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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050879/one-pot-synthesis-of-gdp-l-fucose-by-a-four-enzyme-cascade-expressed-in-lactococcus-lactis
#1
Ling Li, Seul-Ah Kim, Ji Eun Heo, Tae-Jip Kim, Jin-Ho Seo, Nam Soo Han
GDP-L-fucose is an L-fucose donor to synthesize fucosylated compounds such as human milk oligosaccharides or Lewis antigen. In this study, we used Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 to express 4 enzymes, ManB, ManC, Gmd, and WcaG and produced GDP-L-fucose by using one-pot synthesis method with mannose-6-phosphate as substrate and the enzymes as biocatalyst. For preparation of enzyme mixture, 4 genes (manB, manC, gmd, and wcaG) cloned from Escherichia coli were transformed into L. lactis strains using pNZ8008 and the recombinant cell lysates were obtained after cultivation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049977/syk-gtp-rac-1-mediated-immune-stimulatory-effect-of-cuscuta-epithymum-ipomoea-batata-and-euphorbia-hirta-plant-extracts
#2
Vanitha Sagar Sudam, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, N J Prameela Subhashini
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNn) are the pivotal mediators of phagocytosis. In addition to neutropenia, impaired neutrophilic function is associated with pathological conditions and immuno-deficiencies. Henceforth, Immuno-stimulatory strategies targeting neutrophilic function are indeed powerful tools in combating obstinate infections. In appreciation towards the usefulness of herbal medicines in therapeutic scenario, the present study was carried out to analyse the immuno-stimulatory effect of Cuscuta epithymum, Ipomoea batata and Euphorbia hirta using in-vitro and in-vivo rodent experimental models...
October 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049446/association-of-socioeconomics-with-prevalence-of-visual-impairment-and-blindness
#3
Wei Wang, William Yan, Andreas Müller, Stuart Keel, Mingguang He
Importance: Vision loss is the third most common impairment worldwide. Although cost-effective interventions are available for preventing or curing most causes of vision loss, availability of these interventions varies considerably between countries and districts. Knowledge of the association between vision loss and socioeconomic factors is informative for public health planning. Objectives: To explore correlations of the prevalence of visual impairment with socioeconomic factors at country levels and to model and estimate a socioeconomic-adjusted disease burden based on these data...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049002/cost-effectiveness-of-the-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccine-for-infants-in-mainland-china
#4
Guijun Ning, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of childhood pneumonia, meningitis and other vaccine-preventable diseases in mainland China from a societal perspective and to provide information about the addition of the Hib vaccine to Chinese immunization programs. METHODS: A decision tree and the Markov model were used to estimate the costs and effectiveness of the Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for a birth cohort of 100,000 children in 2016...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044096/a-homologue-of-the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-protein-lrrk2-undergoes-a-monomer-dimer-transition-during-gtp-turnover
#5
Egon Deyaert, Lina Wauters, Giambattista Guaitoli, Albert Konijnenberg, Margaux Leemans, Susanne Terheyden, Arsen Petrovic, Rodrigo Gallardo, Laura M Nederveen-Schippers, Panagiotis S Athanasopoulos, Henderikus Pots, Peter J M Van Haastert, Frank Sobott, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Rouslan Efremov, Arjan Kortholt, Wim Versées
Mutations in LRRK2 are a common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a multi-domain Roco protein, harbouring kinase and GTPase activity. In analogy with a bacterial homologue, LRRK2 was proposed to act as a GTPase activated by dimerization (GAD), while recent reports suggest LRRK2 to exist under a monomeric and dimeric form in vivo. It is however unknown how LRRK2 oligomerization is regulated. Here, we show that oligomerization of a homologous bacterial Roco protein depends on the nucleotide load...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040603/mitosis-specific-acetylation-tunes-ran-effector-binding-for-chromosome-segregation
#6
Xiaoling Bao, Heng Liu, Xing Liu, Ke Ruan, Yonghui Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Qi Hu, Ying Liu, Saima Akram, Jiahai Zhang, Qingguo Gong, Wenwen Wang, Xiao Yuan, Jian Li, Lingli Zhao, Zhen Dou, Ruijun Tian, Xuebiao Yao, Jihui Wu, Yunyu Shi
Stable transmission of genetic information during cell division requires faithful mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. The Ran GTPase plays a key role in mitotic spindle assembly. However, how the generation of a chemical gradient of Ran-GTP at the spindle is coupled to mitotic post-translational modifications has never been characterized. Here, we solved the complex structure of Ran with the nucleotide release factor Mog1 and delineated a novel mitosis-specific acetylation-regulated Ran-Mog1 interaction during chromosome segregation...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040579/cultural-determinants-influence-assisted-reproduction-usage-in-europe-more-than-economic-and-demographic-factors
#7
Patrick Präg, Melinda C Mills
STUDY QUESTION: To what extent do financial, demographic and cultural determinants explain the vast cross-national differences in ART treatments in Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: The normative cultural acceptance of ART is a major driver of ART treatments in Europe, above and beyond differences in country wealth, demographic aspects and religious composition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There are vast differences in the number of ART treatments across European countries, which are to some extent related to country affluence, regulation, and insurance coverage and costs...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036929/interaction-between-rho-gtpases-and-14-3-3-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Brandwein, Zhixiang Wang
The Rho GTPase family accounts for as many as 20 members. Among them, the archetypes RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 have been the most well-characterized. Like all members of the small GTPases superfamily, Rho proteins act as molecular switches to control cellular processes by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound states. The 14-3-3 family proteins comprise seven isoforms. They exist as dimers (homo- or hetero-dimer) in cells. They function by binding to Ser/Thr phosphorylated intracellular proteins, which alters the conformation, activity, and subcellular localization of their binding partners...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036727/economic-labor-and-regulatory-moderators-of-the-effect-of-individual-placement-and-support-among-people-with-severe-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Justin D Metcalfe, Robert E Drake, Gary R Bond
As Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has become the international standard for vocational rehabilitation of adults with serious mental illness, researchers must consider the relationship between IPS and local environments. This meta-analysis used mixed-effects meta-regressions to assess the impact of site-level moderators on the likelihood that IPS recipients, compared with recipients of alternative vocational services, achieved competitive employment. Potential moderators included change in gross domestic product (GDP), local unemployment and unionization rates, and indices describing employment protection regulations, level of disability benefits compensation, and efforts to integrate people with disabilities into the workforce...
September 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036434/novel-mechanisms-of-eif2b-action-and-regulation-by-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#10
Andrew M Bogorad, Kai Ying Lin, Assen Marintchev
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric GTPase, which plays a critical role in protein synthesis regulation. eIF2-GTP binds Met-tRNAi to form the eIF2-GTP•Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC), which is recruited to the 40S ribosomal subunit. Following GTP hydrolysis, eIF2-GDP is recycled back to TC by its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), eIF2B. Phosphorylation of the eIF2α subunit in response to various cellular stresses converts eIF2 into a competitive inhibitor of eIF2B, which triggers the integrated stress response (ISR)...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035382/regulation-of-heterotrimeric-g-protein-signaling-by-ndpk-nme-proteins-and-caveolins-an-update
#11
Issam H Abu-Taha, Jordi Heijman, Yuxi Feng, Christiane Vettel, Dobromir Dobrev, Thomas Wieland
Heterotrimeric G proteins are pivotal mediators of cellular signal transduction in eukaryotic cells and abnormal G-protein signaling plays an important role in numerous diseases. During the last two decades it has become evident that the activation status of heterotrimeric G proteins is both highly localized and strongly regulated by a number of factors, including a receptor-independent activation pathway of heterotrimeric G proteins that does not involve the classical GDP/GTP exchange and relies on nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs)...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033490/carbon-dioxide-emission-intensity-in-climate-projections-comparing-the-observational-record-to-socio-economic-scenarios
#12
Felix Pretis, Max Roser
The wide spread of projected temperature changes in climate projections does not predominately originate from uncertainty across climate models; instead it is the broad range of different global socio-economic scenarios and the implied energy production that results in high uncertainty about future climate change. It is therefore important to assess the observational tracking of these scenarios. Here we compare these socio-economic scenarios created in both 1992 and 2000 against the recent observational record to investigate the coupling of economic growth and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions...
September 15, 2017: Energy: Technologies, Resources, Reserves, Demands, Impact, Conservation, Management, Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033318/an-alkynyl-fucose-halts-hepatoma-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-inhibiting-gdp-fucose-synthesizing-enzyme-fx-tsta3
#13
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Miyako Nakano, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Kazuki Nakajima, Ritsuko Oka, Keiko Sato, Chien-Tai Ren, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Chi-Huey Wong, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Fucosylation is a glycan modification critically involved in cancer and inflammation. Although potent fucosylation inhibitors are useful for basic and clinical research, only a few inhibitors have been developed. Here, we focus on a fucose analog with an alkyne group, 6-alkynyl-fucose (6-Alk-Fuc), which is used widely as a detection probe for fucosylated glycans, but is also suggested for use as a fucosylation inhibitor. Our glycan analysis using lectin and mass spectrometry demonstrated that 6-Alk-Fuc is a potent and general inhibitor of cellular fucosylation, with much higher potency than the existing inhibitor, 2-fluoro-fucose (2-F-Fuc)...
September 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033317/ras-binder-induces-a-modified-switch-ii-pocket-in-gtp-and-gdp-states
#14
Daniel R Gentile, Manoj K Rathinaswamy, Meredith L Jenkins, Steven M Moss, Braden D Siempelkamp, Adam R Renslo, John E Burke, Kevan M Shokat
Covalent inhibitors of K-Ras(G12C) have been reported that exclusively recognize the GDP state. Here, we utilize disulfide tethering of a non-natural cysteine (K-Ras(M72C)) to identify a new switch-II pocket (S-IIP) binding ligand (2C07) that engages the active GTP state. Co-crystal structures of 2C07 bound to H-Ras(M72C) reveal binding in a cryptic groove we term S-IIG. In the GppNHp state, 2C07 binding to a modified S-IIP pushes switch I away from the nucleotide, breaking the network of polar contacts essential for adopting the canonical GTP state...
September 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025848/ectopic-pregnancy-exploration-of-its-global-research-architecture-using-density-equalising-mapping-and-socioeconomic-benchmarks
#15
Dörthe Brüggmann, Jana Kollascheck, David Quarcoo, Michael H Bendels, Doris Klingelhöfer, Frank Louwen, Jenny M Jaque, David A Groneberg
OBJECTIVE: About 2% of all pregnancies are complicated by the implantation of the zygote outside the uterine cavity and termed ectopic pregnancy. Whereas a multitude of guidelines exists and related research is constantly growing, no thorough assessment of the global research architecture has been performed yet. Hence, we aim to assess the associated scientific activities in relation to geographical and chronological developments, existing research networks and socioeconomic parameters...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018584/affordability-of-comprehensive-community-health-worker-programmes-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#16
Celia Taylor, Frances Griffiths, Richard Lilford
INTRODUCTION: Community health worker (CHW) programmes have low costs per person served and are central to achieving universal healthcare. However, their total cost is high and the target of one million CHWs for sub-Saharan Africa by 2015 was not met. We consider the affordability of rural CHW programmes by estimating total programme costs relative to national healthcare expenditure at different CHW salaries and resources available for healthcare. METHODS: We combine an existing source of rural CHW programme costs with World Bank data to estimate relative CHW programme costs in 37 countries...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017454/productivity-losses-and-public-finance-burden-attributable-to-breast-cancer-in-poland-2010-2014
#17
Błażej Łyszczarz, Ewelina Nojszewska
BACKGROUND: Apart from the health and social burden of the disease, breast cancer (BC) has important economic implications for the sick, health system and whole economy. There has been a growing interest in the economic aspects of breast cancer and analyses of the disease costs seem to be the most explored topic. However, the results from these studies are hardly comparable. With this study we aim to contribute to the field by providing estimates of productivity losses and public finance burden attributable to BC in Poland...
October 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992851/initiation-of-peritoneal-dialysis-in-the-first-weeks-after-catheter-insertion-a-comparison-of-a-neutral-ph-low-gdp-pd-fluid-and-a-conventional-pd-fluid%C3%A2
#18
Karima Farhat, Frans J van Ittersum, Pieter M Ter Wee, Nanne J Paauw, Robbert H J Beelen, Caroline E Douma
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid is associated with development of functional and structural alterations of the peritoneal membrane. The exact time point at which these changes actually occur is not known. Whether changes to the peritoneum occur immediately after installation of PD fluids and whether there is a difference between neutral-pH, low glucose degradation product (low-GDP) PD fluids and conventional PD fluids is not known either. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an observational study...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988037/cost-effectiveness-of-methods-in-personalized-medicine-results-of-a-decision-analytic-model-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-normal-karyotype
#19
Laura Hörster, Richard F Schlenk, Michael Stadler, Maria Gabriel, Felicitas Thol, Jan Schildmann, Jochen Vollmann, Ursula Rochau, Gaby Sroczynski, Jürgen Wasem, Arnold Ganser, Matthias Port, Anja Neumann
BACKGROUND: During the last years, molecular genetic data are increasingly used as prognostic and predictive factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The molecular genetic profile permits a rapid risk categorization and beyond that a prediction of differential treatment efficacy of post-remission chemotherapy versus an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in specific subgroups. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of two different strategies of risk categorization (conventional cytogenetic diagnostics (CCD) versus molecular genetic diagnostics (MGD)) in patients with AML, using a decision-analytic state-transition model...
September 19, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983717/economic-growth-and-co2-emissions-an-investigation-with-smooth-transition-autoregressive-distributed-lag-models-for-the-1800-2014-period-in-the-usa
#20
Melike Bildirici, Özgür Ömer Ersin
The study aims to combine the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration framework with smooth transition autoregressive (STAR)-type nonlinear econometric models for causal inference. Further, the proposed STAR distributed lag (STARDL) models offer new insights in terms of modeling nonlinearity in the long- and short-run relations between analyzed variables. The STARDL method allows modeling and testing nonlinearity in the short-run and long-run parameters or both in the short- and long-run relations...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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