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Adrienne J Bartlett, Amanda M Hedges, Kyna D Intini, Lisa R Brown, France J Maisonneuve, Stacey A Robinson, Patricia L Gillis, Shane R de Solla
Neonicotinoid insecticides are environmentally persistent and highly water-soluble, and thus are prone to leaching into surface waters where they may negatively affect non-target aquatic insects. Most of the research to date has focused on imidacloprid, and few data are available regarding the effects of other neonicotinoids or their proposed replacements (butenolide insecticides). The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of six neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran) and one butenolide (flupyradifurone) to Hexagenia spp...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Paulo R Frade, Luiza Notini, Sara V Santos, Regina F P M Moreira, Mônica M D Leão, Camila C Amorim
In this study, the steel manufacturing waste Basic Oxygen Furnace Sludge (BOFS) was tested as permeable reactive material for the remediation of soil contaminated with chromium. The material presents a high content of elemental iron and iron oxides typical of the steel manufacturing process. Here we propose a scheme of the chemical reactions responsible for remediation process including BOFS dissolution, Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) precipitation. Batch reactors showed that Cr(VI) removal increases as the pH decreases...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
C Wilson, R Bell, S Hinsley, H Marshall, J Brown, D Cameron, D Dodwell, R Coleman
The fracture impact of adjuvant bisphosphonates in breast cancer is not defined with most trials reporting changes in bone mineral density as a surrogate. The AZURE trial (ISRCTN79831382) evaluated the impact of adjuvant zoledronic acid (ZOL) on fractures. The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, randomised phase III study evaluating the addition of ZOL 4 mg to standard therapy (neo/adjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy) for 5 years (administered by intravenous (iv) infusion every 3-4 weeks for 6 doses, then 3 monthly × 8 and 6 monthly × 5) in patients with stage II/III early breast cancer...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Vishnu C Damalanka, Athri D Rathnayake, Anthony R Fehr, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Gerald H Lushington, Stanley Perlman, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
There are currently no approved vaccines or small molecule therapeutics available for the prophylaxis or treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. MERS-CoV 3CL protease is essential for viral replication; consequently, it is an attractive target that provides a potentially effective means of developing small molecule therapeutics for combatting MERS-CoV. We describe herein the structure-guided design and evaluation of a novel class of inhibitors of MERS-CoV 3CL protease that embody a piperidine moiety as a design element that is well-suited to exploiting favorable subsite binding interactions to attain optimal pharmacological activity and PK properties...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chen Chen, Nicole J Mitchell, Jean Gratz, Eric R Houpt, Yunyun Gong, Patricia A Egner, John D Groopman, Ronald T Riley, Jency L Showker, Erling Svensen, Estomih R Mduma, Crystal L Patil, Felicia Wu
Growth impairment is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. The question remains as to whether dietary mycotoxins play a role in compromising children's growth. We examined children's exposures to dietary aflatoxin and fumonisin and potential impacts on growth in 114 children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Plasma samples collected from the children at 24 months of age (N = 60) were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 -lysine (AFB1 -lys) adducts, and urine samples collected between 24 and 36 months of age (N = 94) were analyzed for urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1 )...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Cherilyn N Mclester, Alex D Dewitt, Rasmus Rooks, John R Mclester
The purpose of this study was to compare the body fat per cent (BF%) assessed with a unique handheld electrical impedance myography (EIM) device, along with other popular methods, to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Participants included 33 males (aged 24.3 ± 4.6 years) and 38 females (aged 25.3 ± 8.9 years) who completed 2 visits separated by 24-72 h. The assessments included DXA, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold measures (SKF), and three separate EIM measurements. No significant differences in BF% (P > 0...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Narjeet S Khurmi, Yu-Hui Chang, D Eric Steidley, Andrew L Singer, Winston R Hewitt, Kunam S Reddy, Adyr A Moss, Amit K Mathur
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of post-liver transplant death, and variable care patterns may affect outcomes. We aimed to describe epidemiology and outcomes of inpatient CVD care across U.S. hospitals. METHODS: Using a merged dataset from the 2002-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, we evaluated liver transplant patients admitted primarily with myocardial infarction (MI), stroke (CVA), congestive heart failure (CHF), dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest (CA), or malignant hypertension...
March 15, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Vonn Walter, Xiaoying Yin, Matthew D Wilkerson, Christopher R Cabanski, Ni Zhao, Ying Du, Mei Kim Ang, Michele C Hayward, Ashley H Salazar, Katherine A Hoadley, Karen Fritchie, Charles J Sailey, Mark C Weissler, William W Shockley, Adam M Zanation, Trevor Hackman, Leigh B Thorne, William D Funkhouser, Kenneth L Muldrew, Andrew F Olshan, Scott H Randell, Fred A Wright, Carol G Shores, D Neil Hayes
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056823.].
2018: PloS One
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Miguel R Lugo, Bronwyn Lyons, Cristina Lento, Derek J Wilson, A Rod Merrill
Scabin is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme and is a putative virulence factor produced by the plant pathogen, Streptomyces scabies. Previously, crystal structures of Scabin were solved in the presence and absence of substrate analogues and inhibitors. Herein, experimental (hydrogen-deuterium exchange), simulated (molecular dynamics), and theoretical (Gaussian Network Modeling) approaches were systematically applied to study the dynamics of apo-Scabin in the context of a Scabin·NAD+·DNA model. MD simulations revealed that the apo-Scabin solution conformation correlates well with the X-ray crystal structure, beyond the conformation of the exposed, mobile regions...
2018: PloS One
Kurt P Spindler, Laura J Huston, Kevin M Chagin, Michael W Kattan, Emily K Reinke, Annunziato Amendola, Jack T Andrish, Robert H Brophy, Charles L Cox, Warren R Dunn, David C Flanigan, Morgan H Jones, Christopher C Kaeding, Robert A Magnussen, Robert G Marx, Matthew J Matava, Eric C McCarty, Richard D Parker, Angela D Pedroza, Armando F Vidal, Michelle L Wolcott, Brian R Wolf, Rick W Wright
BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis and risk factors for quality of life and disability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose: Our objective was to identify patient-reported outcomes and patient-specific risk factors from a large prospective cohort at a minimum 10-year follow-up after ACL reconstruction. We hypothesized that meniscus and articular cartilage injuries, revision ACL reconstruction, subsequent knee surgery, and certain demographic characteristics would be significant risk factors for inferior outcomes at 10 years...
March 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Kimberly L Savin, Emily R Hamburger, Alexandra D Monzon, Niral J Patel, Katia M Perez, Jadienne H Lord, Sarah S Jaser
Family conflict in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to worse disease management (i.e., glycemic control, adherence to treatment regimen) and reduced quality of life. We sought to examine parental risk factors associated with increased levels of diabetes-specific family conflict and to investigate the discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict. Adolescents with T1D and their parents (N = 120 dyads) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict. Adolescents also reported on health-related quality of life, and parents reported on demographic information...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C Eisenmann, Kelly R Laurson, Katrina D DuBose, Mathew J Reeves, Joseph J Carlson, Karin A Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. METHODS: Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. RESULTS: Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Wuber J S Soares, Alexandre D Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A Moraes, Monica R Perracini
This systematic review examines the association between physical activity (PA) level and risk of falling in community-dwelling older adults. A search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Sport Discus, and Web of Science was performed in January 2017. Four prospective cohort studies investigating the incidence of falls in a period of at least 12 months and its association with the level of PA in people 60-plus years old were reviewed and pooled for meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio for being a recurrent faller (2,420 participants) was 39% higher among those who were in the lowest PA level (RR = 1...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Billy T Hulin, Tim J Gabbett, Rich D Johnston, David G Jenkins
PURPOSE: Determine: 1) how change of direction (COD) workloads influence PlayerLoad variables when controlling total distance covered, and 2) relationships among collision workloads and PlayerLoad variables during rugby league match-play. METHODS: Participants completed 3 protocols (crossover design) consisting of 10 repetitions of a 60 m effort in 15 s. The difference between each protocol was the COD demands required to complete 1 repetition; no COD (SL), 1 x 180º COD (1COD), or 3 x 180º COD (3COD)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Courtney D DiNardo
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) are enzymes involved in multiple metabolic and epigenetic cellular processes. Mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are detected in approximately 20% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and induce amino acid changes in conserved residues resulting in neomorphic enzymatic function and production of an oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2-HG). This leads to DNA hypermethylation, aberrant gene expression, cell proliferation and abnormal differentiation. IDH mutations diversely affect prognosis of patients with AML based on the location of the mutation and other co-occurring genomic abnormalities...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
F Mushtaq, C O'Driscoll, Fct Smith, D Wilkins, N Kapur, R Lawton
Background Confidential reporting systems play a key role in capturing information about adverse surgical events. However, the value of these systems is limited if the reports that are generated are not subjected to systematic analysis. The aim of this study was to provide the first systematic analysis of data from a novel surgical confidential reporting system to delineate contributory factors in surgical incidents and document lessons that can be learned. Methods One-hundred and forty-five patient safety incidents submitted to the UK Confidential Reporting System for Surgery over a 10-year period were analysed using an adapted version of the empirically-grounded Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
A K Malik, R Filobbos, A Manoharan, N Harvey, D A O'Reilly, N de Liguori Carino
Angiomyxomas are uncommon myxoid tumours arising most commonly from the pelvis. A 46-year-old woman with a history of polycystic kidney disease presented asymptomatically for surveillance ultrasonography; changes were noted in the size and morphology of her liver cysts. Subsequent radiological assessment displayed features suspicious of malignancy and a right hemihepatectomy was performed with curative intent. Pathological examination of the resected specimen found histology consistent with an angiomyxoma arising primarily from the liver parenchyma...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
F Camargo, R Schmidt, J D Whalen, R Ding, G Woehl, S Yoshida, J Burgdörfer, F B Dunning, H R Sadeghpour, E Demler, T C Killian
We report spectroscopic observation of Rydberg polarons in an atomic Bose gas. Polarons are created by excitation of Rydberg atoms as impurities in a strontium Bose-Einstein condensate. They are distinguished from previously studied polarons by macroscopic occupation of bound molecular states that arise from scattering of the weakly bound Rydberg electron from ground-state atoms. The absence of a p-wave resonance in the low-energy electron-atom scattering in Sr introduces a universal behavior in the Rydberg spectral line shape and in scaling of the spectral width (narrowing) with the Rydberg principal quantum number, n...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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