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Soil biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661725/the-impact-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-on-the-salt-stress-responses-of-brassica-napus-l
#1
Lorenzo Rossi, Weilan Zhang, Leonardo Lombardini, Xingmao Ma
Dwindling high quality water resources and growing population are forcing growers to irrigate crops with water of high salinity. It is well recognized that salinity negatively affects plant physiology and biochemistry, and represents one of the most serious threats to crop production and food security. Meanwhile, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in irrigation water and agricultural soils due to the rapid advancement of nanotechnology. Previous research has demonstrated that ENPs such as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) exert significant impact on plant growth and production...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461423/biochemical-studies-on-the-effect-of-different-water-resources-in-hail-region-on-liver-and-kidney-functions-of-rats
#2
Ola F A Talkhan, Safaa A E Abd Elwahab, Ebtessam M Shalapy
Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342551/microbial-antimony-biogeochemistry-enzymes-regulation-and-related-metabolic-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Jingxin Li, Qian Wang, Ronald S Oremland, Thomas R Kulp, Christopher Rensing, Gejiao Wang
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction...
September 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235437/how-to-live-with-phosphorus-scarcity-in-soil-and-sediment-lessons-from-bacteria
#4
Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Maria Dolores Rodríguez-Torres, James J Elser, Africa Islas, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva, Gabriela Olmedo-Álvarez
UNLABELLED: Phosphorus (P) plays a fundamental role in the physiology and biochemistry of all living things. Recent evidence indicates that organisms in the oceans can break down and use P forms in different oxidation states (e.g., +5, +3, +1, and -3); however, information is lacking for organisms from soil and sediment. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), Mexico, is an oligotrophic ecosystem with acute P limitation, providing a great opportunity to assess the various strategies that bacteria from soil and sediment use to obtain P...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192442/laboratory-course-on-streptomyces-genetics-and-secondary-metabolism
#5
Vilja Siitonen, Kaj Räty, Mikko Metsä-Ketelä
The "Streptomyces genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria Streptomyces and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of Streptomyces; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid isolation by alkaline lysis and phenol precipitation, digestions, and ligations prior to protoplast transformation, as well as investigating the secondary metabolites produced by the strains. Thus, the course is a combination of microbiology, molecular biology, and chemistry...
September 10, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115844/sex-specific-responses-of-populus-deltoides-to-glomus-intraradices-colonization-and-cd-pollution
#6
Lianghua Chen, Danju Zhang, Wanqin Yang, Yang Liu, Li Zhang, Shun Gao
The positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) on the survival, growth and physiology of plants under various stress conditions have been widely recognized. However, whether sex-dependent susceptibility to AM colonization exists, which can induce a differential tolerance between the sexes to stress conditions, is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Glomus intraradices on Cd-stressed males and females of Populus deltoides (spiked with 10 mg Cd per kg dry substrate) in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure, and toxin storage and translocation...
July 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27027267/programmed-lab-experiments-for-biochemical-investigation-of-quorum-sensing-signal-molecules-in-rhizospheric-soil-bacteria
#7
Fiorela L Nievas, Pablo C Bogino, Walter Giordano
Biochemistry courses in the Department of Molecular Biology at the National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina, are designed for undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, and veterinary medicine. Microbiology students typically have previous coursework in general, analytical, and organic chemistry. Programmed sequences of lab experiments allow these students to investigate biochemical problems whose solution is feasible within the context of their knowledge and experience. We previously designed and reported a programmed lab experiment that familiarizes microbiology students with techniques for detection and characterization of quorum-sensing (QS) and quorum-quenching (QQ) signal molecules...
May 6, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27022916/the-influence-of-plant-litter-on-soil-water-repellency-insight-from-13c-nmr-spectroscopy
#8
Gaspare Cesarano, Guido Incerti, Giuliano Bonanomi
Soil water repellency (SWR, i.e. reduced affinity for water owing to the presence of organic hydrophobic coatings on soil particles) has relevant hydrological implications because low rates of infiltration enhance water runoff, and untargeted diffusion of fertilizers and pesticides. Previous studies investigated the occurrence of SWR in ecosystems with different vegetation cover but did not clarify its relationships with litter biochemical quality. Here, we investigated the capability of different plant litter types to induce SWR by using fresh and decomposed leaf materials from 12 species, to amend a model sandy soil over a year-long microcosm experiment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012544/long-term-iron-deficiency-tracing-changes-in-the-proteome-of-different-pea-pisum-sativum-l-cultivars
#9
Claudia-Nicole Meisrimler, Stefanie Wienkoop, David Lyon, Christoph-Martin Geilfus, Sabine Lüthje
UNLABELLED: Iron deficiency (-Fe) is one of the major problems in crop production. Dicots, like pea (Pisum sativum L.), are Strategy I plants, which induce a group of specific enzymes such as Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FRO), Fe responsive transporter (IRT) and H(+)-ATPase (HA) at the root plasma membrane under -Fe. Different species and cultivars have been shown to react diversely to -Fe. Furthermore, different kinds of experimental set-ups for -Fe have to be distinguished: i) short-term vs...
May 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956583/delineation-of-steroid-degrading-microorganisms-through-comparative-genomic-analysis
#10
Lee H Bergstrand, Erick Cardenas, Johannes Holert, Jonathan D Van Hamme, William W Mohn
UNLABELLED: Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909442/soil-microbial-communities-are-shaped-by-plant-driven-changes-in-resource-availability-during-secondary-succession
#11
Lauren C Cline, Donald R Zak
Although we understand the ecological processes eliciting changes in plant community composition during secondary succession, we do not understand whether co-occurring changes in plant detritus shape saprotrophic microbial communities in soil. In this study, we investigated soil microbial composition and function across an old-field chronosequence ranging from 16 to 86 years following agricultural abandonment, as well as three forests representing potential late-successional ecosystems. Fungal and bacterial community composition was quantified from ribosomal DNA, and insight into the functional potential of the microbial community to decay plant litter was gained from shotgun metagenomics and extracellular enzyme assays...
December 2015: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842980/life-at-the-boundary-photosynthesis-at-the-soil-fluid-interface-a-synthesis-focusing-on-mosses
#12
John A Raven, Timothy D Colmer
Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829122/multifactorial-theory-applied-to-the-neurotoxicity-of-paraquat-and-paraquat-induced-mechanisms-of-developing-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Mark Thompson, Yi-Hua Xu
Laboratory studies involving repeated exposure to paraquat (PQ) in different animal models can induce many of the pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Epidemiological studies identify an increased risk of developing PD in human populations living in areas where PQ exposure is likely to occur and among workers lacking appropriate protective equipment. The mechanisms involved in developing PD may not be due to any single cause, but rather a multifactorial situation may exist where PQ exposure may cause PD in some circumstances...
May 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26695417/effect-of-three-typical-sulfide-mineral-flotation-collectors-on-soil-microbial-activity
#14
Zunwei Guo, Jun Yao, Fei Wang, Zhimin Yuan, P Bararunyeretse, Yue Zhao
The sulfide mineral flotation collectors are wildly used in China, whereas their toxic effect on soil microbial activity remains largely unexplored. In this study, isothermal microcalorimetric technique and soil enzyme assay techniques were employed to investigate the toxic effect of typical sulfide mineral flotation collectors on soil microbial activity. Soil samples were treated with different concentrations (0-100 μg•g - 1 soil) of butyl xanthate, butyl dithiophosphate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26571666/-establishing-a-minimum-data-set-of-soil-quality-assessment-for-cold-waterlogged-paddy-field-in-fujian-province-china
#15
Fei Wang, Qing-hua Li, Cheng Lin, Chun-mei He, Shao-jie Zhong, Yu Li, Xin-jian Lin
The yields of cold-waterlogged (CW) paddy fields widely spreading in Jiangnan mountainous areas are moderate or low but have a high potential to be increased. Based on data including 41 soil characteristics of 17 pairs of typical surface soils of cold-waterlogged paddy field and non cold-waterlogged (NCW) paddy field at a neighboring landscape unit in Fujian Province, various index differences of soil properties and causes between CW paddy field and NCW paddy field were systematically studied, and a minimum data set (MDS) of soil quality assessment for CW paddy field was established by principal component analysis...
May 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417020/good-and-bad-protons-genetic-aspects-of-acidity-stress-responses-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Yuri Shavrukov, Yoshihiko Hirai
Physiological aspects of acidity stress in plants (synonymous with H(+) rhizotoxicity or low-pH stress) have long been a focus of research, in particular with respect to acidic soils where aluminium and H(+) rhizotoxicities often co-occur. However, toxic H(+) and Al(3+) elicit different response mechanisms in plants, and it is important to consider their effects separately. The primary aim of this review was to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of the specific reactions to low-pH stress in growing plants...
January 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26391517/infectivity-of-four-entomopathogenic-nematodes-in-relation-to-environmental-factors-and-their-effects-on-the-biochemistry-of-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata-wied-diptera-tephritidae
#17
E H Shaurub, N A Soliman, A G Hashem, A M Abdel-Rahman
Late third instars of the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), migrate from the host fruit into the soil and leaf litter beneath host trees, where they may become a target for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, temperature, soil type (texture), and soil moisture level on infectivity of the four tested EPNs Heterorhabditis bacteriophora AS1, H. bacteriophora HP88, Steinernema carpocapsae ALL, and Steinernema riobrave ML29 to late third instars of C. capitata were evaluated...
December 2015: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331892/initial-colonization-community-assembly-and-ecosystem-function-fungal-colonist-traits-and-litter-biochemistry-mediate-decay-rate
#18
Lauren C Cline, Donald R Zak
Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof...
October 2015: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26288572/molecular-application-for-identification-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-degrading-bacteria-pahd-species-isolated-from-oil-polluted-soil-in-dammam-saud-arabia
#19
Mohamed M Ibrahim, Ameena Al-Turki, Dona Al-Sewedi, Ibrahim A Arif, Gehan A El-Gaaly
Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbon products such as diesel and engine oil is becoming one of the major environmental problems. This study describes hydrocarbons degrading bacteria (PHAD) isolated from long-standing petrol polluted soil from the eastern region, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The isolated strains were firstly categorized by accessible shape detection, physiological and biochemistry tests. Thereafter, a technique established on the sequence analysis of a 16S rDNA gene was used. Isolation of DNA from the bacterial strains was performed, on which the PCR reaction was carried out...
September 2015: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230678/excess-of-organic-carbon-in-mountain-spruce-forest-soils-after-bark-beetle-outbreak-altered-microbial-n-transformations-and-mitigated-n-saturation
#20
Jiří Kaňa, Karolina Tahovská, Jiří Kopáček, Hana Šantrůčková
Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004-2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies) mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history...
2015: PloS One
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