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Geomorphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#1
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222134/gis-based-landform-classification-of-bronze-age-archaeological-sites-on-crete-island
#2
Athanasios V Argyriou, Richard M Teeuw, Apostolos Sarris
Various physical attributes of the Earth's surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162758/glacial-stages-and-post-glacial-environmental-evolution-in-the-upper-garonne-valley-central-pyrenees
#3
M Fernandes, M Oliva, P Palma, J Ruiz-Fernández, L Lopes
The maximum glacial extent in the Central Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation is known to have occurred before the global Last Glacial Maximum, but the succession of cold events afterwards and their impact on the landscape are still relatively unknown. This study focuses on the environmental evolution in the upper valley of the Garonne River since the Last Glaciation. Geomorphological mapping allows analysis of the spatial distribution of inherited and current processes and landforms in the study area. The distribution of glacial records (moraines, till, erratic boulders, glacial thresholds) suggests the existence of four glacial stages, from the maximum expansion to the end of the glaciation...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152456/geomorphology-applied-to-landscape-analysis-for-planning-and-management-of-natural-spaces-case-study-las-batuecas-s-de-francia-and-quilamas-natural-parks-salamanca-spain
#4
A M Martínez-Graña, P G Silva, J L Goy, J Elez, V Valdés, C Zazo
Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144910/the-calibrated-phylogeny-of-the-drosophila-fasciola-subgroup-d-repleta-group-wasserman-indicates-neogene-diversification-of-its-internal-branches
#5
F F Franco, E C C Silva, D Y Barrios-Leal, F M Sene, M H Manfrin
The species of the Drosophila fasciola subgroup Wasserman represent the dominant section of the Drosophila repleta group Wasserman in the American rainforests and have a broad geographical distribution in the New World. However, despite of its wide range, the D. fasciola subgroup is one of the most overlooked D. repleta subgroups. Here, we report a molecular phylogenetic analysis focused on the D. fasciola subgroup using two mitochondrial [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)] and two nuclear [elongation factor-1alpha F1 (EF-alphaF1) and transformer (tra)] genes...
January 31, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129902/geomorphodiversity-index-quantifying-the-diversity-of-landforms-and-physical-landscape
#6
Laura Melelli, Francesca Vergari, Luisa Liucci, Maurizio Del Monte
The physical landscape is the mosaic resulting from a wide spectrum of environmental components. The landforms define the variety, or diversity, of the geomorphological component: the geomorphodiversity. Landforms are usually represented in thematic maps where the scale and the graphic solutions are widely heterogeneous. Since geomorphological maps are not always easy to obtain and standardize, topography might be used as a proxy to infer the morphological signature. To recognize, evaluate, and in some cases promote the geomorphodiversity of an area, a numerical assessment is preferable...
January 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#7
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074399/evaluating-the-impact-of-lower-resolutions-of-digital-elevation-model-on-rainfall-runoff-modeling-for-ungauged-catchments
#8
Abul Razzaq Ghumman, Ibrahim Saleh Al-Salamah, Saleem Saleh AlSaleem, Husnain Haider
Geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) usually uses geomorphologic parameters of catchment estimated from digital elevation model (DEM) for rainfall-runoff modeling of ungauged watersheds with limited data. Higher resolutions (e.g., 5 or 10 m) of DEM play an important role in the accuracy of rainfall-runoff models; however, such resolutions are expansive to obtain and require much greater efforts and time for preparation of inputs. In this research, a modeling framework is developed to evaluate the impact of lower resolutions (i...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073363/swept-away-ocean-currents-and-seascape-features-influence-genetic-structure-across-the-18-000-km-indo-pacific-distribution-of-a-marine-invertebrate-the-black-lip-pearl-oyster-pinctada-margaritifera
#9
Monal M Lal, Paul C Southgate, Dean R Jerry, Cyprien Bosserelle, Kyall R Zenger
BACKGROUND: Genetic structure in many widely-distributed broadcast spawning marine invertebrates remains poorly understood, posing substantial challenges for their fishery management, conservation and aquaculture. Under the Core-Periphery Hypothesis (CPH), genetic diversity is expected to be highest at the centre of a species' distribution, progressively decreasing with increased differentiation towards outer range limits, as populations become increasingly isolated, fragmented and locally adapted...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040219/sediment-delivery-modeling-in-practice-comparing-the-effects-of-watershed-characteristics-and-data-resolution-across-hydroclimatic-regions
#10
Perrine Hamel, Kim Falinski, Richard Sharp, Daniel A Auerbach, María Sánchez-Canales, P James Dennedy-Frank
Geospatial models are commonly used to quantify sediment contributions at the watershed scale. However, the sensitivity of these models to variation in hydrological and geomorphological features, in particular to land use and topography data, remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the performance of one such model, the InVEST sediment delivery model, for six sites comprising a total of 28 watersheds varying in area (6-13,500km(2)), climate (tropical, subtropical, mediterranean), topography, and land use/land cover...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011731/distribution-of-the-habitat-suitability-of-the-main-malaria-vector-in-french-guiana-using-maximum-entropy-modeling
#11
Yi Moua, Emmanuel Roux, Romain Girod, Isabelle Dusfour, Benoit de Thoisy, Frédérique Seyler, Sébastien Briolant
Malaria is an important health issue in French Guiana. Its principal mosquito vector in this region is Anopheles darlingi Root. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this species is still very incomplete due to the extent of French Guiana and the difficulty to access most of the territory. Species distribution modeling based on the maximal entropy procedure was used to predict the spatial distribution of An. darlingi using 39 presence sites. The resulting model provided significantly high prediction performances (mean 10-fold cross-validated partial area under the curve and continuous Boyce index equal to, respectively, 1...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940319/trade-offs-between-data-resolution-accuracy-and-cost-when-choosing-information-to-plan-reserves-for-coral-reef-ecosystems
#12
Vivitskaia J Tulloch, Carissa J Klein, Stacy D Jupiter, Ayesha I T Tulloch, Chris Roelfsema, Hugh P Possingham
Conservation planners must reconcile trade-offs associated with using biodiversity data of differing qualities to make decisions. Coarse habitat classifications are commonly used as surrogates to design marine reserve networks when fine-scale biodiversity data are incomplete or unavailable. Although finely-classified habitat maps provide more detail, they may have more misclassification errors, a common problem when remotely-sensed imagery is used. Despite these issues, planners rarely consider the effects of errors when choosing data for spatially explicit conservation prioritizations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890476/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-macrophyte-cover-in-a-large-regulated-river
#13
A Tena, D Vericat, L E Gonzalo, R J Batalla
The River Ebro basin is extensively dammed. Dams alter the geomorphological functioning of the river by altering its flow regime (e.g. reducing mean and maximum discharges), increasing bed stability (armouring) and decreasing turbidity (water clarity). These effects, together with an increase in nutrient concentrations and water temperature, have generated optimal conditions for the proliferation of aquatic macrophytes. In this paper, we analyse the temporal and spatial changes of macrophyte cover in the lowermost Ebro through a series of field campaigns carried out between 2009 and 2010...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890416/larix-decidua-%C3%AE-18-o-tree-ring-cellulose-mainly-reflects-the-isotopic-signature-of-winter-snow-in-a-high-altitude-glacial-valley-of-the-european-alps
#14
Giovanni Leonelli, Giovanna Battipaglia, Paolo Cherubini, Matthias Saurer, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Maurizio Maugeri, Barbara Stenni, Stella Fusco, Valter Maggi, Manuela Pelfini
We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ(18)O precipitation values. The δ(18)O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ(18)O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881745/natural-bounds-on-herbivorous-coral-reef-fishes
#15
Adel Heenan, Andrew S Hoey, Gareth J Williams, Ivor D Williams
Humans are an increasingly dominant driver of Earth's biological communities, but differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is crucial. Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining coral dominance on coral reefs, and are widely affected by human activities, principally fishing. We assess the relative importance of human and biophysical (habitat and oceanographic) drivers on the biomass of five herbivorous functional groups among 33 islands in the central and western Pacific Ocean...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878089/phylogenetic-relationships-of-freshwater-fishes-of-the-genus-capoeta-actinopterygii-cyprinidae-in-iran
#16
Hamid Reza Ghanavi, Elena G Gonzalez, Ignacio Doadrio
The Middle East contains a great diversity of Capoeta species, but their taxonomy remains poorly described. We used mitochondrial history to examine diversity of the algae-scraping cyprinid Capoeta in Iran, applying the species-delimiting approaches General Mixed Yule-Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP) as well as haplotype network analyses. Using the BEAST program, we also examined temporal divergence patterns of Capoeta. The monophyly of the genus and the existence of three previously described main clades (Mesopotamian, Anatolian-Iranian, and Aralo-Caspian) were confirmed...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835063/characterization-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-the-soil-and-sediment-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#17
Tujin Wang, Jin Pan, Xuelian Liu
This paper analyzes the concentration, distribution, bioavailability, and potential heavy metal contamination risk of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this paper, 14 stations that cover the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the TGR were selected. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the TGR showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr were higher in the upper and lower reaches than those in the middle reaches because of industrial and agricultural activities as well as natural processes (e...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830742/multidisciplinary-oil-spill-modeling-to-protect-coastal-communities-and-the-environment-of-the-eastern-mediterranean-sea
#18
Tiago M Alves, Eleni Kokinou, George Zodiatis, Hari Radhakrishnan, Costas Panagiotakis, Robin Lardner
We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821045/diversification-into-novel-habitats-in-the-africa-clade-of-dioscorea-dioscoreaceae-erect-habit-and-elephant-s-foot-tubers
#19
Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Pilar Catalan, Eugene Z Shongwe, Juan Viruel, Paul Wilkin, Michelle van der Bank
BACKGROUND: Dioscorea is a widely distributed and highly diversified genus in tropical regions where it is represented by ten main clades, one of which diversified exclusively in Africa. In southern Africa it is characterised by a distinct group of species with a pachycaul or "elephant's foot" structure that is partially to fully exposed above the substrate. In contrast to African representatives of the genus from other clades, occurring mainly in forest or woodland, the pachycaul taxa and their southern African relatives occur in diverse habitats ranging from woodland to open vegetation...
November 8, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809401/lagged-cumulative-spruce-budworm-defoliation-affects-the-risk-of-fire-ignition-in-ontario-canada
#20
Patrick M A James, Louis-Etienne Robert, B M Wotton, David L Martell, Richard A Fleming
Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees...
November 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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