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Nicole G Campos, Naomi Lince-Deroche, Carla J Chibwesha, Cynthia Firnhaber, Jennifer S Smith, Pam Michelow, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Lise Jamieson, Suzette Jordaan, Monisha Sharma, Catherine Regan, Stephen Sy, Gui Liu, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: Women with HIV face an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) acquisition and persistence, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive cervical cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening strategies among women with HIV in South Africa. METHODS: We modified a mathematical model of HPV infection and cervical disease to reflect co-infection with HIV. The model was calibrated to epidemiologic data from HIV-infected women in South Africa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Gen-Fu Feng, Minyi Dong, Jun Wen, Chun-Ping Chang
Political incentive is one of the most efficient methods to promote local officials to push for both economic growth and environmental progress in the context of China. Since previous scholars have never investigated the relationships between political turnover and environmental governance at the municipal level, in this work, we proxy pollution by SO2 , COD, SOOT, and NHx and examine whether environmental performance affects the political turnover of the municipal party secretary by exploiting a panel conditional logit with a fixed-effect model for the period 2002-2013...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kerlijn Van Assche, Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Jean Michel Caudron, Benedetta Schiavetti, Corinne Pouget, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Bruno Meessen, Raffaella Ravinetto
Introduction: The rapid globalisation of the pharmaceutical production and distribution has not been supported by harmonisation of regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the supply systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain exposed to the risk of poor-quality medicines. To contribute to estimating this risk in the private sector in LMICs, we assessed the quality assurance system of a convenient sample of local private pharmaceutical distributors. Methods: This descriptive study uses secondary data derived from the audits conducted by the QUAMED group at 60 local private pharmaceutical distributors in 13 LMICs...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Rui Zhang, Benjamin LaFrance, Eva Nogales
Microtubules (MTs) are polymers assembled from αβ-tubulin heterodimers that display the hallmark behavior of dynamic instability. MT dynamics are driven by GTP hydrolysis within the MT lattice, and are highly regulated by a number of MT-associated proteins (MAPs). How MAPs affect MTs is still not fully understood, partly due to a lack of high-resolution structural data on undecorated MTs, which need to serve as a baseline for further comparisons. Here we report three structures of MTs in different nucleotide states (GMPCPP, GDP, and GTPγS) at near-atomic resolution and in the absence of any binding proteins...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yang Yang, Liwen Luo, Chao Song, Hao Yin, Jintao Yang
Background : Particulate air pollution, especially PM2.5 , is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and, ultimately, economic losses for society, however, few studies have undertaken a spatiotemporal assessment of PM2.5 -related economic losses from health impacts covering all of the main cities in China. Methods : PM2.5 concentration data were retrieved for 190 Chinese cities for the period 2014⁻2016. We used a log-linear exposure⁻response model and monetary valuation methods, such as value of a statistical life (VSL), amended human capital (AHC), and cost of illness to evaluate PM2...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lei Hongdou, Li Shiping, Li Hao
Sustainable agriculture ensures food security and prevents starvation. However, the need to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population has led to poor and unsustainable agricultural practices, which promote environmental degradation. Given the contributions of agricultural ecosystems to environmental pollution, we investigated the impact of the agricultural ecosystem on environmental pollution in China using time series data from 1960 to 2014. We employed several methods for econometric analysis including the unit root test, Johansen test of cointegration, Granger causality test, and vector error correction model...
June 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zahra Alavi, Giovanni Zocchi
Pursuing a materials science approach to understanding the deformability of enzymes, we introduce measurements of the phase of the mechanical response function within the nanorheology paradigm. Driven conformational motion of the enzyme is dissipative as characterized by the phase measurements. The dissipation originates both from the surface hydration layer and the interior of the molecule, probed by examining the effect of point mutations on the mechanics. We also document changes in the mechanics of the enzyme examined, guanylate kinase, upon binding its four substrates...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Leonid Ulyev, Mikhail Vasiliev, Stanislav Boldyryev
The petrochemical industry is one of the most important industries in the world economy. In the largest oil-producing countries, more than half of GDP is generated by hydrocarbons production and refining. Reduction of oil prices and new environmental regulations are forcing petrochemical companies to improve their energy efficiency. Improvement of the energy efficiency of Crude oil distillation process at atmospheric vacuum distillation unit (AVDU) with a capacity of 3.3 million ton per year is considered in this paper...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Kuen-Cheh Yang, Hui-Fang Hung, Meng-Kan Chen, Li-Sheng Chen, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Amy-Ming Fang Yen, Kuo-Chin Huang, Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Sen-Te Wang
OBJECTIVES: Despite the fact that vaccination is an effective primary prevention strategy for containing influenza outbreak, health policymakers show great concern over enormous costs involved in universal immunization particularly when resources are limited. METHODS: We conducted a two-arm cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) that takes into account the aspect of herd immunity, using a study cohort that was composed of 100,000 residents with the make-up of demographic characteristics identical to those of the underlying population in Taipei County, Taiwan, during the epidemic influenza season of 2001-2002...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Yang Guo, Jinping Tian, Na Zang, Yang Gao, Lujun Chen
This study uncovered the direct and indirect energy-related GHG emissions of 213 Chinese national-level industrial parks, providing 11% of China's GDP, from a life-cycle perspective. Direct emissions are sourced from fuel combustion, and indirect emissions are embodied in energy production. The results indicated that in 2015, the direct and indirect GHG emissions of the parks were 1042 and 181 million tonne CO2 eq., respectively, totally accounting for 11% of national GHG emissions. The total energy consumption of the parks accounted for 10% of national energy consumption...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hossny Azizalrahman, Valid Hasyimi
Data in this article are related to a paper entitled "Towards a Generic Multi-criteria Evaluation Model for Low Carbon Cities". This paper sets out a framework for data normalization in a multi-criteria evaluation model that was tested and validated in 15 cities. Data deals with measurable indicators such as GDP per capita, CO2 emissions per capita and public buses per capita. In addition to published papers, selected World Bank and Siemens reports were useful to operationalize and identify low carbon cities...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Arndt Feuerbacher, Jonas Luckmann, Ole Boysen, Sabine Zikeli, Harald Grethe
Organic agriculture (OA) is considered a strategy to make agriculture more sustainable. Bhutan has embraced the ambitious goal of becoming the world's first 100% organic nation. By analysing recent on-farm data in Bhutan, we found organic crop yields on average to be 24% lower than conventional yields. Based on these yield gaps, we assess the effects of the 100% organic conversion policy by employing an economy-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with detailed representation of Bhutan's agricultural sector incorporating agroecological zones, crop nutrients, and field operations...
2018: PloS One
Èrica Martínez-Solanas, María López-Ruiz, Gregory A Wellenius, Antonio Gasparrini, Jordi Sunyer, Fernando G Benavides, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Extreme cold and heat have been linked to an increased risk of occupational injuries. However, the evidence is still limited to a small number of studies of people with relatively few injuries and with a limited geographic extent, and the corresponding economic effect has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the relationship between ambient temperatures and occupational injuries in Spain along with its economic effect. METHODS: The daily number of occupational injuries that caused at least one day of leave and the daily maximum temperature were obtained for each Spanish province for the years 1994-2013...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Alejandro Melero, Nicolas Chiaruttini, Takefumi Karashima, Isabelle Riezman, Kouichi Funato, Charles Barlowe, Howard Riezman, Aurélien Roux
Coat protein complex II (COPII) proteins form vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum to export cargo molecules to the Golgi apparatus. Among the many proteins involved in this process, Sec12 is a key regulator, functioning as the guanosine diphosphate (GDP) exchange factor for Sar1p, the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that initiates COPII assembly. Here we show that overexpression of phospholipase B3 in the thermosensitive sec12-4 mutant partially restores growth and protein transport at non-permissive temperatures...
May 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Siamak Aghlmand, Bahlol Rahimi, Hamidreza Farrokh-Eslamlou, Bahram Nabilou, Hassan Yusefzadeh
Among non-oil and in trade arena, drug has always been strategic importance and most government especially industrialized countries pay special attention to its production and trade issues. Thus, having a comprehensive view from economic perspective to this section is essential for suggesting intervention. This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. In this study, gravity model is used to estimate Iran's bilateral intra-industry trade in pharmaceutical products in the 2001-2012 periods. To illustrate the extent of pharmaceutical's intra-industry trade between Iran and its major trading partners, the explanatory variables of market size, income, factor endowments, distance, cultural contributions, and similarities and also special trade arrangements have been applied...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
X Z Li, Changguo Yan, Lin Sen Zan
The beef industry is an important part of livestock and meat production in China. China ranks third in the world for beef production. With the rapid development of the Chinese economy, beef consumption has grown rapidly and beef consumption has been increasing with rising GDP per capita. However the domestic beef industry in China has not been able to keep pace with growth in consumption, making China a net importer of beef from other countries. Moreover, the volume of production has increased little despite rising demand...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Sajeeva Ranaweera, Hemantha Amarasinghe, Nadeeka Chandraratne, Montarat Thavorncharoensap, Thushara Ranasinghe, Sumudu Karunaratna, Dinesh Kumara, Benjarin Santatiwongchai, Usa Chaikledkaew, Palitha Abeykoon, Amala De Silva
AIM: Alcohol related disease conditions are responsible for a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. This study quantified the economic cost of selected alcohol related disease conditions in Sri Lanka in 2015. METHODS: This study uses the prevalence-based cost of illness methodology specified by the World Health Organization, and uses the gross costing approach. The direct costs includes the costs of curative care (inpatient and outpatient care borne by the state and out of pocket expenditure borne by patients) for alcohol related diseases, weighted by the respective population attributable fractions...
2018: PloS One
Guilherme de Jesús, Vicki Flenady
In the BJOG stillbirth themed issue, Pingray et al (BJOG, 2018) report on stillbirth rates across countries in Latin America, and examined its relationship with socioeconomic and health coverage. Although pooled estimated stillbirth rate (SBR) for Latin America is considerably lower than worldwide estimate (8.1 vs 18.4 per 1.000 births), the authors found a wide variation in country-level stillbirth rates with indicators of socioeconomic and health coverage being key drivers. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and women's schooling have a strong inverse relationship with stillbirths...
June 7, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Everton Cazzo, Almino Cardoso Ramos, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim
BACKGROUND: The effect of nationwide economic issues on the necessary expansion in the number of bariatric procedures remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether there are correlations between the growth rate in the number of bariatric surgeries and the major macroeconomic variables over time in Brazil. METHODS: It is a nationwide analysis regarding the number of bariatric surgeries in Brazil and the main national macroeconomic variables from 2003 through 2016: gross domestic product (GDP), inflation rate, and the unemployment rate, as well as the evolution in the number of registered bariatric surgeons...
June 6, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Simon Grima, Jonathan V Spiteri, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Carl Camilleri, Sandra C Buttigieg
In this study, we analyzed healthcare provision and health expenditure across six Mediterranean countries that adopt the National Health System (Beveridge model) and that form part of the European Union (EU) with the main aim being that of analyzing and comparing out-of-pocket health spending in countries with a European Mediterranean connection. To this end, we considered various economic indicators and statistics to derive commonalities and differences across these countries and also compared trends in these indicators to those observed across the rest of the EU...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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