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Xinguang Chen, Amy L Elliott, Shuang Wang
Background: Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level. Methods: Data were the number of persons living with HIV (PLWH, n = 35,468,911) for 148 countries during 2011-15, press freedom index (PFI) determined by the Reporters Without Borders, and LGBT freedom index (LGBT-FI) based on laws regulating same-sex relationships and expression...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
Philip Schwadel
I argue that the social implications of religious non-affiliation vary across cultural contexts, leading to differences across nations in both who is likely to be unaffiliated and the religious consequences of such non-affiliation. I test these propositions by examining cross-national variation in associations with non-affiliation using multilevel models and cross-sectional survey data from almost 70,000 respondents in 52 nations. The results indicate that: 1) both individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status) and nation-level attributes (GDP, communism, and regulation of religion) strongly predict religious non-affiliation; 2) differences in non-affiliation by individual-level attributes-women vs...
February 2018: Social Science Research
David Kindig, Nicholas Lardinois, Yukiko Asada, John Mullahy
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to develop and test a population health measure that combines mean health outcomes and inequalities into a single GDP-like metric to help policymakers measure population health performance on both dimensions in one metric. METHODS: The Population Health Performance Index is a weighted average of a mean index and an inequality index according to the user's inequality aversion. We deploy this methodology for two combinations of health outcome and disparity domain: infant mortality by race and unhealthy days by education...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Sandro Claudio Lera, Didier Sornette
A model that combines economic growth rate fluctuations at the microscopic and macroscopic levels is presented. At the microscopic level, firms are growing at different rates while also being exposed to idiosyncratic shocks at the firm and sector levels. We describe such fluctuations as independent Lévy-stable fluctuations, varying over multiple orders of magnitude. These fluctuations are aggregated and measured at the macroscopic level in averaged economic output quantities such as GDP. A fundamental question is thereby to what extent individual firm size fluctuations can have a noticeable impact on the overall economy...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
M F Janssen, A Szende, J Cabases, J M Ramos-Goñi, G Vilagut, H H König
This study provides EQ-5D population norms for 20 countries (N = 163,838), which can be used to compare profiles for patients with specific conditions with data for the average person in the general population in a similar age and/or gender group. Descriptive EQ-5D data are provided for the total population, by gender and by seven age groups. Provided index values are based on European VAS for all countries, based on TTO for 11 countries and based on VAS for 10 countries. Important differences exist in EQ-5D reported health status across countries after standardizing for population structure...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Xiaoguang Ouyang, Shing Yip Lee, Rod M Connolly, Martin J Kainz
Coastal wetlands are increasingly recognised for their pivotal role in mitigating the growing threats from cyclones (including hurricanes) in a changing climate. There is, however, insufficient information about the economic value of coastal wetlands for cyclone mitigation, particularly at regional scales. Analysis of data from 1990-2012 shows that the variation of cyclone frequencies is related to EI Niño strength in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to Australia, but not China. Among the cyclones hitting the two countries, there are significant relationships between the ratio of total economic damage to gross domestic production (TD/GDP) and wetland area within cyclone swaths in Australia, and wetland area plus minimum cyclone pressure despite a weak relationship in China...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xifeng Li, Chong Cai, Zhe Wang, Baofang Fan, Cheng Zhu, Zhixiang Chen
Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is a conserved GTP-binding protein essential for protein translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles of mitochondria and plastids. EF-Tu also has a GTP/GDP-independent chaperone activity implicated in heat adaptation. Here, we report that Arabidopsis plastid EF-Tu, Rabe1b, rapidly became insoluble in vitro at a temperature as low as 35{degree sign}, but remained largely soluble in vivo at the elevated temperature. At a temperature above 41{degree sign}C, insolubilization of Rabe1b also occurred in vivo, with more than 90% becoming aggregated in 9 hours at 45{degree sign}C...
February 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
R du Plessis, B S Milton, B Barr
Background: Greater regional devolution can reduce economic inequalities between regions; however, the impact on health inequalities is not clear. We investigated the association between changes over time in the level of devolution in European countries and regional economic and health inequalities. Methods: We used the proportion of government expenditure controlled by subnational levels of government as our measure of devolution in 14 European countries between 1995 and 2011...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Lijuan Ding, Yongxian Hu, Kui Zhao, Guoqing Wei, Wenjun Wu, Zhao Wu, Lei Xiao, He Huang
RATIONALE: Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a common and potentially fatal complication of CAR-T cell therapy. However, compartment CRS is relatively rare in hematological malignancies, as well as in solid tumors. The pathogenesis and prognosis of compartment CRS are unclear and there is no standardized treatment yet. In this case report, we will introduce a patient developing pleural cavity CRS after CART19s infusion. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of mediastinal mass...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andreas Behr, Katja Theune
BACKGROUND: Globally, health expenditure as a percentage of GDP has increased in recent years, so evaluating the health care systems used in different countries is an important tool for identifying best practices and improving inefficient health care systems. OBJECTIVE: We investigate health system efficiency at the country level based on OECD health data. We focus on several aspects of health care systems to identify specific inefficiencies within them. This information hints at potential policy interventions that could improve specific parts of a country's health care system...
September 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Ga Ram Jeong, Eun-Hae Jang, Jae Ryul Bae, Soyoung Jun, Ho Chul Kang, Chi-Hu Park, Joo-Ho Shin, Yukio Yamamoto, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Eun-Mi Hur, Byoung Dae Lee
BACKGROUND: Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated kinase activity is associated with LRRK2 toxicity, but the substrates that mediate neurodegeneration remain poorly defined. Given the increasing evidence suggesting a role of LRRK2 in membrane and vesicle trafficking, here we systemically screened Rab GTPases, core regulators of vesicular dynamics, as potential substrates of LRRK2 and investigated the functional consequence of such phosphorylation in cells and in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Victor Grech
INTRODUCTION: The sex ratio at birth (male divided by total live births: M/T) has been mooted as a potential sentinel health indicator. Several metrics indicate individual countries' health and socioeconomic status. In this study, in all available countries (where such data was accessible), M/T and these indicators were compared in order to ascertain whether better (vis-à-vis health and socioeconomic status) levels of these indicators were associated with higher M/T in available countries...
February 10, 2018: Early Human Development
Vedrana Filić, Maja Marinović, Marko Šoštar, Igor Weber
NME proteins are reported to influence signal transduction activity of small GTPases from the Ras superfamily by diverse mechanisms in addition to their generic NDP kinase activity, which replenishes the cytoplasmic pool of GTP. Comprehensive evidence shows that NME proteins modulate the activity of Ras GTPases, in particular members of the Rho family, via binding to their major activators GEFs. Direct interaction between several NMEs and Ras GTPases were also indicated in vitro and in vivo. These modes of regulation are mainly independent of the NME's kinase activity...
February 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Roberto Serna-Blasco, Marta Sanz-Álvarez, Óscar Aguilera, Jesús García-Foncillas
RAS protein family members (KRAS4A, KRAS4B, HRAS and NRAS) function as GDP-GTP-regulated on-off switches, which regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear signaling networks ruling diverse normal cellular processes. Constitutive activating mutations in RAS genes are found in up to 30% of human cancers, and remarkably, the oncogenic Ras mutations and mutations in other components of Ras/MAPK signaling pathways seem to be mutually exclusive in most tumors, pointing out that deregulation of Ras-dependent signaling is an essential requirement for tumorigenesis...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Takahiro Tomino, Hirotada Tajiri, Takaaki Tatsuguchi, Takahiro Shirai, Kounosuke Oisaki, Shigeki Matsunaga, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Daiji Sakata, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Yoshihiko Maehara, Motomu Kanai, Jean-François Cote, Yoshinori Fukui, Takehito Uruno
Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases that regulates cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane polarization, cell migration and proliferation. Recently, a self-activating mutation of Rac1, Rac1P29S, has been identified as a recurrent somatic mutation frequently found in sun-exposed melanomas, which possesses increased inherent GDP/GTP exchange activity and cell transforming ability. However, the role of cellular Rac1-interacting proteins in the transforming potential of Rac1P29S remains unclear. We found that the catalytic domain of DOCK1, a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) implicated in malignancy of a variety of cancers, can greatly accelerate the GDP/GTP exchange of Rac1P29S...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jianwei Xuan, Min Huang, Yongji Lu, Libo Tao
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Safflower Yellow Injection (SYI) plus conventional treatment (SYI group) versus conventional treatment only (conventional group) for the treatment of stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients in China. METHODS: A decision-tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was estimated for up to 1 year. The data, including treatment effectiveness, episodes of angina pectoris (AP)-associated hospitalization and its in-hospital mortality, mortality rate of heart diseases, and cost of hospitalization, were obtained from literature...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Andrew Mark Bogorad, Kai Ying Lin, Assen Marintchev
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of the GTPase eIF2, which brings the initiator Met-tRNAi to the ribosome in the form of the eIF2-GTP•Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC). The activity of eIF2B is inhibited by phosphorylation of its substrate eIF2 by several stress-induced kinases, which triggers the Integrated Stress Response (ISR). ISR plays a central role in maintaining homeostasis in the cell under various stress conditions and its dysregulation is a causative factor in the pathology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders...
February 9, 2018: Biochemistry
P J Lucas, D Patsios, K Walls, P Neville, P Harwood, J G Williams, J Sandy
Introduction Extraction of decayed teeth is the most common reason for UK children aged 5-9 years to receive a general anaesthetic. Inequalities in oral health are well recognised, but is under-explored in dental general anaesthesia (DGA).Methods Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from three local authorities in South West England was used to assess: 1) dental activities recorded for children <18 years attending NHS general dental practitioners (GDP); 2) the incidence rate of DGA and disease severity among <16-year-olds; and 3) individual and neighbourhood factors associated with higher rates of child DGA, and greater severity of disease...
February 9, 2018: British Dental Journal
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