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Soil biochemistry

Hafeez Ur Rehman, Hesham F Alharby, Yahya Alzahrani, Mostafa M Rady
Magnesium (Mg) often leaches down in sandy soils due to high mobility and its foliar application proves to be beneficial. Organic biostimulants also prove to be helpful to affect plant physio-biochemistry and antioxidative defense system. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of seed soaking in maize grain extract (MGE; 3%) in integration with or without foliar Mg (1 mM) in comparison to control (no treatment) on growth, yield performance, seed oil and fatty acid profile including physiological and biochemical basis of Hysun-336 sunflower hybrid grown on a sandy soil under greenhouse conditions...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carolina G Puig, Manuel J Reigosa, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Nuria Pedrol
In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution...
2018: PloS One
Hyun-Ji Kim, Je-Won Ko, Seung-Beom Cha, Hyun-Suk Heo, Jong-Hun Seo, Mi-Jin Cha, Jin-Sook Bae, Hyun-Kul Lee, Si-Whan Song, Jong-Choon Kim
This study investigated the potential toxicity of the Areca catechu water extract after 13-week repeated oral administration at 0, 166.7, 500, and 1500 mg/kg/day in rats. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, water consumption, urinalysis, estrous cycle, sperm count and motility, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were examined. At 1500 mg/kg/day, both sexes exhibited an increase in the incidence of abnormal clinical signs, which included, decreased body weight gain and food consumption, and increased urine bilirubin, ketone bodies, specific gravity, and protein and kidney weight...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nuria Pardo, M Luisa Sánchez, Zhongbo Su, Isidro A Pérez, M Angeles García
The integrated SCOPE (Soil, Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy balance) model, coupling radiative transfer theory and biochemistry, was applied to a biodiesel crop grown in a Spanish agricultural area. Energy fluxes and CO2 exchange were simulated with this model for the period spanning January 2008 to October 2008. Results were compared to experimental measurements performed using eddy covariance and meteorological instrumentation. The reliability of the model was proven by simulating latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes, soil heat flux (G), and CO2 exchanges (NEE and GPP)...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matteo Chialva, Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Stefania Daghino, Stefano Ghignone, Paolo Bagnaresi, Marco Chiapello, Mara Novero, Davide Spadaro, Silvia Perotto, Paola Bonfante
Several studies have investigated soil microbial biodiversity, but understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant responses to soil microbiota remains in its infancy. Here, we focused on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), testing the hypothesis that plants grown on native soils display different responses to soil microbiotas. Using transcriptomics, proteomics, and biochemistry, we describe the responses of two tomato genotypes (susceptible or resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) grown on an artificial growth substrate and two native soils (conducive and suppressive to Fusarium)...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Qasim Ali, Rashid Saeed, Tauqir Nasir, Ghulam Hasan Abbasi, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Tanvir Ahmad
Soil contamination with heavy metals is threatening the food security around the globe. Chromium (Cr) contamination results in poor quality and reduction in yield of crops. The present research was performed to figure out the Cr toxicity in sunflower and the ameliorative role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a plant growth regulator. The sunflower (FH-614) was grown under increasing concentration of Cr (0, 5, 10 and 20mgkg-1) alone and/or in combination with 5-ALA (0, 10 and 20mgL-1). Results showed that Cr suppressed the overall growth, biomass, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll content of sunflower plants...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Metal-tolerant thermophiles are inhabitants of a wide range of extreme habitats like solfatara fields, hot springs, mud holes, hydrothermal vents oozing out from metal-rich ores, hypersaline pools and soil crusts enriched with metals and other elements. The ability to withstand adverse environmental conditions, like high temperature, high metal concentration and sometimes high pH in their niche, makes them an interesting subject for understanding mechanisms behind their ability to deal with multiple duress simultaneously...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
February 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
M Jing, S Zhao, A Rogiewicz, B A Slominski, J D House
Dietary phosphorus (P) oversupply is costly to the poultry industry and represents a point source of excessive P discharge to the environment via manure application to soils. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary available P (AP) level on growth performance, plasma biochemistry, bone characteristics, and P flow in order to assess minimal AP needs of pullets during the pre-lay period. A total of 192 Lohmann pullet chicks were randomly allocated to one of 4 treatments with 8 replicate cages of 6 birds per cage...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Richard H Ebright
Richard H Ebright talks to Rachel Coleby, Commissioning Editor: Ebright is at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, NJ, USA), where he performs research on the structure, mechanism, and regulation of bacterial transcription and on antibacterial drug discovery targeting bacterial transcription. He has received research awards, including the Searle Scholar Award, the Walter J Johnson Prize, the Schering-Plough Award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Waksman Award of the Theobold Smith Society, the MERIT Award of the National Institutes of Health, and membership in the American Academy of Arts and Science...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Jorge E Spangenberg, Maria Vogiatzaki, Vivian Zufferey
This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ13 CVOC/VPDB ) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ13 CSR/VPDB , δ15 NSR/Air-N2 ). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Meerambika Mishra, Ananta P Arukha, Tufail Bashir, Dhananjay Yadav, G B K S Prasad
Nature's silicon marvel, the diatoms have lately astounded the scientific community with its intricate designs and lasting durability. Diatoms are a major group of phytoplanktons involved in the biogeochemical cycling of silica and are virtually inherent in every environment ranging from water to ice to soil. The usage of diatoms has proved prudently cost effective and its handling neither requires costly materials nor sophisticated instruments. Diatoms can easily be acquired from the environment, their culture requires ambient condition and does not involve any costly media or expensive instruments, besides, they can be transported in small quantities and proliferated to a desirable confluence from that scratch, thus are excellent cost effective industrial raw material...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Huihui Fang, Zhiqiang Liu, Yanping Long, Yali Liang, Zhuping Jin, Liping Zhang, Danmei Liu, Hua Li, Jixian Zhai, Yanxi Pei
Heavy metal (HM) contamination on agricultural land not only reduces crop yield but also causes human health concerns. As a plant gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) can trigger various defense responses and help reduce accumulation of HMs in plants; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of H2 S signaling. Here, we provide evidence to answer the long-standing question about how H2 S production is elevated in the defense of plants against HM stress. During the response of Arabidopsis to chromium (Cr(6+) ) stress, the transcription of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD), the key enzyme for H2 S production, was enhanced through a calcium (Ca(2+) )/calmodulin2 (CaM2)-mediated pathway...
July 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yong Peng, Guangsheng Chen, Guantao Chen, Shun Li, Tianchi Peng, Xirong Qiu, Jie Luo, Shanshan Yang, Tingxing Hu, Hongling Hu, Zhenfeng Xu, Li Liu, Yi Tang, Lihua Tu
In order to investigate the effects of N deposition on soil biochemistry in secondary forests, one N addition experiment was conducted in a secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in the western edge of Sichuan Basin, with the highest level of background N deposition (about 95 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in China. Three N treatment levels (+0, +50, +150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) were monthly added to soil surface in this forest beginning in April 2013. Soil biochemistry and root biomass of the 0-10 cm soil horizon were measured from May 2014 to April 2015...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Ibrahim, Daniel C W Tsang, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Jörg Rinklebe, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities...
September 2017: Chemosphere
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carla Maldonado, Christopher J Barnes, Claus Cornett, Else Holmfred, Steen H Hansen, Claes Persson, Alexandre Antonelli, Nina Rønsted
Considerable inter- and intraspecific variation with respect to the quantity and composition of plant natural products exists. The processes that drive this variation remain largely unknown. Understanding which factors determine chemical diversity has the potential to shed light on plant defenses against herbivores and diseases and accelerate drug discovery. For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16, and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yong Zhang, Shikui Dong, Qingzhu Gao, Shiliang Liu, Hasbagan Ganjurjav, Xuexia Wang, Xukun Su, Xiaoyu Wu
To understand effects of soil microbes on soil biochemistry in alpine grassland ecosystems under environmental changes, we explored relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, available nitrogen and phosphorus, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in alpine meadow, alpine steppe and cultivated grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau under three-year warming, enhanced precipitation and yak overgrazing. Soil total nitrogen, organic carbon and NH4-N were little affected by overgrazing, warming or enhanced precipitation in three types of alpine grasslands...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Micol Rossini, Tarek S El-Madany, Gerardo Moreno, Christiaan van der Tol, Uwe Rascher, Anna Berninger, Verena Bessenbacher, Andreas Burkart, Arnaud Carrara, Francesco Fava, Jin-Hong Guan, Tiana W Hammer, Kathrin Henkel, Enrique Juarez-Alcalde, Tommaso Julitta, Olaf Kolle, M Pilar Martín, Talie Musavi, Javier Pacheco-Labrador, Andrea Pérez-Burgueño, Thomas Wutzler, Sönke Zaehle, Markus Reichstein
Sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) in the far-red region provides a new noninvasive measurement approach that has the potential to quantify dynamic changes in light-use efficiency and gross primary production (GPP). However, the mechanistic link between GPP and SIF is not completely understood. We analyzed the structural and functional factors controlling the emission of SIF at 760 nm (F760 ) in a Mediterranean grassland manipulated with nutrient addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) or nitrogen-phosphorous (NP)...
February 9, 2017: New Phytologist
Julie M Grondin, Kazune Tamura, Guillaume Déjean, D Wade Abbott, Harry Brumer
The complex carbohydrates of terrestrial and marine biomass represent a rich nutrient source for free-living and mutualistic microbes alike. The enzymatic saccharification of these diverse substrates is of critical importance for fueling a variety of complex microbial communities, including marine, soil, ruminant, and monogastric microbiota. Consequently, highly specific carbohydrate-active enzymes, recognition proteins, and transporters are enriched in the genomes of certain species and are of critical importance in competitive environments...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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