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Geomorphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332082/detection-of-terrain-indices-related-to-soil-salinity-and-mapping-salt-affected-soils-using-remote-sensing-and-geostatistical-techniques
#1
Hela Triki Fourati, Moncef Bouaziz, Mourad Benzina, Samir Bouaziz
Traditional surveying methods of soil properties over landscapes are dramatically cost and time-consuming. Thus, remote sensing is a proper choice for monitoring environmental problem. This research aims to study the effect of environmental factors on soil salinity and to map the spatial distribution of this salinity over the southern east part of Tunisia by means of remote sensing and geostatistical techniques. For this purpose, we used Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data to depict geomorphological parameters: elevation, slope, plan curvature (PLC), profile curvature (PRC), and aspect...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319713/observational-evidence-on-the-effects-of-mega-fires-on-the-frequency-of-hydrogeomorphic-hazards-the-case-of-the-peloponnese-fires-of-2007-in-greece
#2
M Diakakis, E I Nikolopoulos, S Mavroulis, E Vassilakis, E Korakaki
Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295834/an-expert-system-model-for-mapping-tropical-wetlands-and-peatlands-reveals-south-america-as-the-largest-contributor
#3
Thomas Gumbricht, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Louis Verchot, Martin Herold, Florian Wittmann, Ethan Householder, Nadine Herold, Daniel Murdiyarso
Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, inter-annual flood variability, and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: 1...
March 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285852/arsenic-in-bangladeshi-soils-related-to-physiographic-region-paddy-management-and-mirco-and-macro-elemental-status
#4
M Tanvir A Chowdhury, Claire M Deacon, Gerrad D Jones, S M Imamul Huq, Paul N Williams, A F M Manzurul Hoque, Lenny H E Winkel, Adam H Price, Gareth J Norton, Andrew A Meharg
While the impact of arsenic in irrigated agriculture has become a major environmental concern in Bangladesh, to date there is still a limited understanding of arsenic in Bangladeshi paddy soils at a landscape level. A soil survey was conducted across ten different physiographic regions of Bangladesh, which encompassed six types of geomorphology (Bil, Brahmaputra floodplain, Ganges floodplain, Meghna floodplain, Karatoya-Bangali floodplain and Pleistocene terrace). A total of 1209 paddy soils and 235 matched non-paddy soils were collected...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281574/carbon-sequestration-by-australian-tidal-marshes
#5
Peter I Macreadie, Q R Ollivier, J J Kelleway, O Serrano, P E Carnell, C J Ewers Lewis, T B Atwood, J Sanderman, J Baldock, R M Connolly, C M Duarte, P S Lavery, A Steven, C E Lovelock
Australia's tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia's tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha(-1) (range 14-963 Mg OC ha(-1)). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha(-1) yr(-1). Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261468/water-land-fire-and-forest-multi-scale-determinants-of-rainforests-in-the-australian-monsoon-tropics
#6
Stefania Ondei, Lynda D Prior, Grant J Williamson, Tom Vigilante, David M J S Bowman
The small rainforest fragments found in savanna landscapes are powerful, yet often overlooked, model systems to understand the controls of these contrasting ecosystems. We analyzed the relative effect of climatic variables on rainforest density at a subcontinental level, and employed high-resolution, regional-level analyses to assess the importance of landscape settings and fire activity in determining rainforest density in a frequently burnt Australian savanna landscape. Estimates of rainforest density (ha/km(2)) across the Northern Territory and Western Australia, derived from preexisting maps, were used to calculate the correlations between rainforest density and climatic variables...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242222/topographic-and-geomorphologic-controls-on-the-distribution-of-vegetation-formations-in-elephant-point-livingston-island-maritime-antarctica
#7
Jesús Ruiz-Fernández, Marc Oliva, Cristina García-Hernández
This article focuses on the spatial distribution of vegetation formations in Elephant Point, an ice-free area of 1.16km(2) located in Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Fieldwork carried out in January 2014 consisted of floristic surveys and designation of a vegetation map. We have examined these data in a GIS environment together with topographical and geomorphological features existing in the peninsula in order to infer the factors controlling vegetation distribution. This has allowed quantifying the total area covered by the four different vegetation formations distributed across the peninsula, proliferating mainly on bedrock plateaus and Holocene raised beaches...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240223/the-world-s-earliest-aral-sea-type-disaster-the-decline-of-the-loulan-kingdom-in-the-tarim-basin
#8
Steffen Mischke, Chenglin Liu, Jiafu Zhang, Chengjun Zhang, Hua Zhang, Pengcheng Jiao, Birgit Plessen
Remnants of cities and farmlands in China's hyperarid Tarim Basin indicate that environmental conditions were significantly wetter two millennia ago in a region which is barren desert today. Historical documents and age data of organic remains show that the Loulan Kingdom flourished during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) but was abandoned between its end and 645 CE. Previous archaeological, geomorphological and geological studies suggest that deteriorating climate conditions led to the abandonment of the ancient desert cities...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239369/plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-associated-with-langsdorffia-hypogaea-rhizosphere-host-biological-interface-a-neglected-model-of-bacterial-prospection
#9
Érica B Felestrino, Iara F Santiago, Luana da Silva Freitas, Luiz H Rosa, Sérvio P Ribeiro, Leandro M Moreira
Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#10
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222134/gis-based-landform-classification-of-bronze-age-archaeological-sites-on-crete-island
#11
Athanasios V Argyriou, Richard M Teeuw, Apostolos Sarris
Various physical attributes of the Earth's surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162758/glacial-stages-and-post-glacial-environmental-evolution-in-the-upper-garonne-valley-central-pyrenees
#12
M Fernandes, M Oliva, P Palma, J Ruiz-Fernández, L Lopes
The maximum glacial extent in the Central Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation is known to have occurred before the global Last Glacial Maximum, but the succession of cold events afterwards and their impact on the landscape are still relatively unknown. This study focuses on the environmental evolution in the upper valley of the Garonne River since the Last Glaciation. Geomorphological mapping allows analysis of the spatial distribution of inherited and current processes and landforms in the study area. The distribution of glacial records (moraines, till, erratic boulders, glacial thresholds) suggests the existence of four glacial stages, from the maximum expansion to the end of the glaciation...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152456/geomorphology-applied-to-landscape-analysis-for-planning-and-management-of-natural-spaces-case-study-las-batuecas-s-de-francia-and-quilamas-natural-parks-salamanca-spain
#13
A M Martínez-Graña, P G Silva, J L Goy, J Elez, V Valdés, C Zazo
Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144910/the-calibrated-phylogeny-of-the-drosophila-fasciola-subgroup-d-repleta-group-wasserman-indicates-neogene-diversification-of-its-internal-branches
#14
F F Franco, E C C Silva, D Y Barrios-Leal, F M Sene, M H Manfrin
The species of the Drosophila fasciola subgroup Wasserman represent the dominant section of the Drosophila repleta group Wasserman in the American rainforests and have a broad geographical distribution in the New World. However, despite of its wide range, the D. fasciola subgroup is one of the most overlooked D. repleta subgroups. Here, we report a molecular phylogenetic analysis focused on the D. fasciola subgroup using two mitochondrial [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)] and two nuclear [elongation factor-1alpha F1 (EF-alphaF1) and transformer (tra)] genes...
January 31, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129902/geomorphodiversity-index-quantifying-the-diversity-of-landforms-and-physical-landscape
#15
Laura Melelli, Francesca Vergari, Luisa Liucci, Maurizio Del Monte
The physical landscape is the mosaic resulting from a wide spectrum of environmental components. The landforms define the variety, or diversity, of the geomorphological component: the geomorphodiversity. Landforms are usually represented in thematic maps where the scale and the graphic solutions are widely heterogeneous. Since geomorphological maps are not always easy to obtain and standardize, topography might be used as a proxy to infer the morphological signature. To recognize, evaluate, and in some cases promote the geomorphodiversity of an area, a numerical assessment is preferable...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#16
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074399/evaluating-the-impact-of-lower-resolutions-of-digital-elevation-model-on-rainfall-runoff-modeling-for-ungauged-catchments
#17
Abul Razzaq Ghumman, Ibrahim Saleh Al-Salamah, Saleem Saleh AlSaleem, Husnain Haider
Geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) usually uses geomorphologic parameters of catchment estimated from digital elevation model (DEM) for rainfall-runoff modeling of ungauged watersheds with limited data. Higher resolutions (e.g., 5 or 10 m) of DEM play an important role in the accuracy of rainfall-runoff models; however, such resolutions are expansive to obtain and require much greater efforts and time for preparation of inputs. In this research, a modeling framework is developed to evaluate the impact of lower resolutions (i...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073363/swept-away-ocean-currents-and-seascape-features-influence-genetic-structure-across-the-18-000-km-indo-pacific-distribution-of-a-marine-invertebrate-the-black-lip-pearl-oyster-pinctada-margaritifera
#18
Monal M Lal, Paul C Southgate, Dean R Jerry, Cyprien Bosserelle, Kyall R Zenger
BACKGROUND: Genetic structure in many widely-distributed broadcast spawning marine invertebrates remains poorly understood, posing substantial challenges for their fishery management, conservation and aquaculture. Under the Core-Periphery Hypothesis (CPH), genetic diversity is expected to be highest at the centre of a species' distribution, progressively decreasing with increased differentiation towards outer range limits, as populations become increasingly isolated, fragmented and locally adapted...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040219/sediment-delivery-modeling-in-practice-comparing-the-effects-of-watershed-characteristics-and-data-resolution-across-hydroclimatic-regions
#19
Perrine Hamel, Kim Falinski, Richard Sharp, Daniel A Auerbach, María Sánchez-Canales, P James Dennedy-Frank
Geospatial models are commonly used to quantify sediment contributions at the watershed scale. However, the sensitivity of these models to variation in hydrological and geomorphological features, in particular to land use and topography data, remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the performance of one such model, the InVEST sediment delivery model, for six sites comprising a total of 28 watersheds varying in area (6-13,500km(2)), climate (tropical, subtropical, mediterranean), topography, and land use/land cover...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011731/distribution-of-the-habitat-suitability-of-the-main-malaria-vector-in-french-guiana-using-maximum-entropy-modeling
#20
Yi Moua, Emmanuel Roux, Romain Girod, Isabelle Dusfour, Benoit de Thoisy, Frédérique Seyler, Sébastien Briolant
Malaria is an important health issue in French Guiana. Its principal mosquito vector in this region is Anopheles darlingi Root. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this species is still very incomplete due to the extent of French Guiana and the difficulty to access most of the territory. Species distribution modeling based on the maximal entropy procedure was used to predict the spatial distribution of An. darlingi using 39 presence sites. The resulting model provided significantly high prediction performances (mean 10-fold cross-validated partial area under the curve and continuous Boyce index equal to, respectively, 1...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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