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Stuart Batterman, Feng-Chiao Su, Andrew Wald, Floyd Watkins, Christopher Godwin, Geoffrey Thun
Low ventilation rates (VRs) in schools have been associated with absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and teacher dissatisfaction. We measured VRs in 37 recently constructed or renovated and mechanically-ventilated U.S. schools, including LEED and EnergyStar-certified buildings, using CO2 and the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. The transient mass balance method better matched conditions (specifically, changes in occupancy) and minimized biases seen in the other methods...
April 2, 2017: Indoor Air
Oren P Mushin, Jarrod T Bogue, Mica D Esquenazi, Nicole Toscano, Derek E Bell
INTRODUCTION: The vacuum assisted closure device (VAC) improves wound-healing when utilized as a bolster to secure split thickness skin grafts (STSG). Patients typically remain hospitalized for VAC therapy; however, home VACs (hVAC) are now available. Limited studies examine burns treated with hVAC as a STSG bolster. METHOD: A retrospective study of records from an ABA verified regional burn center was conducted over 23 months. Patients included STSGs for burn. Data points included demographics, burn mechanism and location, graft characteristics, hospital length of stay (LOS), and time to heal...
February 27, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
S H Gajuryal, A Daga, V Siddharth, C S Bal, S Satpathy
CONTEXT: PET/CT scan service is one of the capital intensive and revenue-generating centres of a tertiary care hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of PET services is dependent upon the unit costs of the resources consumed. AIMS: The study aims to determine the cost of providing PET/CT Scan services in a hospital. METHODS AND MATERIAL: This descriptive and observational study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at a tertiary apex teaching hospital in New Delhi, India in the year 2014-15...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Stuart Batterman
The ventilation rate (VR) is a key parameter affecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the energy consumption of buildings. This paper reviews the use of CO₂ as a "natural" tracer gas for estimating VRs, focusing on applications in school classrooms. It provides details and guidance for the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. An extension to the build-up method and an analysis of the post-exercise recovery period that can increase CO₂ generation rates are presented. Measurements in four mechanically-ventilated school buildings demonstrate the methods and highlight issues affecting their applicability...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shelly L Miller, Nick A Facciola, Darin Toohey, John Zhai
The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055-0.1 μm) and fine (0.1-0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mary J Sandage, Keith A Rahn, Audrey G Smith
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning method on voice function following a voicing task using ecologically valid offices, one with radiant HVAC and one with forced air. Method: A total of 12 consented participants (6 women, 6 men) narrated a video in each of 4 environmental conditions in a within-between repeated-measures design. Acoustic data were collected with an ambulatory phonation monitor and perceived phonatory effort was determined following the voicing task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Y D Tu, R Z Wang, T S Ge, X Zheng
Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maytat Luangprasert, Chainarin Vasithamrong, Suphasit Pongratananukul, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Suree Pumrin, I P D De Silva
It is known that in-vehicle carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration tends to increase due to occupant exhalation when the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) air is in recirculation mode. Field experiments were conducted to measure CO2 concentration during typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. The measured concentrations agreed with the concentration predicted using first-order mass balance equation, in both recirculating and outside air modes. The long-term transient decay of the concentration when the vehicle was parked and the HVAC system was turned off was also studied...
May 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Marie-Jeanne Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Yves Cloutier, Nancy Lacombe, Jacques Lavoie, Maximilien Debia, Geneviève Marchand
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tim McCreight, Doug Leece
The convergence of physical security devices into the corporate network is increasing, due to the perceived economic benefits and efficiencies gained from using one enterprise network. Bringing these two networks together is not without risk. Physical devices like closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), card access readers, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning controllers (HVAC) are typically not secured to the standards we expect for corporate computer networks. These devices can pose significant risks to the corporate network by creating new avenues to exploit vulnerabilities in less-than-secure implementations of physical systems...
2016: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Caitlin W Hicks, Katherine E Poruk, Pablo A Baltodano, Kevin C Soares, Said C Azoury, Carisa M Cooney, Peter Cornell, Frederic E Eckhauser
BACKGROUND: Sandwich ventral hernia repair (SVHR) may reduce ventral hernia recurrence rates, although with an increased risk of surgical site occurrences (SSOs) and surgical site infections (SSIs). Previously, we found that a modified negative pressure wound therapy (hybrid vacuum-assisted closure [HVAC]) system reduced SSOs and SSIs after ventral hernia repair. We aimed to describe our outcomes after SVHR paired with HVAC closure. METHODS: We conducted a 4-y retrospective review of all complex SVHRs (biologic mesh underlay and synthetic mesh overlay) with HVAC closure performed at our institution by a single surgeon...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
K Morisseau, A Joubert, L Le Coq, Y Andres
This study aimed to demonstrate that particles, especially those associated with fungi, could be released from fibrous filters used in the air-handling unit (AHU) of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems during ventilation restarts. Quantification of the water retention capacity and SEM pictures of the filters was used to show the potential for fungal proliferation in unused or preloaded filters. Five fibrous filters with various particle collection efficiencies were studied: classes G4, M5, M6, F7, and combined F7 according to European standard EN779:2012...
August 26, 2016: Indoor Air
D Haaland, J A Siegel
Filter forensics is a promising indoor air investigation technique involving the analysis of dust which has collected on filters in central forced-air heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) or portable systems to determine the presence of indoor particle-bound contaminants. In this study, we summarize past filter forensics research to explore what it reveals about the sampling technique and the indoor environment. There are 60 investigations in the literature that have used this sampling technique for a variety of biotic and abiotic contaminants...
July 6, 2016: Indoor Air
Fang Wang, Dan Meng, Xiuwei Li, Junjie Tan
Indoor and outdoor air PM2.5 concentrations in four residential dwellings characterized with different building envelope air tightness levels and HVAC-filter configurations in Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were measured during winter periods in 2014-2015. Steady-state models for indoor PM2.5 were developed for each of the tested dwellings, based on mass balance equation. The indoor air PM2.5 concentrations in the four tested apartments were significantly different. The lowest geometric mean values of indoor air PM2...
August 2016: Environmental Pollution
Dusan Licina, Seema Bhangar, Brandon Brooks, Robyn Baker, Brian Firek, Xiaochen Tang, Michael J Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield, William W Nazaroff
Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU...
2016: PloS One
Neal Lorenzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Health Facilities Management
Roland Kupka, Jennifer Nielsen, Christina Nyhus Dhillon, Jessica Blankenship, Marjorie J Haskell, Shawn K Baker, Kenneth H Brown
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) among children 6 to 59 months of age reduces vitamin A deficiency (VAD)-related mortality. Child health days (CHDs) only reach an estimated 16.7% of children at exactly 6 months, leaving uncovered children at risk of VAD-related mortality; similarly, VAS provided at 9 months of age with measles-containing vaccine leaves infants unprotected for 3 months. OBJECTIVE: Using data from sub-Saharan Africa, we estimated the mortality benefits and safety of providing VAS at age 6 months, compared to delivery through CHDs and at 9 months...
May 5, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
W Stuart Dols, Steven J Emmerich, Brian J Polidoro
Building energy analysis tools are available in many forms that provide the ability to address a broad spectrum of energy-related issues in various combinations. Often these tools operate in isolation from one another, making it difficult to evaluate the interactions between related phenomena and interacting systems, forcing oversimplified assumptions to be made about various phenomena that could otherwise be addressed directly with another tool. One example of such interdependence is the interaction between heat transfer, inter-zone airflow and indoor contaminant transport...
March 2016: Building Services Engineering Research & Technology: BSER & T
Yi Luo, Xiaohong Lu, Wu Bi, Fan Liu, Weiwei Gao
A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T...
July 2016: Mycologia
Julia C Luongo, Albert Barberán, Robin Hacker-Cary, Emily E Morgan, Shelly L Miller, Noah Fierer
We have long known that human occupants are a major source of microbes in the built environment, thus raising the question: how much can we learn about the occupants of a building by analyzing the microbial communities found in indoor air? We investigated bacterial and fungal diversity found in airborne dust collected onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) air filters and settling plates from 91 rooms within a university dormitory. The sex of the room occupants had the most significant effect on the bacterial communities, while the room occupants had no significant effect on fungal communities...
March 28, 2016: Indoor Air
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