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Clean room

S M Waititu, F Yin, R Patterson, A Yitbarek, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the short-term effect of supplementing a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE) on growth performance, gut structure, immunity and microflora of piglets raised under sanitary and unsanitary conditions. A total of 84, 21-day old piglets were used in this study; 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the clean room that was washed once per week, whereas the other 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the unclean room in which 7 kg of manure from the sow herd was spread on each pen floor on day 1 and 7 and the room was not washed throughout the experiment...
June 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Inoka Amarakoon, Adenike O Hassan, Francis Zvomuya
This study examined the effectiveness of a wetland system for phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. The microcosm experiment tested the effects of one vs. two harvests of cattail per growth cycle in biosolids without (PB) or with (PBS) the addition of soil on phytoremediation. Cattail (Typha latifolia)) seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 4.5 kg (dry wt.) of biosolids, above which a 10-cm deep water column was maintained. Results showed that two harvests per growth cycle significantly increased N and P phytoextraction relative to a single harvest...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Cherri Zhang B Nurs, M Mofizul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has become a leading cause of death and disability in many developing countries including Bangladesh. We assess the association between HAP and risk of selected adverse birth and maternal health outcomes. METHODS: Data for this study were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2007-2014. Selected adverse birth outcomes were acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), under-five mortality, neonatal mortality and infant mortality...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Tara Prasad Dhungana, Hisako Hashimoto, Hiromi Tobita
A base-free iron germylene complex Cp*(CO)(H)Fe[double bond, length as m-dash]GeH{C(SiMe3)3} (1) was synthesised by abstraction of pyridine from a germyl complex Cp*(CO)(py)FeGeH2{C(SiMe3)3} (2), which was prepared by treatment of Cp*Fe(CO)(py)(Me) with H3GeC(SiMe3)3. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that 1 has an Fe-Ge bond that is the shortest among those ever reported. Reactivity of 1 toward several polar unsaturated organic compounds was investigated. Complex 1 underwent stoichiometric hydrogermylation of carbonyl compounds such as ketones, aldehydes and isocyanates (RNCO) at room temperature...
June 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wen-Ting Wei, Wen-Ming Zhu, Wei-Wei Ying, Yi Wu, Yi-Ling Huang, Hongze Liang
A metal-free method for the synthesis of isatin oximes was developed through the radical coupling reactions of oxindoles with t-BuONO. This protocol provides a practical and environmentally benign method for the construction of C-N bonds in water at room temperature without using any other reagents. The advantages of this strategy are its mild reaction conditions and clean procedure.
June 12, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Paul Carty, Michael R Cooper, Alan Barr, Richard L Neitzel, John Balmes, David Rempel
Objectives: Hammer drills are used extensively in commercial construction for drilling into concrete for tasks including rebar installation for structural upgrades and anchor bolt installation. This drilling task can expose workers to respirable silica dust and noise. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of bit wear on respirable silica dust, noise, and drilling productivity. Method: Test bits were worn to three states by drilling consecutive holes to different cumulative drilling depths: 0, 780, and 1560 cm...
June 8, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Bevin Cohen, Catherine Crawford Cohen, Borghild Løyland, Elaine L Larson
Pathogens that cause health care-associated infections (HAIs) are known to survive on surfaces and equipment in health care environments despite routine cleaning. As a result, the infection status of prior room occupants and roommates may play a role in HAI transmission. We performed a systematic review of the literature evaluating the association between patients' exposure to infected/colonized hospital roommates or prior room occupants and their risk of infection/colonization with the same organism. A PubMed search for English articles published in 1990-2014 yielded 330 studies, which were screened by three reviewers...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
Elizabeth Bryce, Teresa Zurberg, Markus Zurberg, Salomeh Shajari, Diane Roscoe
BACKGROUND: Prompted by an article describing a dog trained to detect Clostridium difficile in patients, our institution evaluated a dog's ability to detect C. difficile scent from equipment and surfaces to assist in strategic deployment of adjunctive cleaning measures. METHODS: An expert in drug and explosives scent dog handling trained a canine to identify odours from pure cultures and/or faecal specimens positive for C. difficile. Methods used to assess explosive and drug detection dogs were adapted and included evaluation of a) odour recognition, using containers positive and negative for the scent of C...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Tianyi Kou, Conghui Si, John Pinto, Chunyan Ma, Zhonghua Zhang
CeO2 is widely used as a commercial CO oxidation catalyst, but it suffers from high-temperature (>200 °C) complete conversion. Despite enormous efforts made to promote its low-temperature activity by interfacing CuO and CeO2, it is still a long-standing challenge to balance the desired catalytic activity with high-yield preparation. Creating intimate synergistic interfaces between Cu and Ce species and exploring surfactant-free large-scale methods are both critical and challenging. To address these concerns, we synthesized highly active Cu doped CeO2 nanowires for low-temperature CO oxidation, relying on intentionally maneuvering precursor alloy compositions and a high-yield dealloying method...
June 2, 2017: Nanoscale
Nikki Kenters, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Sophie C J de Wit, Joost van Rosmalen, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Hospital rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. During the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. In this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. The aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. METHODS: Seven cleaning-disinfecting wipes and sprays based on different active ingredients were tested for their efficacy in removal of microbial burden and proteins...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
D Farías, M Minniti, R Miranda
The reactivity of a Pd monolayer epitaxially grown on Ru(0001) toward O2 has been investigated by molecular beam techniques. O2 initial sticking coefficients were determined using the King and Wells method in the incident energy range of 40-450 meV and for sample temperatures of 100 K and 300 K, and compared to the corresponding values measured on the clean Ru(0001) and Pd(111) surfaces. In contrast to the high reactivity shown by Ru(0001) at 100 K, the Pd/Ru(0001) system exhibits a monotonic decrease in the sticking probability of O2 as a function of normal incident energy...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Stefan Bengtson, Kristina B Knudsen, Zdenka O Kyjovska, Trine Berthing, Vidar Skaug, Marcus Levin, Ismo K Koponen, Abhay Shivayogimath, Timothy J Booth, Beatriz Alonso, Amaia Pesquera, Amaia Zurutuza, Birthe L Thomsen, Jesper T Troelsen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Ulla Vogel
We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
R Sehjal, N Bakti, R Goddard
BACKGROUND: Effective operating room ventilation is required to reduce the risk of surgical site infection. Vertical laminar airflow from above the surgical field provides a source of 'ultra-clean' air, carrying contaminants away from the operative site. An anaesthetic screening drape is often used to shield the operative site from the anaesthetic team, and this defies the principles of vertical laminar airflow. METHODS: A mock theatre set-up for a total knee replacement was constructed with and without the use of an anaesthetic screening drape...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Patricia A Scofield, Linda L Smith, David N Johnson
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U...
July 2017: Health Physics
Yanhan Ren, Philip Chang, Robert L Sheridan
INTRODUCTION: Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) has proven to be a powerful tool in facilitating healing of difficult wounds of a variety of etiologies. The pediatric experience with NPWT has been limited due to concerns about vascular compression and pain associated with treatment. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of NPWT on children with difficult wounds due to burns or soft-tissue trauma. NPWT was instituted in the operating room under general anesthesia using a commercially available system...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Yuriy Zrodnikov, Cristina E Davis
Excellent chemical and physical properties of glass, over a range of operating conditions, make it a preferred material for chemical detection systems in analytical chemistry, biology, and the environmental sciences. However, it is often compromised with SU8, PDMS, or Parylene materials due to the sophisticated mask preparation requirements for wet etching of glass. Here, we report our efforts toward developing a photolithography-free laser-patterned hydrofluoric acid-resistant chromium-polyimide tape mask for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass...
January 2017: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering: Structures, Devices, and Systems
Daniel A Caroff, Deborah S Yokoe, Michael Klompas
Typing studies suggest most cases of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection are unrelated to other cases of active disease in the hospital. New cases may instead be due to transmissions from asymptomatic carriers or progression of latent C.difficile present-on-admission to active infection. Direct exposure to antibiotics remains the primary risk factor for C.difficile infection but ward-level antibiotic use, antibiotic exposure of the prior room occupant, and C.difficile status of the prior room occupant increase risk for C...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maria Chiara Pietrogrande, Francesco Manarini, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Eugenia Villaverde-de-Sáa, Marco Visentin
A novel ultrasound-assisted derivatization followed by GC/MS analysis was developed for the quantification of oxygenated organic species in ambient aerosol. Derivatization parameters mostly influencing the analytical response were investigated, i.e., solvent type, reagent concentration, and reaction duration. Response surface methodology was used to design experiments and a quadratic model was utilized to predict the variables and establish the optimal conditions. The study was performed on standard solutions of 30 compounds representing the major classes of oxygenated compounds typically found in ambient aerosol, i...
May 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Keming Xu, Liang Li, Mingyue Cui, Yiyuan Han, H Enis Karahan, Vincent T K Chow, Chenjie Xu
Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children under five, particularly in developing countries. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin greatly help in mitigating this problem. However, there is a lack of an infant/toddler-friendly formulation for countries with limited clean water orr electricity. Here, we report the development of a shear-thinning hydrogel system for the oral delivery of amoxicillin to infant/toddler patients, without the need of clean water and refrigeration. The hydrogel formulation consists of metolose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and amoxicillin...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Isaac Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sébastien Teychené, Nhat Van Pham, Dimitri Radajewski, Fabrice Lamadie, Andreu Llobera, Sophie Charton
A low cost fabrication process for photonic lab on a chip systems is here proposed. For the implementation of the masters suitable for cast molding fabrication, an inexpensive dry film photoresist, patternable using standard laboratory equipment, is benchmarked against standardized SU-8 masters obtained using UV lithography and systems manufacture in clean room facilities. Results show adequate system fabrication and a comparable performance of the photonic structures for absorbance/extinction measurements.
August 1, 2017: Talanta
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