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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911926/international-collaboration-patterns-and-effecting-factors-of-emerging-technologies
#1
Xu Bai, Yun Liu
With the globalization of the world economy, international innovation collaboration has taken place all over the world. This study selects three emerging technologies (3D printing, big data and carbon nanotubes and graphene technology) among 20 countries as the research objects, using three patent-based indicators and network relationship analysis to reflect international collaboration patterns. Then we integrate empirical analyses to show effecting factors of international collaboration degrees by using panel data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911813/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-small-gtpases-activity-in-live-cells
#2
Stephanie Voss, Dennis M Krüger, Oliver Koch, Yao-Wen Wu
Ras-like small GTPases function as molecular switches and regulate diverse cellular events. To examine the dynamics of signaling requires spatiotemporal visualization of their activity in the cell. Current small GTPase sensors rely on specific effector domains that are available for only a small number of GTPases and compete for endogenous regulator/effector binding. Here, we describe versatile conformational sensors for GTPase activity (COSGAs) based on the conserved GTPase fold. Conformational changes upon GDP/GTP exchange were directly observed in solution, on beads, and in live cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911799/mechanism-of-the-intrinsic-arginine-finger-in-heterotrimeric-g-proteins
#3
Daniel Mann, Christian Teuber, Stefan A Tennigkeit, Grit Schröter, Klaus Gerwert, Carsten Kötting
Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial molecular switches that maintain a large number of physiological processes in cells. The signal is encoded into surface alterations of the Gα subunit that carries GTP in its active state and GDP in its inactive state. The ability of the Gα subunit to hydrolyze GTP is essential for signal termination. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerates this process. A key player in this catalyzed reaction is an arginine residue, Arg178 in Gαi1, which is already an intrinsic part of the catalytic center in Gα in contrast to small GTPases, at which the corresponding GTPase-activating protein (GAP) provides the arginine "finger...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906986/cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-tb-hiv-screening-and-linkage-to-care-in-rural-south-africa
#4
Jennifer A Gilbert, Sheela V Shenoi, Anthony P Moll, Gerald H Friedland, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
South Africa has one of the highest burdens of TB worldwide, driven by the country's widespread prevalence of HIV, and further complicated by drug resistance. Active case finding within the community, particularly in rural areas where healthcare access is limited, can significantly improve diagnosis and treatment coverage in high-incidence settings. We evaluated the potential health and economic consequences of implementing community-based TB/HIV screening and linkage to care. Using a dynamic model of TB and HIV transmission over a time horizon of 10 years, we compared status quo TB/HIV control to community-based TB/HIV screening at frequencies of once every two years, one year, and six months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905897/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-treatment-shortening-a-model-based-analysis
#5
G B Gomez, D W Dowdy, M L Bastos, A Zwerling, S Sweeney, N Foster, A Trajman, M A Islam, S Kapiga, E Sinanovic, G M Knight, R G White, W A Wells, F G Cobelens, A Vassall
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. METHODS: We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903647/the-production-and-utilization-of-gdp-glucose-in-the-biosynthesis-of-trehalose-6-phosphate-by-streptomyces-venezuelae
#6
Matías D Asencion Diez, Farzana Miah, Clare E M Stevenson, David M Lawson, Alberto A Iglesias, Stephen Bornemann
Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilise ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudo-glycosyltransferase enzyme...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903354/-the-characteristics-of-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-and-predictors-of-their-migration-2008-2015
#7
Q Q Qin, W Guo, L Y Wang, Z W Ding, C Cai, Y Cui, J P Sun
Objective: To characterize the migration patterns of men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV/AIDS in the period 2008-2015 and to characterize the determinants of their migration. Methods: All identified HIV/AIDS cases transmitted through self-reported homosexual contact reported to the National Case Reporting System(CRS) by the end of December 31, 2015 were included in this study. Data of basic demographic characteristics, household registration and address of the research objects were collected. Retrospective cohort study was used to analyze the migration characteristics of HIV/AIDS cases between 2008 and 2015...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902787/effects-of-a-possible-pollinator-crisis-on-food-crop-production-in-brazil
#8
Samuel M A Novais, Cássio A Nunes, Natália B Santos, Ana R D Amico, G Wilson Fernandes, Maurício Quesada, Rodrigo F Braga, Ana Carolina O Neves
Animal pollinators contribute to human food production and security thereby ensuring an important component of human well-being. The recent decline of these agents in Europe and North America has aroused the concern of a potential global pollinator crisis. In order to prioritize efforts for pollinator conservation, we evaluated the extent to which food production depends on animal pollinators in Brazil-one of the world's agriculture leaders-by comparing cultivated area, produced volume and yield value of major food crops that are pollinator dependent with those that are pollinator non-dependent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900315/effectiveness-and-efficiency-of-improving-hiv-service-provision-for-key-populations-in-nicaragua
#9
Edward Ivor Broughton, Oscar Nunez, Rafael Arana, Alexey Oviedo
OBJECTIVE: HIV in Nicaragua is concentrated among key populations (KPs) - men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and female transgender - in whom prevalence is 600-4,000 times higher than the general population. The United States Agency for International Development PrevenSida project is aimed at increasing healthy behavior among KPs and people with HIV and improving testing, counseling, and continuity of prevention and treatment by building capacity and improving performance of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) providing services to KPs...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899316/inhibition-or-ablation-of-transglutaminase-2-impairs-astrocyte-migration
#10
Alina Monteagudo, Changyi Ji, Abdullah Akbar, Jeffrey W Keillor, Gail V W Johnson
Astrocytes play numerous complex roles that support and facilitate the function of neurons. Further, when there is an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) they can both facilitate or ameliorate functional recovery depending on the location and severity of the injury. When a CNS injury is relatively severe a glial scar is formed, which is primarily composed of astrocytes. The glial scar can be both beneficial, by limiting inflammation, and detrimental, by preventing neuronal projections, to functional recovery...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899096/estimating-the-mental-health-costs-of-racial-discrimination
#11
Amanuel Elias, Yin Paradies
BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs...
November 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895225/loss-of-inositol-phosphorylceramide-sphingolipid-mannosylation-induces-plant-immune-responses-and-reduces-cellulose-content-in-arabidopsis
#12
Lin Fang, Toshiki Ishikawa, Emilie A Rennie, Gosia M Murawska, Jeemeng Lao, Jingwei Yan, Alex Yl Tsai, Edward E K Baidoo, Jun Xu, Jay D Keasling, Taku Demura, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Jenny C Mortimer
Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase (GT) family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1 (EPC1), is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1)...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886527/universal-health-coverage-at-the-macro-level-synthetic-control-evidence-from-thailand
#13
Matthias Rieger, Natascha Wagner, Arjun S Bedi
As more and more countries are moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), it is important to understand the macro level or aggregate impacts of such a policy. We use synthetic control methods to study the impact of UHC, introduced in Thailand in 2001, on various macroeconomic and health outcomes. Thailand is compared to a weighted average of control countries in terms of aggregate health financing indicators, aggregate health outcomes and economic performance, over the period 1995 to 2012. Our results suggest that UHC helps alleviate the financial consequences of illnesses...
November 17, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885270/gdp-per-capita-and-obesity-prevalence-worldwide-an-ambiguity-of-effect-modification-response-to-the-comment-by-prof-torsten-j-selck-does-income-positively-affect-obesity-at-the-macro-level
#14
N A Rybnikova, B A Portnov
International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 25 November 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.215.
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878714/going-beyond-life-expectancy-in-assessments-of-health-systems-performance-life-expectancy-adjusted-by-perceived-health-status
#15
Erika Laranjeira, Helena Szrek
International comparisons of health systems data have been used to guide health policy. Health systems performance is generally evaluated on how different factors contribute to mortality and longevity. Fewer studies scrutinize the factors that determine morbidity in different countries, partly because indicators that assess morbidity on a country level are not as widely available as mortality and longevity data. We introduce a new health status indicator able to combine mortality and morbidity in a single composite measure for each country and gender at a point in time (LEAPHS), yielding the average number of years that men (women) can expect to live in "good" (or better) health...
June 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874200/two-patients-with-gmppb-mutation-the-overlapping-phenotypes-of-limb-girdle-myasthenic-syndrome-and-lgmd2t-dystroglycanopathy
#16
Federica Montagnese, Elisabeth Klupp, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Saskia Biskup, Dieter Gläser, Jan S Kirschke, Benedikt Schoser
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase-B gene (GMPPB) have been identified in congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2T), and congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs); overall, 41 patients have been described. METHODS: Two patients presented with a myasthenic syndrome (patient 1, 74-year-old) and rhabdomyolysis (patient 2, 23-year-old). Examinations included repetitive nerve stimulation, muscle biopsy and whole-body MRI (WBMRI); next generation sequencing facilitated diagnosis...
November 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871057/mechanistic-insights-into-gpcr-g-protein-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Jacob P Mahoney, Roger K Sunahara
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to extracellular stimuli and interact with several intracellular binding partners to elicit cellular responses, including heterotrimeric G proteins. Recent structural and biophysical studies have highlighted the dynamic nature of GPCRs and G proteins and have identified specific conformational changes important for receptor-mediated nucleotide exchange on Gα. While domain separation within Gα is necessary for GDP release, opening the inter-domain interface is insufficient to stimulate nucleotide exchange...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863929/global-trends-in-adolescent-fertility-1990-2012-in-relation-to-national-wealth-income-inequalities-and-educational-expenditures
#18
John S Santelli, Xiaoyu Song, Samantha Garbers, Vinit Sharma, Russell M Viner
PURPOSE: National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. METHODS: An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862756/metal-fluorides-as-analogs-for-studies-on-phosphoryl-transfer-enzymes
#19
George Michael Blackburn, Yi Jin, Nigel G Richards, Jonathan P Waltho
The 1994 structure of a transition state analog with AlF4- and GDP complexed to G1, a small G protein, heralded a new field of research into structure and mechanism of enzymes that manipulate transfer of the phosphoryl (PO3-) group. The list of enzyme structures that embrace metal fluorides, MFx, as ligands that imitate either the phosphoryl group or a phosphate, is now growing at over 80 per triennium. They fall into three distinct geometrical classes: (i) Tetrahedral complexes, based on BeF3-, mimic ground state phosphates; (ii) Octahedral complexes, primarily based on AlF4-, mimic "in-line" anionic transition state for phosphoryl transfer; and (iii) Trigonal bipyramidal complexes, represented by MgF3- and putative AlF30 moieties, additionally mimic the tbp geometry of the transition state...
November 8, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860047/microsecond-timescale-dynamics-of-gdp-bound-ras-underlies-the-formation-of-novel-inhibitor-binding-pockets
#20
Yunyun Mao, Haijie Yao, Hui Wang, Peng Cheng, Dong Long
The recent discovery of inhibitory compounds binding to distinct pockets on GDP-bound Ras has renewed the view on the druggability of this crucial cancer driver. However, the origin of these pockets, which are not readily formed in the crystal structure in the absence of the compounds, is yet unclear. Herein, we explored the intrinsic flexibility of Ras⋅GDP on microsecond to millisecond timescales using relaxation-based NMR experiments, and identified substantial slow dynamics with τex of 34 μs at 5 °C, which maps to the regions showing a high level of correlation with those displaying conformational differences between the inhibitor-bound and free states...
November 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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