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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890476/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-macrophyte-cover-in-a-large-regulated-river
#1
A Tena, D Vericat, L E Gonzalo, R J Batalla
The River Ebro basin is extensively dammed. Dams alter the geomorphological functioning of the river by altering its flow regime (e.g. reducing mean and maximum discharges), increasing bed stability (armouring) and decreasing turbidity (water clarity). These effects, together with an increase in nutrient concentrations and water temperature, have generated optimal conditions for the proliferation of aquatic macrophytes. In this paper, we analyse the temporal and spatial changes of macrophyte cover in the lowermost Ebro through a series of field campaigns carried out between 2009 and 2010...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890416/larix-decidua-%C3%AE-18-o-tree-ring-cellulose-mainly-reflects-the-isotopic-signature-of-winter-snow-in-a-high-altitude-glacial-valley-of-the-european-alps
#2
Giovanni Leonelli, Giovanna Battipaglia, Paolo Cherubini, Matthias Saurer, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Maurizio Maugeri, Barbara Stenni, Stella Fusco, Valter Maggi, Manuela Pelfini
We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ(18)O precipitation values. The δ(18)O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ(18)O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881745/natural-bounds-on-herbivorous-coral-reef-fishes
#3
Adel Heenan, Andrew S Hoey, Gareth J Williams, Ivor D Williams
Humans are an increasingly dominant driver of Earth's biological communities, but differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is crucial. Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining coral dominance on coral reefs, and are widely affected by human activities, principally fishing. We assess the relative importance of human and biophysical (habitat and oceanographic) drivers on the biomass of five herbivorous functional groups among 33 islands in the central and western Pacific Ocean...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878089/phylogenetic-relationships-of-freshwater-fishes-of-the-genus-capoeta-actinopterygii-cyprinidae-in-iran
#4
Hamid Reza Ghanavi, Elena G Gonzalez, Ignacio Doadrio
The Middle East contains a great diversity of Capoeta species, but their taxonomy remains poorly described. We used mitochondrial history to examine diversity of the algae-scraping cyprinid Capoeta in Iran, applying the species-delimiting approaches General Mixed Yule-Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP) as well as haplotype network analyses. Using the BEAST program, we also examined temporal divergence patterns of Capoeta. The monophyly of the genus and the existence of three previously described main clades (Mesopotamian, Anatolian-Iranian, and Aralo-Caspian) were confirmed...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835063/characterization-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-the-soil-and-sediment-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#5
Tujin Wang, Jin Pan, Xuelian Liu
This paper analyzes the concentration, distribution, bioavailability, and potential heavy metal contamination risk of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this paper, 14 stations that cover the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the TGR were selected. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the TGR showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr were higher in the upper and lower reaches than those in the middle reaches because of industrial and agricultural activities as well as natural processes (e...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830742/multidisciplinary-oil-spill-modeling-to-protect-coastal-communities-and-the-environment-of-the-eastern-mediterranean-sea
#6
Tiago M Alves, Eleni Kokinou, George Zodiatis, Hari Radhakrishnan, Costas Panagiotakis, Robin Lardner
We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821045/diversification-into-novel-habitats-in-the-africa-clade-of-dioscorea-dioscoreaceae-erect-habit-and-elephant-s-foot-tubers
#7
Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Pilar Catalan, Eugene Z Shongwe, Juan Viruel, Paul Wilkin, Michelle van der Bank
BACKGROUND: Dioscorea is a widely distributed and highly diversified genus in tropical regions where it is represented by ten main clades, one of which diversified exclusively in Africa. In southern Africa it is characterised by a distinct group of species with a pachycaul or "elephant's foot" structure that is partially to fully exposed above the substrate. In contrast to African representatives of the genus from other clades, occurring mainly in forest or woodland, the pachycaul taxa and their southern African relatives occur in diverse habitats ranging from woodland to open vegetation...
November 8, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809401/lagged-cumulative-spruce-budworm-defoliation-affects-the-risk-of-fire-ignition-in-ontario-canada
#8
Patrick M A James, Louis-Etienne Robert, B M Wotton, David L Martell, Richard A Fleming
Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees...
November 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796972/mercury-content-in-agricultural-soils-vojvodina-province-serbia
#9
Jordana Ninkov, Slobodan Marković, Dušana Banjac, Jovica Vasin, Stanko Milić, Borislav Banjac, Aleksandra Mihailović
The Vojvodina Province in northern Serbia is well known for its intensive field crops production. Over 90 % of total arable land, which represents more than 1500.000 ha, is used for field or vegetable crop production. A grid superimposed on Vojvodina land by means of a GIS tool (GIS ArcView 10) has divided land into 4 × 4 km units, each representing an area of 1600 ha. Total number of 1370 bulked soil samples were taken (0-30 cm depth) from agricultural land and analysed for total mercury content THg...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793079/population-subdivision-of-hydrothermal-vent-polychaete-alvinella-pompejana-across-equatorial-and-easter-microplate-boundaries
#10
Sook-Jin Jang, Eunji Park, Won-Kyung Lee, Shannon B Johnson, Robert C Vrijenhoek, Yong-Jin Won
BACKGROUND: The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge...
October 28, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782159/particulate-matter-emissions-from-biochar-amended-soils-as-a-potential-tradeoff-to-the-negative-emission-potential
#11
Sujith Ravi, Brenton S Sharratt, Junran Li, Stuart Olshevski, Zhongju Meng, Jianguo Zhang
Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749920/a-multi-faceted-approach-to-analyse-the-effects-of-environmental-variables-on-geographic-range-and-genetic-structure-of-a-perennial-psammophilous-geophyte-the-case-of-the-sea-daffodil-pancratium-maritimum-l-in-the-mediterranean-basin
#12
Olga De Castro, Antonietta Di Maio, Mirko Di Febbraro, Gennaro Imparato, Michele Innangi, Errol Véla, Bruno Menale
The Mediterranean coastline is a dynamic and complex system which owes its complexity to its past and present vicissitudes, e.g. complex tectonic history, climatic fluctuations, and prolonged coexistence with human activities. A plant species that is widespread in this habitat is the sea daffodil, Pancratium maritimum (Amaryllidaceae), which is a perennial clonal geophyte of the coastal sands of the Mediterranean and neighbouring areas, well adapted to the stressful conditions of sand dune environments. In this study, an integrated approach was used, combining genetic and environmental data with a niche modelling approach, aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of climate change on the geographic range of this species at different times {past (last inter-glacial, LIG; and last glacial maximum, LGM), present (CURR), near-future (FUT)} and (2) the possible influence of environmental variables on the genetic structure of this species in the current period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736962/spatial-variation-in-nutrient-and-water-color-effects-on-lake-chlorophyll-at-macroscales
#13
C Emi Fergus, Andrew O Finley, Patricia A Soranno, Tyler Wagner
The nutrient-water color paradigm is a framework to characterize lake trophic status by relating lake primary productivity to both nutrients and water color, the colored component of dissolved organic carbon. Total phosphorus (TP), a limiting nutrient, and water color, a strong light attenuator, influence lake chlorophyll a concentrations (CHL). But, these relationships have been shown in previous studies to be highly variable, which may be related to differences in lake and catchment geomorphology, the forms of nutrients and carbon entering the system, and lake community composition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732674/modeling-coastal-vulnerability-through-space-and-time
#14
Thomas Hopper, Marcia S Meixler
Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701107/dawn-arrives-at-ceres-exploration-of-a-small-volatile-rich-world
#15
C T Russell, C A Raymond, E Ammannito, D L Buczkowski, M C De Sanctis, H Hiesinger, R Jaumann, A S Konopliv, H Y McSween, A Nathues, R S Park, C M Pieters, T H Prettyman, T B McCord, L A McFadden, S Mottola, M T Zuber, S P Joy, C Polanskey, M D Rayman, J C Castillo-Rogez, P J Chi, J P Combe, A Ermakov, R R Fu, M Hoffmann, Y D Jia, S D King, D J Lawrence, J-Y Li, S Marchi, F Preusker, T Roatsch, O Ruesch, P Schenk, M N Villarreal, N Yamashita
On 6 March 2015, Dawn arrived at Ceres to find a dark, desiccated surface punctuated by small, bright areas. Parts of Ceres' surface are heavily cratered, but the largest expected craters are absent. Ceres appears gravitationally relaxed at only the longest wavelengths, implying a mechanically strong lithosphere with a weaker deep interior. Ceres' dry exterior displays hydroxylated silicates, including ammoniated clays of endogenous origin. The possibility of abundant volatiles at depth is supported by geomorphologic features such as flat crater floors with pits, lobate flows of materials, and a singular mountain that appears to be an extrusive cryovolcanic dome...
September 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701088/the-geomorphology-of-ceres
#16
D L Buczkowski, B E Schmidt, D A Williams, S C Mest, J E C Scully, A I Ermakov, F Preusker, P Schenk, K A Otto, H Hiesinger, D O'Brien, S Marchi, H Sizemore, K Hughson, H Chilton, M Bland, S Byrne, N Schorghofer, T Platz, R Jaumann, T Roatsch, M V Sykes, A Nathues, M C De Sanctis, C A Raymond, C T Russell
Analysis of Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera image data allows evaluation of the topography and geomorphology of features on the surface of Ceres. The dwarf planet is dominated by numerous craters, but other features are also common. Linear structures include both those associated with impact craters and those that do not appear to have any correlation to an impact event. Abundant lobate flows are identified, and numerous domical features are found at a range of scales. Features suggestive of near-surface ice, cryomagmatism, and cryovolcanism have been identified...
September 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690399/controls-on-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-the-hyporheic-zones-of-streams
#17
Annika Marie Quick, William Jeffery Reeder, Tiffany Brooke Farrell, Daniele Tonina, Kevin Paul Feris, Shawn G Benner
The magnitude and mechanisms of nitrous oxide (N2O) release from rivers and streams are actively debated. The complex interactions of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical controls on emissions of this important greenhouse gas preclude prediction of when and where N2O emissions will be significant. We present observations from column and large-scale flume experiments supporting an integrative model of N2O emissions from stream sediments. Our results show a distinct, replicable, pattern of nitrous oxide generation and consumption dictated by subsurface (hyporheic) residence times and biological nitrogen reduction rates...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679956/thresholds-in-marsh-resilience-to-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#18
Brian R Silliman, Philip M Dixon, Cameron Wobus, Qiang He, Pedro Daleo, Brent B Hughes, Matthew Rissing, Jonathan M Willis, Mark W Hester
Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672510/regional-drivers-of-clutch-loss-reveal-important-trade-offs-for-beach-nesting-birds
#19
Brooke Maslo, Thomas A Schlacher, Michael A Weston, Chantal M Huijbers, Chris Anderson, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly, David S Schoeman
Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665450/on-the-relation-between-fluvio-deltaic-flood-basin-geomorphology-and-the-wide-spread-occurrence-of-arsenic-pollution-in-shallow-aquifers
#20
Marinus E Donselaar, Ajay G Bhatt, Ashok K Ghosh
Pollution of groundwater with natural (geogenic) arsenic occurs on an enormous, world-wide scale, and causes wide-spread, serious health risks for an estimated more than hundred million people who depend on the use of shallow aquifers for drinking and irrigation water. A literature review of key studies on arsenic concentration levels yields that Holocene fluvial and deltaic flood basins are the hotspots of arsenic pollution, and that the dominant geomorphological setting of the arsenic-polluted areas consists of shallow-depth meandering-river deposits with sand-prone fluvial point-bar deposits surrounded by clay-filled (clay plug) abandoned meander bends (oxbow lakes)...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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