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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646715/understanding-the-prevalence-of-lifetime-abstinence-from-alcohol-an-ecological-study
#1
Charlotte Probst, Jakob Manthey, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: The level of alcohol consumption and related burden in a country are strongly impacted by the prevalence of abstinence from alcohol use. The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lifetime abstinence from alcohol use with economic wealth (as measured in the gross domestic product [GDP]) and Muslim religion on a country level. METHODS: An ecological study was performed using aggregate data of 183 countries for the year 2010. Lifetime abstinence among men and women was predicted using fractional response regression models with the natural logarithm of GDP-PPP (purchasing power parity) and the proportion of Muslim population as predictors...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645857/exploring-the-effect-of-end-binding-proteins-and-microtubule-targeting-chemotherapy-drugs-on-microtubule-dynamic-instability
#2
Diana White, Stéphane Honoré, Florence Hubert
Microtubules (MTs) play a key role in normal cell development and are a primary target for many cancer chemotherapy MT targeting agents (MTAs). As such, understanding MT dynamics in the presence of such agents, as well as other proteins that alter MT dynamics, is extremely important. In general, MTs grow relatively slowly and shorten very fast (almost instantaneously), an event referred to as a catastrophe. These dynamics, referred to as dynamic instability, have been studied in both experimental and theoretical settings...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645046/a-paradigm-shift-for-socioeconomic-justice-and%C3%A2-health-from-focusing-on-inequalities-to%C3%A2-aiming%C3%A2-at-sustainable-equity
#3
Juan E Garay, David E Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: To measure the 'best possible health for all', incorporating sustainability, and to establish the magnitude of global health inequity. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, retrospective. METHODS: We identified countries with three criteria: (1) a healthy population-life expectancy above world average; (2) living conditions feasible to replicate worldwide-per-capita gross domestic product (GDP-pc) below the world average; and (3) sustainability-per-capita carbon dioxide emissions lower than the planetary pollution boundary...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644890/drivers-of-coral-reef-marine-protected-area-performance
#4
Venetia Alexa Hargreaves-Allen, Susana Mourato, Eleanor Jane Milner-Gulland
Coral reefs are severely threatened and a principal strategy for their conservation is marine protected areas (MPAs). However the drivers of MPA performance are complex and there are likely to be trade-offs between different types of performance (e.g. conservation or welfare related outcomes). We compiled a global dataset from expert knowledge for 76 coral reef MPAs in 33 countries and identified a set of performance measures reflecting ecological and socio-economic outcomes, achievement of aims and reduction of threats, using spatial or temporal comparisons wherever possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636341/biochemical-characterization-of-wbkc-an-n-formyltransferase-from-brucella-melitensis
#5
Alexander S Riegert, Daniel P Chantigian, James B Thoden, Peter A Tipton, Hazel M Holden
It has become increasingly apparent within the last several years that unusual N-formylated sugars are often found on the O-antigens of such Gram negative pathogenic organisms as Francisella tularensis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Providencia alcalifaciens, amongst others. Indeed, in some species of Brucella, for example, the O-antigen contains 1,2-linked 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannosyl groups. These sugars, often referred to as N-formylperosamine, are synthesized in pathways initiating with GDP-mannose...
June 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635671/rab33b-controls-hepatitis-b-virus-assembly-by-regulating-core-membrane-association-and-nucleocapsid-processing
#6
Christina Bartusch, Tatjana Döring, Reinhild Prange
Many viruses take advantage of cellular trafficking machineries to assemble and release new infectious particles. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that the Golgi/autophagosome-associated Rab33B is required for hepatitis B virus (HBV) propagation in hepatoma cell lines. While Rab33B is dispensable for the secretion of HBV subviral envelope particles, its knockdown reduced the virus yield to 20% and inhibited nucleocapsid (NC) formation and/or NC trafficking. The overexpression of a GDP-restricted Rab33B mutant phenocopied the effect of deficit Rab33B, indicating that Rab33B-specific effector proteins may be involved...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634414/monitoring-and-analysis-of-coastal-reclamation-from-1995-2015-in-tianjin-binhai-new-area-china
#7
Wengang Chen, Dongchuan Wang, Yong Huang, Liding Chen, Lihui Zhang, Xiangwang Wei, Mengqin Sang, Feicui Wang, Jinya Liu, Bingxu Hu
Increasing coastal reclamation activities have been undertaken to solve the conflict between people and land resources, creating significant challenges for coordinating coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection. This paper analyzes the effects of coast reclamation on Gross Domestic Product growth and the quality of inshore seawater in the Tianjin Binhai New Area. Remote sensing and a Geographic Information System were used to extract the information of coastal reclamation. The correlation between the area of coastal reclamation, GDP growth and the quality of inshore seawater was analyzed and a decoupling elasticity model was used to explore trends in the relationship between economic development and coastal reclamation...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630045/structure-based-analysis-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-smggds-reveals-armadillo-repeat-motifs-and-key-regions-for-activity-and-gtpase-binding
#8
Hikaru Shimizu, Sachiko Toma-Fukai, Shinya Saijo, Nobutaka Shimizu, Kenji Kontani, Toshiaki Katada, Toshiyuki Shimizu
Small GTPases are molecular switches that have critical biological roles and are controlled by GTPase-activating proteins and guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The smg GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) protein functions as a GEF for the RhoA and RhoC small GTPases. SmgGDS has various regulatory roles, including small GTPase trafficking and localization and as a molecular chaperone, and interacts with many small GTPases possessing polybasic regions. Two SmgGDS splice variants, SmgGDS-558 and SmgGDS-607, differ in GEF activity and binding affinity for RhoA depending on the lipidation state, but the reasons for these differences are unclear...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628815/driving-forces-behind-the-chinese-public-s-demand-for-improved-environmental-safety
#9
Ting Wen, Jigan Wang, Zongwei Ma, Jun Bi
Over the past decades, the public demand for improved environmental safety keeps increasing in China. This study aims to assess the driving forces behind the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety using a provincial and multi-year (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) panel data and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model. The potential driving forces investigated included population size, income levels, degrees of urbanization, and educational levels...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627018/the-nucleotide-free-state-of-heterotrimeric-g-proteins-%C3%AE-subunit-adopts-a-highly-stable-conformation
#10
Sai Krishna Andhirka, Ravichandran Vignesh, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
Deciphering the mechanism of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by their cognate receptors continues to be an intriguing area of research. The recently solved crystal structure of the ternary complex captured the receptor-bound α-subunit in an open conformation, without bound nucleotide has improved our understanding of the activation process. Despite these advancements, the mechanism by which the receptor causes GDP release from the α-subunit remains elusive. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied guanine nucleotide-induced structural stability of the α-subunit (in response to thermal/chaotrope-mediated stress)...
June 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626068/colorectal-cancer-screening-how-health-gains-and-cost-effectiveness-vary-by-ethnic-group-the-impact-on-health-inequalities-and-the-optimal-age-range-to-screen
#11
Melissa McLeod, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Matt Boyd, Jan Barendregt, Diana Sarfati, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
Background Screening programmes consistently underserve indigenous populations despite a higher overall burden of cancer. In this study we explore the likely health gains and cost-effectiveness of a national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme for the indigenous Māori population of New Zealand (NZ). Methods A Markov model estimated: health benefits (QALYs), costs and cost-effectiveness of biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FOBTi) of 50-74 year olds, from 2011. Input parameters came from: literature reviews, the NZ Bowel Screening Programme Pilot, and NZ linked health datasets...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624630/the-dynamic-links-between-carbon-dioxide-co2-emissions-health-spending-and-gdp-growth-a-case-study-for-51-countries
#12
Sami Chaabouni, Kais Saidi
This document investigated the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, health spending and GDP growth for 51 countries (divided into three groups of countries: low-income countries; group of countries with lower and upper middle income; group of middle income countries) covering the annual period 1995-2013. Dynamic simultaneous-equations models and generalized method of moments (GMM) are used to investigate this relationship. The main results provide evidence of a causal relationship between the three variables...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623374/nucleotide-based-covalent-inhibitors-of-kras-can-only-be-efficient-in-vivo-if-they-bind-reversibly-with-gtp-like-affinity
#13
Matthias P Müller, Sadasivam Jeganathan, Angelika Heidrich, Jeremy Campos, Roger S Goody
Simple reversible competitive inhibition of nucleotide binding of GTP to Ras family GTPases has long been recognized as an unlikely approach to manipulating the activity of such proteins for experimental or therapeutic purposes. This is due to the high affinity of GTP to GTPases coupled with high cellular GTP concentrations, but also to problems of specificity for the highly conserved binding sites in GTPases. A recent approach suggested that these problems might be overcome by using GDP derivatives that can undergo a covalent reaction with disease specific mutants, in particular addressing inhibition of KRasG12C using GDP equipped with an electrophilic group at the β-phosphate...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623318/zipa-and-ftsa-stabilize-ftsz-gdp-miniring-structures
#14
Yaodong Chen, Haiyan Huang, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
The cytokinetic division ring of Escherichia coli comprises filaments of FtsZ tethered to the membrane by FtsA and ZipA. Previous results suggested that ZipA is a Z-ring stabilizer, since in vitro experiments it is shown that ZipA enhanced FtsZ assembly and caused the filaments to bundles. However, this function of ZipA has been challenged by recent studies. First, ZipA-induced FtsZ bundling was not significant at pH greater than 7. Second, some FtsA mutants, such as FtsA* were able to bypass the need of ZipA...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623028/impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-bangladesh
#15
Clint Pecenka, Umesh Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jahangir A M Khan, Devin Groman, Stephen Chacko, Md Shamsuzzaman, Andrew Clark, Deborah Atherly
INTRODUCTION: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality globally, and rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of those deaths. Despite substantial decreases, the number of rotavirus deaths in children under five was 215,000 per year in 2013. Of these deaths, approximately 41% occurred in Asia and 3% of those in Bangladesh. While Bangladesh has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccination, the country applied for Gavi support and plans to introduce it in 2018. This analysis evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh and provides estimates of the costs of the vaccination program to help inform decision-makers and international partners...
June 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609849/legacy-and-emerging-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-the-middle-and-lower-stream-of-the-yellow-river
#16
Xianfa Su, Qilu Li, Jinglan Feng, Liya Guo, Jianhui Sun
Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), mainly encompassing polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP) and emerging bromine flame retardants (EBFRs), are widely employed nowadays in daily lives. However, limited knowledge has been gained to date on the concentrations and distributions of HFRs in particular within certain regions. In the present study, legacy and emerging HFRs were systematically measured in suspended particle matter (SPM) and sediments collected in 2014 from the middle and lower reach of the Yellow River in Henan province...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608282/poly-adp-ribosylated-proteins-in-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-identified-by-proteomic-studies
#17
Alessandra Giorgi, Italo Tempera, Giorgia Napoletani, Diego Drovandi, Cinzia Potestà, Sara Martire, Elisabetta Mandosi, Tiziana Filardi, M Eugenia Schininà, Susanna Morano, Maria d'Erme, Bruno Maras
AIMS: In diabetes, hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species that induce DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation. The aim of this study is to characterize the proteomic profile and the role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A proteomic platform based on 2DE and MALDI-ToF spectrometry was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from two different cohorts in which diabetic (n = 14) and normoglycemic patients (n = 11) were enrolled...
June 12, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607487/single-molecule-analysis-of-ligand-efficacy-in-%C3%AE-2ar-g-protein-activation
#18
G Glenn Gregorio, Matthieu Masureel, Daniel Hilger, Daniel S Terry, Manuel Juette, Hong Zhao, Zhou Zhou, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Maria Hauge, Signe Mathiasen, Jonathan A Javitch, Harel Weinstein, Brian K Kobilka, Scott C Blanchard
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction is central to human physiology and disease intervention, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for ligand-dependent signalling responses remain poorly understood. In class A GPCRs, receptor activation and G-protein coupling entail outward movements of transmembrane helix 6 (TM6). Here, using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we examine TM6 movements in the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) upon exposure to orthosteric ligands with different efficacies, in the absence and presence of the Gs heterotrimer...
June 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606116/characterization-of-serotonin-induced-inhibition-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
Zhen Tian, Manabu Yamanaka, Matteo Bernabucci, Ming-Gao Zhao, Min Zhuo
Excitatory synaptic transmission in central synapses is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important cortical region for pain perception and emotion. ACC neurons receive innervation of projecting serotonergic nerve terminals from raphe nuclei, but the possible effect of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in the ACC has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT on glutamate neurotransmission in the ACC slices of adult mice. Bath application of 5-HT produced dose-dependent inhibition of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs)...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604178/determinants-of-inequality-in-the-up-to-date-fully-immunization-coverage-among-children-aged-24-35-months-evidence-from-zhejiang-province-east-china
#20
Yu Hu, Ying Wang, Yaping Chen, Qian Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the degree and determinants of inequality in up-to-date fully immunization (UTDFI) coverage among children of Zhejiang province, east China. METHOD: We used data from the Zhejiang provincial vaccination coverage survey of 2014 and the health outcome was the UTDFI status among children aged 24-35 months. The household income per month was used as an index of socio-economic status for the inequality analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and the decomposition approach was applied to quantify the contributions from demographic factors to inequality in UTDFI coverage...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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