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Olga De Castro, Antonietta Di Maio, Mirko Di Febbraro, Gennaro Imparato, Michele Innangi, Errol Véla, Bruno Menale
The Mediterranean coastline is a dynamic and complex system which owes its complexity to its past and present vicissitudes, e.g. complex tectonic history, climatic fluctuations, and prolonged coexistence with human activities. A plant species that is widespread in this habitat is the sea daffodil, Pancratium maritimum (Amaryllidaceae), which is a perennial clonal geophyte of the coastal sands of the Mediterranean and neighbouring areas, well adapted to the stressful conditions of sand dune environments. In this study, an integrated approach was used, combining genetic and environmental data with a niche modelling approach, aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of climate change on the geographic range of this species at different times {past (last inter-glacial, LIG; and last glacial maximum, LGM), present (CURR), near-future (FUT)} and (2) the possible influence of environmental variables on the genetic structure of this species in the current period...
2016: PloS One
C Emi Fergus, Andrew O Finley, Patricia A Soranno, Tyler Wagner
The nutrient-water color paradigm is a framework to characterize lake trophic status by relating lake primary productivity to both nutrients and water color, the colored component of dissolved organic carbon. Total phosphorus (TP), a limiting nutrient, and water color, a strong light attenuator, influence lake chlorophyll a concentrations (CHL). But, these relationships have been shown in previous studies to be highly variable, which may be related to differences in lake and catchment geomorphology, the forms of nutrients and carbon entering the system, and lake community composition...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Hopper, Marcia S Meixler
Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3...
2016: PloS One
C T Russell, C A Raymond, E Ammannito, D L Buczkowski, M C De Sanctis, H Hiesinger, R Jaumann, A S Konopliv, H Y McSween, A Nathues, R S Park, C M Pieters, T H Prettyman, T B McCord, L A McFadden, S Mottola, M T Zuber, S P Joy, C Polanskey, M D Rayman, J C Castillo-Rogez, P J Chi, J P Combe, A Ermakov, R R Fu, M Hoffmann, Y D Jia, S D King, D J Lawrence, J-Y Li, S Marchi, F Preusker, T Roatsch, O Ruesch, P Schenk, M N Villarreal, N Yamashita
On 6 March 2015, Dawn arrived at Ceres to find a dark, desiccated surface punctuated by small, bright areas. Parts of Ceres' surface are heavily cratered, but the largest expected craters are absent. Ceres appears gravitationally relaxed at only the longest wavelengths, implying a mechanically strong lithosphere with a weaker deep interior. Ceres' dry exterior displays hydroxylated silicates, including ammoniated clays of endogenous origin. The possibility of abundant volatiles at depth is supported by geomorphologic features such as flat crater floors with pits, lobate flows of materials, and a singular mountain that appears to be an extrusive cryovolcanic dome...
September 2, 2016: Science
D L Buczkowski, B E Schmidt, D A Williams, S C Mest, J E C Scully, A I Ermakov, F Preusker, P Schenk, K A Otto, H Hiesinger, D O'Brien, S Marchi, H Sizemore, K Hughson, H Chilton, M Bland, S Byrne, N Schorghofer, T Platz, R Jaumann, T Roatsch, M V Sykes, A Nathues, M C De Sanctis, C A Raymond, C T Russell
Analysis of Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera image data allows evaluation of the topography and geomorphology of features on the surface of Ceres. The dwarf planet is dominated by numerous craters, but other features are also common. Linear structures include both those associated with impact craters and those that do not appear to have any correlation to an impact event. Abundant lobate flows are identified, and numerous domical features are found at a range of scales. Features suggestive of near-surface ice, cryomagmatism, and cryovolcanism have been identified...
September 2, 2016: Science
Annika Marie Quick, William Jeffery Reeder, Tiffany Brooke Farrell, Daniele Tonina, Kevin Paul Feris, Shawn G Benner
The magnitude and mechanisms of nitrous oxide (N2O) release from rivers and streams are actively debated. The complex interactions of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical controls on emissions of this important greenhouse gas preclude prediction of when and where N2O emissions will be significant. We present observations from column and large-scale flume experiments supporting an integrative model of N2O emissions from stream sediments. Our results show a distinct, replicable, pattern of nitrous oxide generation and consumption dictated by subsurface (hyporheic) residence times and biological nitrogen reduction rates...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Brian R Silliman, Philip M Dixon, Cameron Wobus, Qiang He, Pedro Daleo, Brent B Hughes, Matthew Rissing, Jonathan M Willis, Mark W Hester
Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brooke Maslo, Thomas A Schlacher, Michael A Weston, Chantal M Huijbers, Chris Anderson, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly, David S Schoeman
Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PeerJ
Marinus E Donselaar, Ajay G Bhatt, Ashok K Ghosh
Pollution of groundwater with natural (geogenic) arsenic occurs on an enormous, world-wide scale, and causes wide-spread, serious health risks for an estimated more than hundred million people who depend on the use of shallow aquifers for drinking and irrigation water. A literature review of key studies on arsenic concentration levels yields that Holocene fluvial and deltaic flood basins are the hotspots of arsenic pollution, and that the dominant geomorphological setting of the arsenic-polluted areas consists of shallow-depth meandering-river deposits with sand-prone fluvial point-bar deposits surrounded by clay-filled (clay plug) abandoned meander bends (oxbow lakes)...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hedvig Simon, Szabolcs Kelemen, Róbert-Csaba Begy
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of natural and anthropic events occurring in the last 30 years in the catchment areas of four Romanian lakes (St. Anna Lake, Red Lake, Vârşolţ Lake and Matiţa Lake) originating from four different geomorphologic areas. A total of eleven sediment cores have been processed for age and sedimentation rate determination using the (210)Pb dating method. Total (210)Pb was measured via alpha spectrometry by (210)Po using PIPS detectors, while supported (210)Pb was measured by (226)Ra using HPGe detectors...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A Al Shami, G Harik, I Alameddine, D Bruschi, D Astiaso Garcia, M El-Fadel
Oil pollution in the Mediterranean represents a serious threat to the coastal environment. Quantifying the risks associated with a potential spill is often based on results generated from oil spill models. In this study, MEDSLIK-II, an EU funded and endorsed oil spill model, is used to assess potential oil spill scenarios at four pilot areas located along the northern, eastern, and southern Mediterranean shoreline, providing a wide range of spill conditions and coastal geomorphological characteristics. Oil spill risk assessment at the four pilot areas was quantified as a function of three oil pollution metrics that include the susceptibility of oiling per beach segment, the average volume of oiling expected in the event of beaching, and the average oil beaching time...
September 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew R Sloat, Gordon H Reeves, Kelly R Christiansen
In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds...
September 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
Borbála Hortobágyi, Dov Corenblit, Franck Vautier, Johannes Steiger, Erwan Roussel, Andreas Burkart, Jean-Luc Peiry
Over the last twenty years, significant technical advances turned photogrammetry into a relevant tool for the integrated analysis of biogeomorphic cross-scale interactions within vegetated fluvial corridors, which will largely contribute to the development and improvement of self-sustainable river restoration efforts. Here, we propose a cost-effective, easily reproducible approach based on stereophotogrammetry and Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to study feedbacks between fluvial geomorphology and riparian vegetation at different nested spatiotemporal scales...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
James S Albert, Donald R Schoolmaster, Victor Tagliacollo, Scott M Duke-Sylvester
Macroevolutionary theory posits three processes leading to lineage diversification and the formation of regional biotas: dispersal (species geographic range expansion), speciation (species lineage splitting), and extinction (species lineage termination). The Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) predicts species richness values using just two of these processes; dispersal and extinction. Yet most species on Earth live on continents or continental shelves, and the dynamics of evolutionary diversification at regional and continental scales are qualitatively different from those that govern the formation of species richness on biogeographic islands...
September 1, 2016: Systematic Biology
Andrew S Hein, Shasta M Marrero, John Woodward, Stuart A Dunning, Kate Winter, Matthew J Westoby, Stewart P H T Freeman, Richard P Shanks, David E Sugden
Establishing the trajectory of thinning of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is important for addressing questions concerning ice sheet (in)stability and changes in global sea level. Here we present detailed geomorphological and cosmogenic nuclide data from the southern Ellsworth Mountains in the heart of the Weddell Sea embayment that suggest the ice sheet, nourished by increased snowfall until the early Holocene, was close to its LGM thickness at 10 ka. A pulse of rapid thinning caused the ice elevation to fall ∼400 m to the present level at 6...
2016: Nature Communications
Le-Tao Zhang, Zhan-Bin Li, Shan-Shan Wang
Scale issues, which have been extensively studied in the domain of soil erosion, are considerably significant in geomorphologic processes and hydrologic modelling. However, relatively scarce efforts have been made to quantify the spatial scale effect on event-based sediment dynamics in basin-wide floods. To address this issue, sediment-runoff yield data of 44 basin-wide flood events were collected from gauging stations at the Chabagou river basin, a typical agro-basin (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region of the Chinese Loess Plateau...
August 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Paola Villa, Sylvain Soriano, Rainer Grün, Fabrizio Marra, Sebastien Nomade, Alison Pereira, Giovanni Boschian, Luca Pollarolo, Fang Fang, Jean-Jacques Bahain
We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7...
2016: PloS One
Helena Tukiainen, Joseph J Bailey, Richard Field, Katja Kangas, Jan Hjort
Improved understanding of threatened species diversity is important for long-term conservation planning and natural area management, especially under ongoing global change. Geodiversity - the diversity of earth surface materials, forms and processes - may be a useful biodiversity surrogate for conservation planning, as well as having conservation value itself. Links between geodiversity and species richness have been demonstrated; establishing whether geodiversity also relates to threatened species' diversity and distribution patterns is a logical next step for conservation biology...
August 1, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Bianca R Charbonneau, John P Wnek, J Adam Langley, Gina Lee, Ronald A Balsamo
Coastal regions are inherently and increasingly vulnerable and geomorphologically unstable, yet are invaluable economic and residential hubs. Dunes are dynamic buffers to erosion and the most natural, economical, and effective defense for coastal communities. Vegetation is integral to dune structure as it facilitates accretion and stabilization. Differences in the vegetation and root density likely translate to variability in coastal erosion prevention, but this notion has been largely unconsidered. We directly compared stabilizing factors, depth and density, of the root systems of two dominant mid-Atlantic dune plant species, native American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata) and invasive Asiatic sand sedge (Carex kobomugi)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Mathieu Séré, David A Wilkinson, Michael H Schleyer, Pascale Chabanet, Jean-Pascal Quod, Pablo Tortosa
Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD) presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation...
2016: PeerJ
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