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Clean room

Hao Liu, Moxiao Li, Yuhui Li, Hui Yang, Ang Li, Tian Jian Lu, Fei Li, Feng Xu
Gallium-based liquid metal has captivated exceptionally keen interest in recent years since it remains in the liquid phase at room temperature and thus conforms to the surrounding medium. Meanwhile, such morphing capability can be tuned via altering the oxide layer on the surface of the liquid metal, which further triggers enthusiasm for investigating its locomotion. In this study, we proposed a magnetic actuation scenario for steering liquid metal locomotion in an easily accessible and highly directed manner...
March 6, 2018: Soft Matter
Xiaoliang Cheng, Kunhong Liu, Yong Liu, Maoyi Wang, Ying Ma
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantification of caspofungin in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. The DBS samples, which were prepared by spotting whole blood onto Whatman 903 filter paper and drying at room temperature, were extracted with 50% methanol and further cleaned by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Roxithromycin was selected as internal standard, and the separation of the analytes with endogenous ingredients was accomplished on a Hypersil GOLD aQ column with mobile phase composed of 0...
March 5, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Stefan Wolf, Ludwig Schürer, Doortje C Engel
OBJECTIVE: Brain tissue oxygenation (pbt O2 ) monitoring with microprobes is increasingly used as an important parameter in addition to intracranial pressure in acutely brain-injured patients. Data on accuracy and long-term drift after use are scarce. We investigated room air readings of used pbt O2 probes for their relationship with the duration of monitoring, geographic location of the center, and manufacturer type. METHODS: After finishing clinically indicated monitoring in patients, pbt O2 probes used in two centers in Berlin and Munich were explanted and cleaned to avoid blood contamination...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
(no author information available yet)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile . The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Ken Catchpole, Ann Bisantz, M Susan Hallbeck, Matthias Weigl, Rebecca Randell, Merrick Kossack, Jennifer T Anger
This article reviews studies conducted "in the wild" that explore the "ironies of automation" in Robotic Assisted Surgery (RAS). Workload may be reduced for the surgeon, but increased for other team members, with postural stress relocated rather than reduced, and the introduction of a range of new challenges, for example, in the need to control multiple arms, with multiple instruments; and the increased demands of being physically separated from the team. Workflow disruptions were not compared with other surgeries; however, the prevalence of equipment and training disruptions differs from other types of surgeries...
February 22, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Pranav Agrawal, Zsófia Bognár, Kevin D Dorfman
Long-read genomic applications, such as genome mapping in nanochannels, require long DNA that is free of small-DNA impurities. We have developed a chip-based system based on entropic trapping that can simultaneously concentrate and purify a long DNA sample under the alternating application of an applied pressure (for sample injection) and an electric field (for filtration and concentration). In contrast, short DNA tends to pass through the filter owing to its comparatively weak entropic penalty for entering the nanoslit...
February 22, 2018: Lab on a Chip
H D A Chathumal Jayaweera, Induni Siriwardane, K M Nalin de Silva, Rohini M de Silva
Clean water, which is free from pathogens and toxic chemicals, is vital to human health. The blue planet is encountering remarkable challenges in meeting the ever-increasing demands of clean water. The intention of this research study was to develop a water filter material that is capable of removing bacterial contaminants and heavy metals from fresh water using cost effective and easily fabricated biocompatible filter material. For this purpose, granular activated carbon (GAC) was coated with both hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoflakes and turmeric extract (TE) (HAP/TE/GAC) which had been extracted from natural turmeric powder...
February 21, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Melanie Lovatt
Residential homes encourage new residents to bring belongings with them, so that they can personalise their room and 'feel at home'. Existing literature on material culture in residential homes views objects as symbols and repositories of home and identity, which can facilitate a sense of belonging in residents through their display in residents' rooms. I suggest that this both misunderstands the processual and fluid nature of home and identity, and conceptualises objects as essentially passive. This article uses ethnographic data and theories of practice and relationality to argue that rather than the meaning of home being inherent in objects, or felt subjectively by residents, meaning is generated through ongoing, everyday interactions between the two...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Chengcheng Li, Tuo Wang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Weimin Yang, Jianfeng Li, Ang Li, Zhilin Yang, Geoffrey A Ozin, Jinlong Gong
A hundred years on energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process continuously turn the nitrogen in air into fertilizer, nourishing billions of people while causing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The urgency of mitigating climate change motivates people to progress towards a more sustainable way in fixing nitrogen based on clean energy. Surface oxygen vacancies (surface Ovac) hold great potential for N2 adsorption and activation, but introducing Ovac on the very surface without affecting bulk properties remains a great challenge...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yujin Lee, Eun-Ah You, Young-Geun Ha
For constructing bio-inspired functional films with various superhydrophobic functions including self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, anti-bioadhesion, and oil-water separation, hydrophobic nanomaterials have been widely used as crucial structural components. In general, hydrophobic nanomaterials, however, cannot form strong chemical bond networks in organic-inorganic hybrid composite films because of the absence of chemically compatible binding components. Herein, we report the rationally designed, multifunctional self-assembled nanoparticles with tunable functionalities of covalent cross-linking and hydrophobicity for constructing three-dimensionally interconnected superhydrophobic composite films via a facile solution-based fabrication at room temperature...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hussain Shallwani, Hakeem J Shakir, Ashley M Aldridge, Maureen T Donovan, Elad I Levy, Kevin J Gibbons
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are noteworthy and costly complications. New recommendations from a national organization have urged the elimination of traditional surgeon's caps (surgical skull caps) and mandated the use of bouffant caps to prevent SSIs. OBJECTIVE: To report SSI rates for >15 000 class I (clean) surgical procedures 13 mo before and 13 mo after surgical skull caps were banned at a single site with 25 operating rooms. METHODS: SSI data were acquired from hospital infection control monthly summary reports from January 2014 to March 2016...
May 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
Hugh Owen Colhoun, Eileen P Treacy, Marguerite M MacMahon, Pauline M Rudd, Maria Fitzgibbon, Roisin O'Flaherty, Karolina Maria Stepien
BACKGROUND: Classical galactosaemia (OMIM 230400) is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase enzyme. The pathophysiology of the long-term complications, mainly cognitive, neurological and female fertility problems, remains poorly understood. Current clinical methods of biochemical monitoring lack precision and individualisation with an identified need for improved biomarkers for this condition. METHODS: We report the development and detailed validation of an automated ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) N-glycan analytical method of high peak resolution applied to galactose incorporation into human serum IgG...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Maryam Alehashem, Shadi Baniasadi
BACKGROUND: A great number of antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs) are used globally in cancer treatment. Due to their adverse health effects, occupational exposure to ANPDs is considered a potential health risk to health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate safe-handling practices of ANPDs, exposure controls, and adverse health implications for health care providers exposed to ANDPs. METHODS: Prevention measures, including engineering, administrative, and work practice controls, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE), were recorded daily through a questionnaire for six weeks...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
A Castro, A I Calvo, C Blanco-Alegre, F Oduber, C Alves, E Coz, F Amato, X Querol, R Fraile
Presently, both in rural areas and in cities open fireplaces are still present and large quantities of wood are combusted every year. The present study aims to characterize aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and deposition in the human respiratory tract of particles emitted during the combustion of logs of oak in an open fireplace installed in the living room of a typical village house. CO 2 and CO levels and aerosol size distribution have been continuously monitored and a PM 10 sampler with two types of filters for chemical and microscopic analysis was also installed...
February 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sayan Dey, Soumik Podder, A Roychowdhury, Dipankar Das, Chandan Kr Ghosh
Heavy metal ion removal from consumable water is an indispensable need to maintain healthy life. Therefore cost effective and highly efficient sorbents are strongly needed to pose threat to real water pollution. Nanomaterials are widely used to maintain clean aqueous system in a very cost effective way with high removal efficiency. In this present work, pure coral like Ni2O3 nanostructures were prescribed for Cr(VI) remediation which were prepared by two step synthesis procedure at room temperature. The single hierarchical morphology as confirmed from HRTEM (size∼200 nm) were subjected to toxic Cr(VI) ion removal experiments...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Matteo Crosera, Marcella Mauro, Massimo Bovenzi, Gianpiero Adami, Elena Baracchini, Giovanni Maina, Francesca Larese Filon
The use of palladium (Pd) has grown in the last decades, commonly used in automotive catalytic converters, jewellery and dental restorations sectors. Both general and working population can be exposed to this metal, which may act as skin sensitizer. This study investigated in vitro palladium powders permeation through excised intact and damaged human skin using the Franz diffusion cell method and the effect of rapid skin decontamination using sodium laureth-sulphate. 1 ml of a 10 min sonicated suspension made of 2...
February 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
M Angeles Alvarez, M Esther García, Daniel García-Vivó, Miguel A Ruiz, Adrián Toyos
The reactions of the title complex (1) with different p-block element (E) molecules was examined. Compound 1 reacted with BH3·THF at room temperature to give the trihydride [W2Cp2(μ-H)H2(μ-PPh2)(NO)2], which formally results from hydrogenation of 1, a reaction that actually does not take place when neat dihydrogen is used. Clean E-H bond oxidative addition, however, took place when 1 was reacted with HSnPh3, to give the related dihydride stannyl derivative [W2Cp2(μ-H)H(μ-PPh2)(NO)2(SnPh3)]. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with HSPh involved H2 elimination to give the thiolate-bridged complex [W2Cp2(μ-SPh)(μ-PPh2)(NO)2], while that with (p-tol)C(O)H resulted in insertion of the aldehyde to yield the related alkoxide complex [W2Cp2{μ-OCH2(p-tol)}(μ-PPh2)(NO)2]...
February 7, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jun-Min Yan, Si-Jia Li, Sha-Sha Yi, Ba-Ri Wulan, Wei-Tao Zheng, Qing Jiang
Hydrogen is widely considered to be a sustainable and clean energy alternative to the use of fossil fuels in the future. Its high hydrogen content, nontoxicity, and liquid state at room temperature make formic acid a promising hydrogen carrier. Designing highly efficient and low-cost heterogeneous catalysts is a major challenge for realizing the practical application of formic acid in the fuel-cell-based hydrogen economy. Herein, a simple but effective and rapid strategy is proposed, which demonstrates the synthesis of NiPd bimetallic ultrafine particles (UPs) supported on NH2 -functionalized and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (NH2 -N-rGO) at room temperature...
February 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sandra M Farach, Kristin N Kelly, Rachel L Farkas, Daniel T Ruan, Amy Matroniano, David C Linehan, Jacob Moalem
BACKGROUND: After a Department of Health site visit, 2 teaching hospitals imposed strict regulations on operating room attire including full coverage of ears and facial hair. We hypothesized that this intervention would reduce superficial surgical site infections (SSI). STUDY DESIGN: We compared NSQIP data from all patients undergoing surgery in the 9 months before implementation (n=3,077) to time-matched data 9 months post-implementation (n=3,440). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to examine patient, clinical, and operative factors associated with SSI...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Andreas Helwig, Angelika Hackner, Gerhard Müller, Dario Zappa, Giorgio Sberveglieri
Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors sensitively respond to a wide variety of combustible, explosive and poisonous gases. However, due to the lack of a built-in self-test capability, MOX gas sensors have not yet been able to penetrate safety-critical applications. In the present work we report on gas sensing experiments performed on MOX gas sensors embedded in ceramic micro-reaction chambers. With the help of an external micro-pump, such systems can be operated in a periodic manner alternating between flow and no-flow conditions, thus allowing repetitive measurements of the sensor resistances under clean air, R 0 , and under gas exposure, R g a s , to be obtained, even under field conditions...
February 3, 2018: Sensors
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