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Nicholas Williamson, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, David Outhet, Lee C Bowling
Cyanobacterial survival following their release in water from major headwaters reservoirs was compared in five New South Wales rivers. Under low flow conditions, cyanobacterial presence disappeared rapidly with distance downstream in the Cudgegong and Hunter Rivers, whereas the other three rivers were contaminated for at least 300 km. Cyanobacterial survival is likely to be impacted by the geomorphology of each river, especially the extent of gravel riffle reaches (cells striking rocks can destroy them) and by the different turbulent flow conditions it produces within each...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Zhijia Gu, Yun Xie, Yuan Gao, Xiaoyu Ren, Congcong Cheng, Sichu Wang
As Northeastern China is the country's most significant grain production base, soil productivity in this region has consistently attracted attention. National food security is threatened by an ongoing drain of soil nutrients and decline in soil productivity. Black soil is the key natural resource in this region of China, which is thus known as the "black soil region". It is necessary to study the impact of soil erosion on black soil and its productivity to protect this important resource and ensure its sustainable productivity...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elena A Zakharova, Alexei V Kouraev, Guillaso Stephane, Garestier Franck, Roman V Desyatkin, Alexey R Desyatkin
Alases, which are thermokarst depressions that are occupied by grasslands and lakes, are an important element of the Central Yakutian periglacial landscape. In recent decades, climatic changes in Central Yakutia have resulted in important changes in environmental conditions. We use different remote-sensing instruments (Landsat 8, TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT-RA2, and Jason-2) alongside in situ observations to investigate 1) the spatial distribution and water regime of alas lakes and their relationships with climatic and geomorphologic factors, 2) the relationship of the alas' grassland productivity with the water regime and 3) the potential of alas grasslands for local agriculture...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Chen, Hai Yan Yu, Ji Wei Zhang, Bei Xin Wang, Qiu Wen Chen
Improving the stability of integrity of biotic index (IBI; i.e., multi-metric indices, MMI) across temporal and spatial scales is one of the most important issues in water ecosystem integrity bioassessment and water environment management. Using datasets of field-based macroinvertebrate and physicochemical variables and GIS-based natural predictors (e.g., geomorphology and climate) and land use variables collected at 227 river sites from 2004 to 2011 across the Zhejiang Province, China, we used random forests (RF) to adjust the effects of natural variations at temporal and spatial scales on macroinvertebrate metrics...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yanmei Xiong, Baowen Liao, Ed Proffitt, Wei Guan, Yuxin Sun, Faming Wang, Xiu Liu
Coastal wetlands are well known for their considerable capacity to store carbon (C). However, the spatial patterns and major controls of soil C concentration and C density in coastal wetlands remain poorly known. We measured soil total C concentration up to one meter depth and assessed environmental and biological factors influencing soil C input and decomposition processes across various geomorphologic settings and mangrove forest types at Dongzhai Bay, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the causal pathways of influencing factors on soil C concentration...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Grzegorz Wierzbicki, Piotr Ostrowski, Tomasz Falkowski, Michał Mazgajski
We aim to answer a question: how does the geological setting affect flood dynamics in lowland alluvial rivers? The study area covers three river reaches: not trained, relatively large on the European scale, flowing in broad valleys cut in the landscape of old glacial plains. We focus on the locations where levees [both: a) natural or b) artificial] were breached during flood. In these locations we identify (1) the erosional traces of flood (crevasse channels) on the floodplain displayed on DEM derived from ALS LIDAR...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ann Marie Reinhold, Geoffrey C Poole, Robert G Bramblett, Alexander V Zale, David W Roberts
Determining the influences of anthropogenic perturbations on side channel dynamics in large rivers is important from both assessment and monitoring perspectives because side channels provide critical habitat to numerous aquatic species. Side channel extents are decreasing in large rivers worldwide. Although riprap and other linear structures have been shown to reduce side channel extents in large rivers, we hypothesized that small "anthropogenic plugs" (flow obstructions such as dikes or berms) across side channels modify whole-river geomorphology via accelerating side channel senescence...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rebecca L Mickol, Sarah K Laird, Timothy A Kral
Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My) freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature...
April 23, 2018: Microorganisms
Carolina Peña-Alonso, Juan B Gallego-Fernández, Luis Hernández-Calvento, Antonio I Hernández-Cordero, Eduard Ariza
In this study, an arid dune vulnerability index (ADVI) is developed using a system of indicators to evaluate the geomorphological vulnerability of beach-dune systems of arid regions. The indicators are comprised of three analytical dimensions (susceptibility, exposure and resilience) and their corresponding sub-indices and variables and were assessed for eleven sites located in four aeolian sedimentary systems of the Canary archipelago (Spain). The selected sites have varying geomorphological characteristics, vegetation types, marine and wind conditions and human pressure degrees, and have seen different trends in their geomorphological evolution since 1960...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hermano Gomes Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Peiter, Luciano M Toledo, Jeronimo A F Alencar, Paulo C Sabroza, Cristina G Dias, Jefferson P C Santos, Martha C Suárez-Mutis
BACKGROUND: Extra-Amazonian malaria mortality is 60 times higher than the Amazon malaria mortality. Imported cases correspond to approximately 90% of extra-Amazonian cases. Imported malaria could be a major problem if it occurs in areas with receptivity, because it can favor the occurrence of outbreaks or reintroductions of malaria in those areas. This study aimed to model territorial receptivity for malaria to serve as an entomological surveillance tool in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hana Bandouchova, Tomáš Bartonička, Hana Berkova, Jiri Brichta, Tomasz Kokurewicz, Veronika Kovacova, Petr Linhart, Vladimir Piacek, Jiri Pikula, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal
In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). We sampled three European hibernacula that differ in geomorphology and microclimatic conditions...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Bonetti, A D Bragg, A Porporato
The drainage area is an important, non-local property of a landscape, which controls surface and subsurface hydrological fluxes. Its role in numerous ecohydrological and geomorphological applications has given rise to several numerical methods for its computation. However, its theoretical analysis has lagged behind. Only recently, an analytical definition for the specific catchment area was proposed (Gallant & Hutchinson. 2011 Water Resour. Res. 47 , W05535. (doi:10.1029/2009WR008540)), with the derivation of a differential equation whose validity is limited to regular points of the watershed...
March 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
João P Morais-Silva, Alessandra V de Oliveira, Thomaz M C Fabrin, Nathália Alves Diamante, Sônia M A P Prioli, Augusto Frota, Weferson J da Graça, Alberto J Prioli
The current analysis investigates whether the uplift of the Serra da Esperança and the Ponta Grossa Arch in the Serra Geral resulted in ichthyofaunistic changes in adjacent basins. For this, we describe the phylogeographic structure among populations of Trichomycterus collected in hydrographic basins in southern Brazil by using partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I. Analyses revealed that the nomenclature Trichomycterus davisi fails to contain the whole genetic diversity range found in the collected specimens and indicates at least six genetic lineages in Trichomycterus...
March 13, 2018: Zebrafish
Enrique Cardillo, Angel Acedo, Enrique Abad
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most important plant pathogens in the world, causing root rot in more than a thousand plant species. This observational study was carried out on a P. cinnamomi infected heathland of Erica umbellata used as goat pasture. The patterns and shapes of disease foci and their distribution were described in a spatial and temporal context using an aerial photograph record. A set of topographic traits was selected on the basis of a disease dynamic hypothesis and their effects on observed spatial disease patterns were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Priscila Camelier, Naércio Aquino Menezes, Guilherme José Costa-Silva, Claudio Oliveira
The current distribution of freshwater fishes across multiple basins along Eastern Brazil can be associated to two main events: river captures or temporary paleoconnections. Apparently, river captures had a more significant role on distribution and structuring of species from upland areas, such as Glandulocauda melanopleura. Populations of this species are found in contiguous drainages in presently isolated upper parts of Rio Tietê and the coastal basins of Guaratuba, Itatinga, Itanháem, and Ribeira de Iguape, in the Atlantic Forest domain...
2018: PloS One
Rodolfo Jaffé, Xavier Prous, Allan Calux, Markus Gastauer, Gilberto Nicacio, Robson Zampaulo, Pedro W M Souza-Filho, Guilherme Oliveira, Iuri V Brandi, José O Siqueira
The degradation of subterranean habitats is believed to represent a serious threat for the conservation of obligate subterranean dwellers (troglobites), many of which are short-range endemics. However, while the factors influencing cave biodiversity remain largely unknown, the influence of the surrounding landscape and patterns of subterranean connectivity of terrestrial troglobitic communities have never been systematically assessed. Using spatial statistics to analyze the most comprehensive speleological database yet available for tropical caves, we first assess the influence of iron cave characteristics and the surrounding landscape on troglobitic communities from the Eastern Amazon...
2018: PeerJ
Giuseppe Amatulli, Sami Domisch, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Benoit Parmentier, Ajay Ranipeta, Jeremy Malczyk, Walter Jetz
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Axel Bronstert, Ankit Agarwal, Berry Boessenkool, Irene Crisologo, Madlen Fischer, Maik Heistermann, Lisei Köhn-Reich, José Andrés López-Tarazón, Thomas Moran, Ugur Ozturk, Christian Reinhardt-Imjela, Dadiyorto Wendi
The flash-flood in Braunsbach in the north-eastern part of Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany was a particularly strong and concise event which took place during the floods in southern Germany at the end of May/early June 2016. This article presents a detailed analysis of the hydro-meteorological forcing and the hydrological consequences of this event. A specific approach, the "forensic hydrological analysis" was followed in order to include and combine retrospectively a variety of data from different disciplines...
July 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ian Paynter, Daniel Genest, Francesco Peri, Crystal Schaaf
Volumetric models with known biases are shown to provide bounds for the uncertainty in estimations of volume for ecologically interesting objects, observed with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instrument. Bounding cuboids, three-dimensional convex hull polygons, voxels, the Outer Hull Model and Square Based Columns (SBCs) are considered for their ability to estimate the volume of temperate and tropical trees, as well as geomorphological features such as bluffs and saltmarsh creeks. For temperate trees, supplementary geometric models are evaluated for their ability to bound the uncertainty in cylinder-based reconstructions, finding that coarser volumetric methods do not currently constrain volume meaningfully, but may be helpful with further refinement, or in hybridized models...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Stéphane Guitet, Daniel Sabatier, Olivier Brunaux, Pierre Couteron, Thomas Denis, Vincent Freycon, Sophie Gonzalez, Bruno Hérault, Gaëlle Jaouen, Jean-François Molino, Raphaël Pélissier, Cécile Richard-Hansen, Grégoire Vincent
Disturbances control rainforest dynamics, and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH), disturbance regime is a key driver of local diversity. Variations in disturbance regimes and their consequences on regional diversity at broad spatiotemporal scales are still poorly understood. Using multidisciplinary large-scale inventories and LiDAR acquisitions, we developed a robust indicator of disturbance regimes based on the frequency of a few early successional and widely distributed pioneer species...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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