Peng, Chunyan Wang, Lili Bai, Jianguang Dong, Xiaoxia Lu, Yanqing Liu, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestation and therapeutic method in patients with acute mushroom poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of 48 patients with acute mushroom poisoning admitted to Department of Poisoning Treatment of the 307th Hospital of PLA from January 2016 to May 2017 were analyzed. The clinical data including gender, age, clinical symptoms, onset season, initial symptoms, incubation time, the length of hospital stay, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Christopher R Brydges, Francisco Barceló
Cognitive control warrants efficient task performance in dynamic and changing environments through adjustments in executive attention, stimulus and response selection. The well-known P300 component of the human event-related potential (ERP) has long been proposed to index "context-updating"-critical for cognitive control-in simple target detection tasks. However, task switching ERP studies have revealed both target P3 (300-350 ms) and later sustained P3-like potentials (400-1,200 ms) to first targets ensuing transition cues, although it remains unclear whether these target P3-like potentials also reflect context updating operations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Honglai Tian
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disorder of joints; however, the key genes and transcription factors (TFs) associated with OA are still unclear. Through bioinformatics tools, the study aimed to understand the mechanism of genes associated with the development of OA. METHODS: Four gene expression profiling datasets were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between OA and healthy control samples by a meta-analysis. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed with Multifaceted Analysis Tool for Human Transcriptome (MATHT)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Janneke de Winter, Manouk de Hooge, Marleen van de Sande, Henriëtte de Jong, Lonneke van Hoeven, Anoek de Koning, Inger Jorid Berg, Roberta Ramonda, Dominique Baeten, Désirée van der Heijde, Angelique Weel, Robert Landewé
OBJECTIVE: To compare MRI of the sacroiliac joints (MRI-SI) of healthy, symptomless individuals and those with known mechanical strain acting upon SI joints to axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and chronic back pain (CBP) patients. METHODS: Three trained, calibrated and blinded readers randomly scored MRI-SI of 172 subjects: 47 healthy individuals without current/past back pain; 47 axSpA patients from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (with a previously confirmed positive MRI-SI); 47 CBP controls (irrespective of MRI-SI results) from the SPACE cohort; 7 women with postpartum back pain; and 24 frequent runners...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Ruojin Bu, Peter Hamilton, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Raj Padwal
Background: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with falls and cardiovascular events. There is growing evidence that central blood pressure (CBP) is better than peripheral blood pressure (PBP) in predicting adverse outcomes. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) the prevalence of OH identified using PBP and CBP and the levels of agreement, 2) the respective associations between OH and falls and cardiovascular comorbidities, by PBP and CBP, and 3) the association of OH with arterial wall stiffness markers (augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AI))...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Wanju Jiao, Yajun Chen, Huajie Song, Dan Li, Hong Mei, Feng Yang, Erhu Fang, Xiaojing Wang, Kai Huang, Liduan Zheng, Qiangsong Tong
Recent studies reveal the emerging functions of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) in gene expression. However, the roles of eRNAs in regulating the expression of heparanase (HPSE), an established endo-β-D-glucuronidase essential for cancer invasion and metastasis, still remain elusive. Herein, through comprehensive analysis of publically available FANTOM5 expression atlas and chromatin interaction dataset, we identified a super enhancer and its derived eRNA facilitating the HPSE expression (HPSE eRNA) in cancers. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments indicated that HPSE eRNA facilitated the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of cancer cells...
March 7, 2018: Oncogene
Yan Liang, Xuedan Chen, Yuanyuan Wu, Juan Li, Shixin Zhang, Kai Wang, Xingying Guan, Kang Yang, Yun Bai
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the main subtype of esophageal cancer. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to play a critical role in cancer development. Recently, lncRNA CASC9 was shown to be dysregulated in many cancer types, but the mechanisms whereby this occurs remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that CASC9 was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues, with further analysis revealing that elevated CASC9 expression was associated with ESCC prognosis and metastasis. Furthermore, we found that CASC9 knockdown significantly repressed ESCC migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in nude mice in vivo...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Zhikui Liu, Yufeng Wang, Changwei Dou, Liankang Sun, Qing Li, Liang Wang, Qiuran Xu, Wei Yang, Qingguang Liu, Kangsheng Tu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence confirm that aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) expression contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. Previous study reported that miR-1468 showed an up-regulated tendency and might be a potential prognostic biomarker in HCC samples derived from TCGA database. However, the role of miR-1468 and its underlying mechanisms involved in the growth and metastasis of HCC remain poorly investigated. METHODS: CCK-8, EdU, colony formation and flow cytometry were used to determine proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Hongyang Lu, Shifeng Yang, Huineng Zhu, Xiaoling Tong, Fajun Xie, Jing Qin, Na Han, Xue Wu, Yun Fan, Yang W Shao, Weimin Mao
BACKGROUND: Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma (ESC) is a rare disease with a mixture of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components in the tumor. Its genetic background and mechanisms of oncogenesis remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here we performed targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) on a pan-cancer gene panel in 15 ESC tumors to explore their genetic alterations, and aimed to identify clinically actionable mutations for future treatment instructions. RESULTS: TP53 alterations were identified in all patients...
March 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
María López, Alberto García-Oguiza, Judith Armstrong, Inmaculada García-Cobaleda, Sixto García-Miñaur, Fernando Santos-Simarro, Verónica Seidel, Elena Domínguez-Garrido
BACKGROUND: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by broad thumbs and halluces. RSTS is caused by mutations in CREBBP and in EP300 genes in 50-60% and 8%, respectively. Up to now, 76 RSTS-EP300 patients have been described. We present the clinical and molecular characterization of a cohort of RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations. METHODS: Patients were selected from a cohort of 72 individuals suspected of RSTS after being negative in CREBBP study...
March 5, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Derek J Fisher, Debra J Campbell, Shelagh C Abriel, Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Philip G Tibbo
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory "rule," regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Redirection of attention toward a rare, distracting stimulus event, however, can be measured by the subsequent P3a component of the P300. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, as well as reductions in P3a amplitude. While, the substantial literature on the MMN in first-episode and early phase schizophrenia in this population reports reduced amplitudes, there also exist several contradictory studies...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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