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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#1
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407457/dynamics-of-sediment-carbon-stocks-across-intertidal-wetland-habitats-of-moreton-bay-australia
#2
Matthew A Hayes, Amber Jesse, Bruce Hawke, Jeff Baldock, Basam Tabet, David Lockington, Catherine E Lovelock
Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, are limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types...
April 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402914/potential-interaction-between-transport-and-stream-networks-over-the-lowland-rivers-in-eastern-india
#3
Suvendu Roy, Abhay Sankar Sahu
Extension of transport networks supports good accessibility and associated with the development of a region. However, transport lines have fragmented the regional landscape and disturbed the natural interplay between rivers and their floodplains. Spatial analysis using multiple buffers provides information about the potential interaction between road and stream networks and their impact on channel morphology of a small watershed in the Lower Gangetic Plain. Present study is tried to understand the lateral and longitudinal disconnection in headwater stream by rural roads with the integration of geoinformatics and field survey...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391145/topsoil-moisture-mapping-using-geostatistical-techniques-under-different-mediterranean-climatic-conditions
#4
J F Martínez-Murillo, P Hueso-González, J D Ruiz-Sinoga
Soil mapping has been considered as an important factor in the widening of Soil Science and giving response to many different environmental questions. Geostatistical techniques, through kriging and co-kriging techniques, have made possible to improve the understanding of eco-geomorphologic variables, e.g., soil moisture. This study is focused on mapping of topsoil moisture using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions (humid, dry and semiarid) in three small watersheds and considering topography and soil properties as key factors...
April 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332082/detection-of-terrain-indices-related-to-soil-salinity-and-mapping-salt-affected-soils-using-remote-sensing-and-geostatistical-techniques
#5
Hela Triki Fourati, Moncef Bouaziz, Mourad Benzina, Samir Bouaziz
Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319713/observational-evidence-on-the-effects-of-mega-fires-on-the-frequency-of-hydrogeomorphic-hazards-the-case-of-the-peloponnese-fires-of-2007-in-greece
#6
M Diakakis, E I Nikolopoulos, S Mavroulis, E Vassilakis, E Korakaki
Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#7
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285852/arsenic-in-bangladeshi-soils-related-to-physiographic-region-paddy-management-and-mirco-and-macro-elemental-status
#8
M Tanvir A Chowdhury, Claire M Deacon, Gerrad D Jones, S M Imamul Huq, Paul N Williams, A F M Manzurul Hoque, Lenny H E Winkel, Adam H Price, Gareth J Norton, Andrew A Meharg
While the impact of arsenic in irrigated agriculture has become a major environmental concern in Bangladesh, to date there is still a limited understanding of arsenic in Bangladeshi paddy soils at a landscape level. A soil survey was conducted across ten different physiographic regions of Bangladesh, which encompassed six types of geomorphology (Bil, Brahmaputra floodplain, Ganges floodplain, Meghna floodplain, Karatoya-Bangali floodplain and Pleistocene terrace). A total of 1209 paddy soils and 235 matched non-paddy soils were collected...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281574/carbon-sequestration-by-australian-tidal-marshes
#9
Peter I Macreadie, Q R Ollivier, J J Kelleway, O Serrano, P E Carnell, C J Ewers Lewis, T B Atwood, J Sanderman, J Baldock, R M Connolly, C M Duarte, P S Lavery, A Steven, C E Lovelock
Australia's tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia's tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha(-1) (range 14-963 Mg OC ha(-1)). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha(-1) yr(-1). Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261468/water-land-fire-and-forest-multi-scale-determinants-of-rainforests-in-the-australian-monsoon-tropics
#10
Stefania Ondei, Lynda D Prior, Grant J Williamson, Tom Vigilante, David M J S Bowman
The small rainforest fragments found in savanna landscapes are powerful, yet often overlooked, model systems to understand the controls of these contrasting ecosystems. We analyzed the relative effect of climatic variables on rainforest density at a subcontinental level, and employed high-resolution, regional-level analyses to assess the importance of landscape settings and fire activity in determining rainforest density in a frequently burnt Australian savanna landscape. Estimates of rainforest density (ha/km(2)) across the Northern Territory and Western Australia, derived from preexisting maps, were used to calculate the correlations between rainforest density and climatic variables...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242222/topographic-and-geomorphologic-controls-on-the-distribution-of-vegetation-formations-in-elephant-point-livingston-island-maritime-antarctica
#11
Jesús Ruiz-Fernández, Marc Oliva, Cristina García-Hernández
This article focuses on the spatial distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point, an ice-free area of 1.16km(2) located in Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Fieldwork carried out in January 2014 consisted of floristic surveys and designation of a vegetation map. We have examined these data in a GIS environment together with topographical and geomorphological features existing in the peninsula in order to infer the factors controlling vegetation distribution. This has allowed quantifying the total area covered by the four different vegetation formations distributed across the peninsula, proliferating mainly on bedrock plateaus and Holocene raised beaches...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240223/the-world-s-earliest-aral-sea-type-disaster-the-decline-of-the-loulan-kingdom-in-the-tarim-basin
#12
Steffen Mischke, Chenglin Liu, Jiafu Zhang, Chengjun Zhang, Hua Zhang, Pengcheng Jiao, Birgit Plessen
Remnants of cities and farmlands in China's hyperarid Tarim Basin indicate that environmental conditions were significantly wetter two millennia ago in a region which is barren desert today. Historical documents and age data of organic remains show that the Loulan Kingdom flourished during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) but was abandoned between its end and 645 CE. Previous archaeological, geomorphological and geological studies suggest that deteriorating climate conditions led to the abandonment of the ancient desert cities...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239369/plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-associated-with-langsdorffia-hypogaea-rhizosphere-host-biological-interface-a-neglected-model-of-bacterial-prospection
#13
Érica B Felestrino, Iara F Santiago, Luana da Silva Freitas, Luiz H Rosa, Sérvio P Ribeiro, Leandro M Moreira
Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#14
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222134/gis-based-landform-classification-of-bronze-age-archaeological-sites-on-crete-island
#15
Athanasios V Argyriou, Richard M Teeuw, Apostolos Sarris
Various physical attributes of the Earth's surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162758/glacial-stages-and-post-glacial-environmental-evolution-in-the-upper-garonne-valley-central-pyrenees
#16
M Fernandes, M Oliva, P Palma, J Ruiz-Fernández, L Lopes
The maximum glacial extent in the Central Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation is known to have occurred before the global Last Glacial Maximum, but the succession of cold events afterwards and their impact on the landscape are still relatively unknown. This study focuses on the environmental evolution in the upper valley of the Garonne River since the Last Glaciation. Geomorphological mapping allows analysis of the spatial distribution of inherited and current processes and landforms in the study area. The distribution of glacial records (moraines, till, erratic boulders, glacial thresholds) suggests the existence of four glacial stages, from the maximum expansion to the end of the glaciation...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152456/geomorphology-applied-to-landscape-analysis-for-planning-and-management-of-natural-spaces-case-study-las-batuecas-s-de-francia-and-quilamas-natural-parks-salamanca-spain
#17
A M Martínez-Graña, P G Silva, J L Goy, J Elez, V Valdés, C Zazo
Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144910/the-calibrated-phylogeny-of-the-drosophila-fasciola-subgroup-d-repleta-group-wasserman-indicates-neogene-diversification-of-its-internal-branches
#18
F F Franco, E C C Silva, D Y Barrios-Leal, F M Sene, M H Manfrin
The species of the Drosophila fasciola subgroup Wasserman represent the dominant section of the Drosophila repleta group Wasserman in the American rainforests and have a broad geographical distribution in the New World. However, despite of its wide range, the D. fasciola subgroup is one of the most overlooked D. repleta subgroups. Here, we report a molecular phylogenetic analysis focused on the D. fasciola subgroup using two mitochondrial [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)] and two nuclear [elongation factor-1alpha F1 (EF-alphaF1) and transformer (tra)] genes...
January 31, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129902/geomorphodiversity-index-quantifying-the-diversity-of-landforms-and-physical-landscape
#19
Laura Melelli, Francesca Vergari, Luisa Liucci, Maurizio Del Monte
The physical landscape is the mosaic resulting from a wide spectrum of environmental components. The landforms define the variety, or diversity, of the geomorphological component: the geomorphodiversity. Landforms are usually represented in thematic maps where the scale and the graphic solutions are widely heterogeneous. Since geomorphological maps are not always easy to obtain and standardize, topography might be used as a proxy to infer the morphological signature. To recognize, evaluate, and in some cases promote the geomorphodiversity of an area, a numerical assessment is preferable...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#20
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
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