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Geomorphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321870/contrasting-genetic-metrics-and-patterns-among-naturalized-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-two-patagonian-lakes-differentially-impacted-by-trout-aquaculture
#1
Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Lisa W Seeb, James E Seeb, María I Cádiz, Selim S Musleh, Ivan Arismendi, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos, Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setting to contrast these two pathways. Using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms, we found contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized trout in Lake Llanquihue, Chile's largest producer of salmonid smolts for nearly 50 years, and Lake Todos Los Santos (TLS), a reference lake where aquaculture has been prohibited by law...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317661/sediment-source-fingerprinting-of-the-lake-urmia-sand-dunes
#2
Hesam Ahmady-Birgani, Edris Agahi, Seyed Javad Ahmadi, Mahdi Erfanian
Aeolian sand dunes are continuously being discovered in inner dry lands and coastal areas, most of which have been formed over the Last Glacial Maximum. Presently, due to some natural and anthropogenic implications on earth, newly-born sand dunes are quickly emerging. Lake Urmia, the world's second largest permanent hypersaline lake, has started shrinking, vast lands comprising sand dunes over the western shore of the lake have appeared and one question has been playing on the minds of nearby dwellers: where are these sand dunes coming from, What there was not 15 years ago!! In the present study, the determination of the source of the Lake Urmia sand dunes in terms of the quantifying relative contribution of each upstream geomorphological/lithological unit has been performed using geochemical fingerprinting techniques...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304149/tree-mortality-in-response-to-typhoon-induced-floods-and-mudslides-is-determined-by-tree-species-size-and-position-in-a-riparian-formosan-gum-forest-in-subtropical-taiwan
#3
Hsy-Yu Tzeng, Wei Wang, Yen-Hsueh Tseng, Ching-An Chiu, Chu-Chia Kuo, Shang-Te Tsai
Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009-2011...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281660/technological-variability-in-the-late-palaeolithic-lithic-industries-of-the-egyptian-nile-valley-the-case-of-the-silsilian-and-afian-industries
#4
Alice Leplongeon
During the Nubia Salvage Campaign and the subsequent expeditions from the 1960's to the 1980's, numerous sites attributed to the Late Palaeolithic (~25-15 ka) were found in the Nile Valley, particularly in Nubia and Upper Egypt. This region is one of the few to have allowed human occupations during the dry Marine Isotope Stage 2 and is therefore key to understanding how human populations adapted to environmental changes at this time. This paper focuses on two sites located in Upper Egypt, excavated by the Combined Prehistoric Expedition: E71K18, attributed to the Afian industry and E71K20, attributed to the Silsilian industry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274612/the-impact-of-channel-capture-on-estuarine-hydro-morphodynamics-and-water-quality-in-the-amazon-delta
#5
Eldo Silva Dos Santos, Paula Patrícia Pinheiro Lopes, Hyrla Herondina da Silva Pereira, Otávio de Oliveira Nascimento, Colin David Rennie, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, Alan Cavalcanti da Cunha
Due to progressive erosion of the new Urucurituba Channel, the Amazon River has recently captured almost all discharge from the lower Araguari River (Amapá-AP, Brazil), which previously flowed directly to the Atlantic Ocean. These recent geomorphological changes have caused strong impacts on the landscape and hydrodynamic patterns near the Araguari River mouth, especially the alteration of the riverine drainage system and its water quality. Landsat images were used to assess the estuarine landscape morphodynamic, particularly the expansion of the Urucurituba Channel, 80km from the Araguari River mouth, chronicling its connection to the Amazon River...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259841/unraveling-the-structure-and-composition-of-varadero-reef-an-improbable-and-imperiled-coral-reef-in-the-colombian-caribbean
#6
Valeria Pizarro, Sara C Rodríguez, Mateo López-Victoria, Fernando A Zapata, Sven Zea, Claudia T Galindo-Martínez, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Joseph Pollock, Mónica Medina
Coral reefs are commonly associated with oligotrophic, well-illuminated waters. In 2013, a healthy coral reef was discovered in one of the least expected places within the Colombian Caribbean: at the entrance of Cartagena Bay, a highly-polluted system that receives industrial and sewage waste, as well as high sediment and freshwater loads from an outlet of the Magdalena River (the longest and most populated river basin in Colombia). Here we provide the first characterization of Varadero Reef's geomorphology and biological diversity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259623/headwater-capture-evidenced-by-paleo-rivers-reconstruction-and-population-genetic-structure-of-the-armored-catfish-pareiorhaphis-garbei-in-the-serra-do-mar-mountains-of-southeastern-brazil
#7
Sergio M Q Lima, Waldir M Berbel-Filho, Thais F P Araújo, Henrique Lazzarotto, Andrey Tatarenkov, John C Avise
Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a 'near threatened' armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245469/diversity-and-distribution-of-phanaeini-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-in-mexico
#8
Viridiana Lizardo, Federico Escobar, Octavio Rojas-Soto
In this study, we systematized available distribution data, obtained from biological databases and relevant literature, for Mexican species belonging to the tribe Phanaeini. The main objectives were to provide an overall description of the distribution records in biological collections, to detect potential sampling biases, to describe the seasonality of collections and to obtain species distribution models using the Desktop GARP algorithm. A total of 5,562 records, corresponding to 32 species in Mexico, were compiled, including the recently described Phanaeus zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236766/influences-of-micro-geomorphology-on-the-stoichiometry-of-c-n-and-p-in-chenier-island-soils-and-plants-in-the-yellow-river-delta-china
#9
Fanzhu Qu, Ling Meng, Junbao Yu, Jingtao Liu, Jingkuan Sun, Hongjun Yang, Linshui Dong
Studies have indicated that consistent or well-constrained (relatively low variability) carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios exist in large-scale ecosystems, including both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Little is known about the C, N and P stoichiometric ratios that exist in the soils and plants of Chenier Island in the Yellow River Delta (YRD). We examined the distribution patterns and relationships of C, N and P stoichiometry in the soils and plants of Chenier Island, as well as the potential influences of the island's micro-geomorphology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179110/land-defend-an-innovative-database-structure-for-landslides-and-floods-and-their-consequences
#10
Elisabetta Napolitano, Ivan Marchesini, Paola Salvati, Marco Donnini, Cinzia Bianchi, Fausto Guzzetti
Information on historical landslides and floods - collectively called "geo-hydrological hazards - is key to understand the complex dynamics of the events, to estimate the temporal and spatial frequency of damaging events, and to quantify their impact. A number of databases on geo-hydrological hazards and their consequences have been developed worldwide at different geographical and temporal scales. Of the few available database structures that can handle information on both landslides and floods some are outdated and others were not designed to store, organize, and manage information on single phenomena or on the type and monetary value of the damages and the remediation actions...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166153/catastrophic-shifts-in-semiarid-vegetation-soil-systems-may-unfold-rapidly-or-slowly
#11
Derek Karssenberg, Marc F P Bierkens, Max Rietkerk
Under gradual change of a driver, complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states. For many ecosystems it is unknown how rapidly such a critical transition unfolds. Here we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a semiarid ecosystem with a model coupling the vegetation and geomorphological system. Two stable states-vegetated and bare-are identified, and it is shown that the change between these states is a critical transition. Surprisingly, the critical transition between the vegetated and bare state can unfold either rapidly over a few years or gradually over decennia up to millennia, depending on parameter values...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156285/modelling-spatial-and-temporal-variations-of-annual-suspended-sediment-yields-from-small-agricultural-catchments
#12
A Rymszewicz, M Bruen, J J O'Sullivan, J N Turner, D M Lawler, J R Harrington, E Conroy, M Kelly-Quinn
Estimates of sediment yield are important for ecological and geomorphological assessment of fluvial systems and for assessment of soil erosion within a catchment. Many regulatory frameworks, such as the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, derived from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) require reporting of annual sediment fluxes. While they may be measured in large rivers, sediment flux is rarely measured in smaller rivers. Measurements of sediment transport at a national scale can be also challenging and therefore, sediment yield models are often utilised by water resource managers for the predictions of sediment yields in the ungauged catchments...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153472/inorganic-sulfur-and-mercury-speciation-in-the-water-level-fluctuation-zone-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china-the-role-of-inorganic-reduced-sulfur-on-mercury-methylation
#13
Jiang Liu, Tao Jiang, Feiyue Wang, Jinzhong Zhang, Dingyong Wang, Rong Huang, Deliang Yin, Zeyan Liu, Jinzhu Wang
The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China is a unique geomorphological unit that undergoes annual flooding and drying alternation cycle. The alternating redox conditions within the WLFZ are expected to result in dynamic cycling of reduced sulfur species, which could affect mercury (Hg) methylation due to the high affinity of reduced sulfur species to both inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)i) and methylmercury (MeHg). Variations of inorganic sulfur species (measured as acid volatile sulfide, chromium reductive sulfur, elemental sulfur, and water-soluble sulfate), total mercury (THg) and MeHg were studied at two typical WLFZ sites in the TGR from July 2015 to June 2016...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150720/assessing-restoration-effects-on-river-hydromorphology-using-the-process-based-morphological-quality-index-in-eight-european-river-reaches
#14
B Belletti, L Nardi, M Rinaldi, M Poppe, K Brabec, M Bussettini, F Comiti, M Gielczewski, B Golfieri, S Hellsten, J Kail, E Marchese, P Marcinkowski, T Okruszko, A Paillex, M Schirmer, M Stelmaszczyk, N Surian
The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the Morphological Quality Index for monitoring (MQIm) have been applied to eight case studies across Europe with the objective of analyzing the hydromorphological response to various restoration measures and of comparing the results of the MQI and MQIm as a morphological assessment applied at the reach scale, with a conventional site scale physical-habitat assessment method. For each restored reach, the two indices were applied to the pre-restoration and post-restoration conditions...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147982/opportunity-mapping-of-natural-flood-management-measures-a-case-study-from-the-headwaters-of-the-warwickshire-avon
#15
Tom Lavers, Susanne Charlesworth
The use of natural flood management (NFM) measures to address severe flooding received considerable public attention during December 2015-January 2016 storms. Within the Warwickshire-Avon Catchment, UK, high arable and improved grassland land cover with small, isolated communities at risk, lead to the exploration of novel techniques that use farmland high up in flood-prone catchments to hold water and reduce outflow discharge. This paper will discuss the methodology used to identify areas in the Warwickshire-Avon, which could be used to install NFM measures to attenuate the storm peak and provide wider ecosystem services, principally addressing total phosphate and sediment entering the receiving watercourse...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089508/gravel-bars-are-sites-of-increased-co2-outgassing-in-stream-corridors
#16
Kyle S Boodoo, Nico Trauth, Christian Schmidt, Jakob Schelker, Tom J Battin
Streams are significant sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Estimates of CO2 evasion fluxes (f CO2) from streams typically relate to the free flowing water but exclude geomorphological structures within the stream corridor. We found that gravel bars (GBs) are important sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, with on average more than twice as high f CO2 as those from the streamwater, affecting f CO2 at the level of entire headwater networks. Vertical temperature gradients resulting from the interplay between advective heat transfer and mixing with groundwater within GBs explained the observed variation in f CO2 from the GBs reasonably well...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078329/entropy-and-optimality-in-river-deltas
#17
Alejandro Tejedor, Anthony Longjas, Douglas A Edmonds, Ilya Zaliapin, Tryphon T Georgiou, Andrea Rinaldo, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059218/mapping-and-predictive-variations-of-soil-bacterial-richness-across-france
#18
Sébastien Terrat, Walid Horrigue, Samuel Dequietd, Nicolas P A Saby, Mélanie Lelièvre, Virginie Nowak, Julie Tripied, Tiffanie Régnier, Claudy Jolivet, Dominique Arrouays, Patrick Wincker, Corinne Cruaud, Battle Karimi, Antonio Bispo, Pierre Alain Maron, Nicolas Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, Lionel Ranjard
Although numerous studies have demonstrated the key role of bacterial diversity in soil functions and ecosystem services, little is known about the variations and determinants of such diversity on a nationwide scale. The overall objectives of this study were i) to describe the bacterial taxonomic richness variations across France, ii) to identify the ecological processes (i.e. selection by the environment and dispersal limitation) influencing this distribution, and iii) to develop a statistical predictive model of soil bacterial richness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054640/apportioning-source-of-erosion-induced-organic-matter-in-the-hilly-gully-region-of-loess-plateau-in-china-insight-from-lipid-biomarker-and-isotopic-signature-analysis
#19
Chun Liu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Nie, Lin Liu, Haibing Xiao, Danyang Wang, Hao Peng, Guangming Zeng
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) at global and local scales is one of the challenges in the environmental sciences and i.e. terrestrial biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. In our study, a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of eroded sedimentary OM from an eco-geomorphologic perspective was shown successfully via a coupled molecular n-alkane biomarkers and stable isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) along with elemental compositions (TOC and TN) using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053749/phylogeography-and-genetic-effects-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-endemic-urophysa-ranunculaceae-in-yungui-plateau-and-adjacent-regions
#20
Deng-Feng Xie, Min-Jie Li, Jin-Bo Tan, Megan Price, Qun-Ying Xiao, Song-Dong Zhou, Yan Yu, Xing-Jin He
Urophysa is a Chinese endemic genus with only two species (U. rockii and U. henryi) distributed in Yungui Plateau (Guizhou Province) and adjacent regions (i.e., Provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Sichuan). The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and population differentiation within Urophysa and investigate the effect of the Yungui Plateau uplift and climate oscillations on evolution of Urophysa. In this study, micro-morphological characteristics, nine microsatellite loci (SSR), two nuclear loci (ITS and ETS) and two chloroplast fragments (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and assess genetic and phylogeographical structure of Urophysa...
2017: PloS One
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