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Alfonso González-Briones, Javier Prieto, Fernando De La Prieta, Enrique Herrera-Viedma, Juan M Corchado
At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Yaolin Lin, Jiale Zou, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li
PM2.5 pollution has become a severe problem in China due to rapid industrialization and high energy consumption. It can cause increases in the incidence of various respiratory diseases and resident mortality rates, as well as increase in the energy consumption in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems due to the need for air purification. This paper reviews and studies the sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 , the impact of PM2.5 pollution on atmospheric visibility, occupational health, and occupants' behaviors...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
V V Nesvizhevsky, A Yu Voronin, A Lambrecht, S Reynaud, E V Lychagin, A Yu Muzychka, G V Nekhaev, A V Strelkov
The Big Gravitational Spectrometer (BGS) takes advantage of the strong influence of the Earth's gravity on the motion of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) that makes it possible to shape and measure UCN spectra. We optimized the BGS to investigate the "small heating" of UCNs, that is, the inelastic reflection of UCNs from a surface accompanied by an energy change comparable with the initial UCN energy. UCNs whose energy increases are referred to as "Vaporized UCNs" (VUCNs). The BGS provides the narrowest UCN spectra of a few cm and the broadest "visible" VUCN energy range of up to ∼150 cm (UCN energy is given in units of its maximum height in the Earth's gravitational field, where 1...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Shih-Tseng Lee, Ching-Chieh Liang, Tsung-Yi Chien, Feng-Jen Wu, Kuang-Chung Fan, Gwo-Hwa Wan
The interrelationships between ventilation rate, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in operation rooms at rest are yet to be understood. We investigate the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality indices and energy consumption in ORs at rest. The study investigates the air temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM), and airborne bacteria at different ventilation rates in operation rooms at rest of a medical center. The energy consumption and cost analysis of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in the operation rooms at rest were also evaluated for all ventilation rates...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Juan P Maestre, Wiley Jennings, Dennis Wylie, Sharon D Horner, Jeffrey Siegel, Kerry A Kinney
BACKGROUND: Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces...
January 30, 2018: Microbiome
Lisa C Ng, Nelson Ojeda Quiles, W Stuart Dols, Steven J Emmerich
As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather...
January 2018: Building and Environment
Karyna Rosario, Noah Fierer, Shelly Lynn Miller, Julia Luongo, Mya Breitbart
Diverse bacterial and fungal communities inhabit human-occupied buildings and circulate in indoor air; however, viral diversity in these man-made environments remains largely unknown. Here we investigated DNA and RNA viruses circulating in the air of twelve university dormitory rooms by analyzing dust accumulated over a one-year period on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters. A high-throughput metagenomic sequencing approach was used to determine the identity and diversity of viral particles extracted from the HVAC filters...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lindsay Jeanne Underhill, Maria Patricia Fabian, Kimberly Vermeer, Megan Sandel, Gary Adamkiewicz, Jessica H Leibler, Jonathan Ian Levy
Residential energy efficiency and ventilation retrofits (e.g., building weatherization, local exhaust ventilation, HVAC filtration) can influence indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant health, but these measures' impact varies by occupant activity. In this study, we used the multi-zone airflow and IAQ analysis program CONTAM to simulate the impacts of energy retrofits on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 in a low-income multifamily housing complex in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). We evaluated the differential impact of residential activities, such as low- and high-emission cooking, cigarette smoking, and window-opening, on IAQ across two seasons...
December 27, 2017: Indoor Air
Natascha Milesi Ferretti, Michael A Galler, Steven T Bushby
In this research we develop, test, and demonstrate the newest extension of the software HVAC-Cx (NIST and CSTB 2014), an automated commissioning tool for detecting common mechanical faults and control errors in chilled-water distribution systems (loops). The commissioning process can improve occupant comfort, ensure the persistence of correct system operation, and reduce energy consumption. Automated tools support the process by decreasing the time and the skill level required to carry out necessary quality assurance measures, and as a result they enable more thorough testing of building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems...
2017: ASHRAE Transactions
Esther M Johnstone
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the OR Key words: airborne contaminants, HVAC system, air pressure, air quality, temperature and humidity. Air changes and positive pressure Key words: air changes, positive pressure airflow, unidirectional airflow, outdoor air, recirculated air. Product selection Key word: product evaluation, product selection, selection committee. Entry into practice Key words: associate degree in nursing, bachelor of science in nursing, entry-level position, advanced education, BSN-prepared RNs...
November 2017: AORN Journal
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Linsey C Marr
Legionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher...
October 2017: Building and Environment
Miloš Fojtlín, Jan Fišer, Jan Pokorný, Aleš Povalač, Tomáš Urbanec, Miroslav Jícha
Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Seiji Nakagawa, Takuya Hotehama, Masaru Kamiya
Noise induced by a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a vehicle is an important factor that affects the comfort of the interior of a car cabin. Much effort has been devoted to reduce noise levels, however, there is a need for a new sound design that addresses the noise problem from a different point of view. In this study, focusing on the auditory impression of automotive HVAC noise concerning coolness and warmness, psychoacoustical listening tests were performed using a paired comparison technique under various conditions of room temperature...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Layla Al-Awadi
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3 -C6 ), aromatic (C6 -C9 ), halogenated (C1 -C7 ), and oxygenated (C2 -C9 ) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait...
January 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Heejung S Jung, Michael L Grady, Tristan Victoroff, Arthur L Miller
Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle...
July 2017: Atmospheric Environment
W J Fisk
Based on a review of literature published in refereed archival journals, ventilation rates in classrooms often fall far short of the minimum ventilation rates specified in standards. There is compelling evidence, from both cross-sectional and intervention studies, of an association of increased student performance with increased ventilation rates. There is evidence that reduced respiratory health effects and reduced student absence are associated with increased ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation rates in schools imposes energy costs and can increase heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system capital costs...
November 2017: Indoor Air
S Batterman, F-C Su, A Wald, F Watkins, C Godwin, G Thun
Low ventilation rates (VRs) in schools have been associated with absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and teacher dissatisfaction. We measured VRs in 37 recently constructed or renovated and mechanically ventilated U.S. schools, including LEED and EnergyStar-certified buildings, using CO2 and the steady-state, build-up, decay, and transient mass balance methods. The transient mass balance method better matched conditions (specifically, changes in occupancy) and minimized biases seen in the other methods...
September 2017: Indoor Air
Oren P Mushin, Jarrod T Bogue, Mica D Esquenazi, Nicole Toscano, Derek E Bell
INTRODUCTION: The vacuum assisted closure device (VAC) improves wound-healing when utilized as a bolster to secure split thickness skin grafts (STSG). Patients typically remain hospitalized for VAC therapy; however, home VACs (hVAC) are now available. Limited studies examine burns treated with hVAC as a STSG bolster. METHOD: A retrospective study of records from an ABA verified regional burn center was conducted over 23 months. Patients included STSGs for burn. Data points included demographics, burn mechanism and location, graft characteristics, hospital length of stay (LOS), and time to heal...
May 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
S H Gajuryal, A Daga, V Siddharth, C S Bal, S Satpathy
CONTEXT: PET/CT scan service is one of the capital intensive and revenue-generating centres of a tertiary care hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of PET services is dependent upon the unit costs of the resources consumed. AIMS: The study aims to determine the cost of providing PET/CT Scan services in a hospital. METHODS AND MATERIAL: This descriptive and observational study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at a tertiary apex teaching hospital in New Delhi, India in the year 2014-15...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Stuart Batterman
The ventilation rate (VR) is a key parameter affecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the energy consumption of buildings. This paper reviews the use of CO₂ as a "natural" tracer gas for estimating VRs, focusing on applications in school classrooms. It provides details and guidance for the steady-state, build-up, decay and transient mass balance methods. An extension to the build-up method and an analysis of the post-exercise recovery period that can increase CO₂ generation rates are presented. Measurements in four mechanically-ventilated school buildings demonstrate the methods and highlight issues affecting their applicability...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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