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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549335/microstructural-alterations-of-white-matter-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#1
Jinnan Gong, Xuebin Chang, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Song Tan, Dezhong Yao, Cheng Luo
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy that is characterized by myoclonic jerks of the upper limbs and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Frontal cognitive dysfunctions and abnormal coupling of the thalamocortical system have been found in neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. This study intended to explore white matter (WM) measurement changes in JME using MRI. Twenty-six patients with JME and 25 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for the acquisition of diffusion MRI and structural MRI data...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544889/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-as-a-spectrum-disorder-a-focused-review
#2
REVIEW
Betül Baykan, Peter Wolf
In consequence of newer research juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is no longer seen as a homogeneous disease. The causes of the existing variance are only partially known yet. We discuss to what extent the phenotypical spectrum of this polygenetically determined disorder expresses genetically defined endophenotypes, or is due to mere quantitative differences in the expression of the core phenotype. Of the three common seizure types of JME, myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic and absences, absences also occur independently and are strong candidates for an endophenotype...
May 18, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542277/first-report-of-a-japanese-family-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-10-the-second-report-from-asia-after-a-report-from-china
#3
Hiroyuki Naito, Tetsuya Takahashi, Masaki Kamada, Hiroyuki Morino, Hiroyo Yoshino, Nobutaka Hattori, Hirofumi Maruyama, Hideshi Kawakami, Masayasu Matsumoto
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia that is variably accompanied by epilepsy and other neurological disorders. It is caused by an expansion of the ATTCT pentanucleotide repeat in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene. Until now, SCA10 was almost exclusively found in the American continents, while no cases had been identified in Japan. Here, we report the first case of an SCA10 family from Japan. The clinical manifestations in our cases were cerebellar ataxia accompanied by epilepsy, hyperreflexia and cognitive impairment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#4
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532712/photosensitivity-and-epilepsy-current-concepts-and-perspectives-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
A Martins da Silva, Bárbara Leal
The authors review the influence of photic stimuli on the generation of epileptic seizures, addressing the first descriptions of the phenomenon and its subsequent exploration. Initially defined in the 1950's, links between intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and seizures were well understood by the 1970. Since then the increasing exposure to photic stimuli associated with modern life (for instance through TVs, patterns, computer games and electronic instruments with flickering displays) has led to an increased interest in this issue...
April 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529877/the-dynamics-of-functional-connectivity-in-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#6
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Evan K Curwood, Jennifer M Walz, Genevieve Rayner, Graeme D Jackson
Focal epilepsy is characterised by paroxysmal events, reflecting changes in underlying local brain networks. To capture brain network activity at the maximal temporal resolution of the acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we have previously developed a novel analysis framework called Dynamic Regional Phase Synchrony (DRePS). DRePS measures instantaneous mean phase coherence within neighbourhoods of brain voxels. We use it here to examine how the dynamics of the functional connections of regional brain networks are altered in neocortical focal epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520633/insular-cortex-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#7
Marec von Lehe, Yaroslav Parpaley
Focal epilepsy originating from the insular cortex is rare. One reason is the small amount of cortical tissue compared with other lobes of the brain. However, the incidence of insular epilepsy might be underestimated because of diagnostic difficulties. The semiology and the surface EEG are often not meaningful or even misleading, and elaborated imaging might be necessary. The close connections of the insular cortex with other potentially epileptogenic areas, such as the temporal lobe or frontal/central cortex, is increasingly recognized as possible reason for failure of epilepsy surgery for temporal or extratemporal seizures...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520631/operculo-insular-epilepsy-scalp-and-intracranial-electroencephalographic-findings
#8
Ariel Levy, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Olivier Boucher, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen
PURPOSE: Operculo-insular seizures are heterogeneous and may resemble seizures originating from the temporal, frontal, or parietal lobe. Although surface and invasive EEG recordings are often necessary to detect operculo-insular seizures, electrophysiological features of operculo-insular epilepsies remain poorly characterized. This study describes the EEG findings of patients with operculo-insular epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed electrophysiological data of all patients (n = 9) with operculo-insular seizures revealed by intracranial EEG and for whom operculo-insular epilepsy was confirmed by good seizure outcome after resective or radiosurgery at our center between 2005 and 2013...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510905/zoomed-mri-guided-by-combined-eeg-meg-source-analysis-a-multimodal-approach-for-optimizing-presurgical-epilepsy-work-up-and-its-application-in-a-multi-focal-epilepsy-patient-case-study
#9
Ü Aydin, S Rampp, A Wollbrink, H Kugel, J -H Cho, T R Knösche, C Grova, J Wellmer, C H Wolters
In recent years, the use of source analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) has gained considerable attention in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. However, in many cases the source analysis alone is not used to tailor surgery unless the findings are confirmed by lesions, such as, e.g., cortical malformations in MRI. For many patients, the histology of tissue resected from MRI negative epilepsy shows small lesions, which indicates the need for more sensitive MR sequences...
May 16, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503077/an-unusual-association-of-headache-epilepsy-and-late-onset-kleist-s-pseudodepression-syndrome-in-frontal-lobe-cavernoma-of-the-cerebral-left-hemisphere
#10
Domenico Chirchiglia, Attilio Della Torre, Domenico Murrone, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Rosa Marotta
Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501143/do-we-know-how-to-diagnose-epilepsy-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
B Cretin, N Philippi, O Bousiges, L Dibitonto, F Sellal, C Martin-Hunyadi, F Blanc
Epilepsy is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). First described as generalized in dementia patients, epileptic AD patients are nowadays fully described in earlier stages of the disease (with mild or subjective cognitive impairment). At such early stages, patients may present not only with generalized seizures, but also with focal seizures (commonly localized in the frontal or temporal lobe). Thus, partial or generalized epilepsy is part of the semiological spectrum of AD that should be borne in mind at all stages of disease to ensure early identification and prevent the risk of repeated seizures (such as accidents, injury, progression of cognitive impairment)...
May 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497669/mapping-seizure-foci-and-tumor-genetic-factors-in-glioma-associated-seizure-patients
#12
Mao Yunhe, Yang Yuan, Wang Xiang, Liu Yanhui, Mao Qing
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, which is the most common symptom accompanying gliomas, was reported as an independent favorable prognosis factor for glioma patients. However, the correlation between glioma location and epilepsy prognosis, genesis and genetic phenotypes of the glioma associated seizure (GAS) patients is far from clear, the purpose of the current study was to provide probabilistic radiographic atlases reflecting seizure susceptible regions, relationship between tumor associated biomarkers and seizure initiation and poor epilepsy prognosis areas...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494616/breakdown-of-thalamo-cortical-connectivity-precedes-spike-generation-in-focal-epilepsies
#13
Vitalie Chiosa, Stanislav Alexandru Groppa, Dimitru Ciolac, Nabin Koirala, Liuda Misina, Yaroslav Winter, Maria Moldovanu, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
EEG spikes and focal epileptic seizures are generated in circumscribed cerebral networks that have been insufficiently described. For precise time and spatial domain networks characterization we applied in patients with focal epilepsy dense array 256-channel EEG recordings with causal connectivity estimation using time resolved partial directed coherence and 3T-MRI derived cortical and thalamus integrity reconstruction. Prior to spike generation significant theta and alpha bands driven information flows alterations were noted from both temporal and frontal lobes to thalamus and from thalamus to the frontal lobe...
May 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492363/vagus-nerve-stimulation-improves-working-memory-performance
#14
Lihua Sun, Jari Peräkylä, Katri Holm, Joonas Haapasalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Keith H Ogawa, Jukka Peltola, Kaisa M Hartikainen
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treating refractory epilepsy and major depression. While the impact of this treatment on seizures has been established, its impact on human cognition remains equivocal. The goal of this study is to elucidate the immediate effects of vagus nerve stimulation on attention, cognition, and emotional reactivity in patients with epilepsy. Twenty patients (12 male and 8 female; 45 ± 13 years old) treated with VNS due to refractory epilepsy participated in the study. Subjects performed a computer-based test of executive functions embedded with emotional distractors while their brain activity was recorded with electroencephalography...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487114/structural-brain-network-analysis-of-children-with-localization-related-epilepsy
#15
Kanako Takeda, Hiroshi Matsuda, Yusaku Miyamoto, Hitoshi Yamamoto
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is considered to arise from dysfunction in neural networks. Recent advances in neuroimaging and its analysis have made it possible to investigate both functional and structural connectivity in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate alterations in the structural connectivity in children with localization-related epilepsy using the mathematical method of graph theoretical analysis. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen children with localization-related epilepsy (8 female subjects; mean age, 8...
May 6, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483395/seizure-outcomes-in-children-following-electrocorticography-guided-single-stage-surgical-resection
#16
Seema Bansal, Andrew J Kim, Anne T Berg, Sookyong Koh, Linda C Laux, Srishti Nangia, John J Millichap, Alexandra Shaw, Breanne Fisher, Catherine Dezort, Arthur J DiPatri, Tord D Alden, Douglas R Nordli
BACKGROUND: In children with abnormal imaging, single-stage epilepsy surgery is an attractive alternative to the two-stage approach that relies on invasive recording of seizures. Implanted electrodes carry risks of their own and extend hospitalization, but the efficacy of one-stage resections in a variety of pathologies and cerebral locations is not well established. We report our center's experience with single-stage epilepsy surgery guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470553/intrinsic-functional-organization-of-putative-language-networks-in-the-brain-following-left-cerebral-hemispherectomy
#17
Anna Ivanova, Eran Zaidel, Noriko Salamon, Susan Bookheimer, Lucina Q Uddin, Stella de Bode
In rare cases of severe and intractable epilepsy, cerebral hemispherectomy is performed to arrest seizure activity and improve quality of life. The remaining hemisphere is often capable of supporting many cognitive functions post-surgery, although the outcome depends on the underlying etiology, hemisphere removed, and age of resection. The mechanisms underlying this massive reorganization are at present unknown. Here we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of putative language brain networks in four children after left cerebral hemispherectomy using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466144/comparative-analysis-of-background-eeg-activity-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-during-valproate-treatment-a-standardized-low-resolution-brain-electromagnetic-tomography-sloreta-study
#18
Jung-Hyun Shin, Tae-Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
Valproate (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) used for initial monotherapy in treating childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG might be an alternative approach to explore the effects of AEDs on the central nervous system. We performed a comparative analysis of background EEG activity during VPA treatment by using standardized, low-resolution, brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) to explore the effect of VPA in patients with CAE. In 17 children with CAE, non-parametric statistical analyses using sLORETA were performed to compare the current density distribution of four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) between the untreated and treated condition...
May 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463934/occipito-frontal-sharp-waves-an-under-recognized-electroencephalogram-pattern-in-self-limited-idiopathic-childhood-focal-epilepsy
#19
Elaine Wyllie, Ahsan N V Moosa
We report four children who highlight the potentially under-recognized electroencephalogram pattern of bilaterally synchronous occipito-frontal sharp waves, which may occur in children with Panayiotopoulos type self-limited childhood epilepsy but may be easily confused with the patterns of symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Our patients were young, healthy children who had infrequent, predominantly nocturnal, fairly prolonged seizures characterized by altered consciousness, vomiting, and autonomic features, or in one case nocturnal secondary generalized tonic-clonic convulsion...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449635/seizure-control-and-memory-impairment-are-related-to-disrupted-brain-functional-integration-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, A-Reum Jung, Hwa-Kyoung Chung, Hyeon Jin Kim, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
Brain functional integration can be disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the clinical relevance of this disruption is not completely understood. The authors hypothesized that disrupted functional integration over brain regions remote from, as well as adjacent to, the seizure focus could be related to clinical severity in terms of seizure control and memory impairment. Using resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, the authors mapped functional brain networks and assessed changes in a network parameter of brain functional integration, efficiency, to examine the distribution of disrupted functional integration within and between brain regions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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