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Soil microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633523/the-effect-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-on-buried-steel-pipeline-corrosion
#1
Amy J Spark, Ivan S Cole, Adam S Best, David W Law, Liam P Ward
Buried steel infrastructure can be a source of iron ions for bacterial species, leading to microbiologically influence corrosion (MIC). Localised corrosion of pipelines due to MIC is one of the key failure mechanisms of buried steel pipelines. In order to better understand the mechanisms of localised corrosion in soil, semi-solid agar has been developed as an analogue for soil. Here, Pseudomonas fluorescens has been introduced to the system to understand how bacteria interact with steel. Through electrochemical testing including open circuit potentials, potentiodynamic scans, anodic potential holds and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy it has been shown that P...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631154/soil-derived-organic-particles-and-their-effects-on-the-community-of-culturable-microorganisms
#2
Lukáš Bystrianský, Marcel Štofik, Milan Gryndler
Soil microbial community interacts with a range of particulate material in the soil, consisting of both inorganic and organic compounds with different levels of water solubility. Though sparingly water-soluble and insoluble organic compounds in the soil may affect living organisms, they are difficult to introduce into microbiological media. Their biological activity (i.e., their effect on soil microorganisms) thus has been almost neglected in most of the cultivation assays. To fill this gap, we propose the use of fine organic particles prepared from soil organic matter that are introduced into a laboratory medium where microbial community is cultivated...
June 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600590/do-multi-year-applications-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-for-control-of-mosquito-larvae-affect-the-abundance-of-b-cereus-group-populations-in-riparian-wetland-soils
#3
Salome Schneider, Tania Tajrin, Jan O Lundström, Niels B Hendriksen, Petter Melin, Ingvar Sundh
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-borne bacterium affiliated to the Bacillus cereus group (Bcg) and has been used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae for several decades. However, knowledge is limited on whether long-term Bti application can affect the structure of indigenous communities of Bcg and the overall abundance of Bti. Using species- and group-specific quantitative PCR assays, we measured the Bcg- and Bti-abundances in riparian wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains of central Sweden...
June 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589386/navigating-the-jungles-of-tropical-infectious-gastrointestinal-pathology-a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-endoscopic-biopsy
#4
Tomas Slavik, Gregory Y Lauwers
International travels and global human migration have had the unforeseen consequence of increasing the exposure of histopathologists in developed countries to the pathology of tropical infectious disease. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often the primary site of infection due to the faecal-oral route of transmission and the high risk of exposure to contaminated water, food or soil when travelling to these regions. Whilst current microbiologic techniques are far more sensitive than histology in detecting infectious pathogens, the histopathologist nonetheless retains a pivotal role in diagnosing tropical GIT disease...
June 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583948/lysinibacillus-fusiformis-m5-induces-increased-complexity-in-bacillus-subtilis-168-colony-biofilms-via-hypoxanthine
#5
Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Stefanie Kankel, Sebastian Götze, Robert Barnett, Pierre Stallforth, Ákos T Kovács
In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, or systems biology amongst others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria, which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with B. subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as inducer of wrinkle-formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570970/altered-humin-compositions-under-organic-and-inorganic-fertilization-on-an-intensively-cultivated-sandy-loam-soil
#6
Jisheng Xu, Bingzi Zhao, Wenying Chu, Jingdong Mao, Dan C Olk, Xiuli Xin, Jiabao Zhang
Humin is the most recalcitrant fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). However, little is known about quantitative structural information on humin and the roles of soil mircoorganisms involved in the humin formation. We applied advanced solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to provide deep insights into humin structural changes in response to long-term balanced fertilization on a Calcaric Fluvisol in the North China plain. The relationships between humin structure and microbiological properties such as microbial biomass, microbial quotient (qmic) and metabolic quotient (qCO2) were also studied...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555166/is-it-necessary-to-specifically-define-the-cause-of-surgically-treated-biliary-tract-infections-a-rare-case-of-raoultella-planticola-cholecystitis-and-literature-review
#7
Suat Can Ulukent, İnanc Samil Sarici, Nuri Alper Sahbaz, Yigit Mehmet Ozgun, Ozlem Akca, Kamuran Sanlı
Raoultella planticola is an aquatic and soil organism that does not notoriously cause invasive infections in humans. Infections in the literature are limited only in case reports. We present a very rare case of R. planticola cholecystitis. A 71-year-old female patient with abdominal pain was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis. Patient received intravenous antibiotic treatment, but the treatment failed and the patient underwent an open cholecystectomy. The final pathological result was gangrenous cholecystitis complicated with R...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541720/assessment-of-hydrocarbon-degradation-potentials-in-plant-microbe-interaction-system-with-oil-sludge-contamination-a-sustainable-solution
#8
Monika Dhote, Anil Kumar, Anjana Jajoo, Asha Juwarkar
A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#9
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527363/postmortem-microbial-communities-in-burial-soil-layers-of-skeletonized-humans
#10
Torri B Thomas, Sheree J Finley, Jeremy E Wilkinson, Daniel J Wescott, Azriel Gorski, Gulnaz T Javan
Microorganisms are major ecological participants in the successional decomposition of vertebrates. The relative abundance, or the scarcity, of certain microbial taxa in gravesoil has the potential to determine the ecological status of skeletons. However, there are substantial knowledge gaps that warrant consideration in the context of the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem. In the current study, we hypothesized that i.) soil microbial diversity is disparate in the latter stage of decomposition (skeletonization) compared to the earlier stages (fresh, bloat, active and advanced decay), and ii...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516055/antimicrobial-and-enzymatic-activity-of-actinomycetes-isolated-from-soils-of-coastal-islands
#11
Ivana Charousová, Juraj Medo, Eva Halenárová, Soňa Javoreková
Microbiological investigation of unexplored ecosystems is crucial for discovering of antibiotic producing actinomycetes. The present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial activity and identify the most active strains. Actinomycetes were isolated using the spread plate technique following by serial dilution of samples on starch casein agar. The screening method consists of primary and secondary testing. The most active isolates were identified based on molecular and cultural methods. 42 out of 66 isolates displayed antimicrobial potential...
April 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514700/a-comparative-in-situ-decomposition-study-using-still-born-piglets-and-leaf-litter-from-a-deciduous-forest
#12
Ayodeji O Olakanye, Andrew Nelson, T Komang Ralebitso-Senior
A cadaver and dead plant organic matter, or litter, are rich energy sources that undergo a complex decomposition process, which impact the surrounding environmental microbiota. Advances in molecular microbiology techniques, with study of the 16S RNA genes, in particular, have highlighted the application of forensic ecogenomics in addressing key knowledge gaps. To investigate subsurface microbiome shifts as a novel tool to establish "postmortem microbial clock" and augment postmortem interval (PMI) and time-since-burial estimations, an in situ study with triplicate underground burials of piglets as human taphonomic proxies and Quercus robur leaf litter was monitored for 270 days...
July 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500038/enrichment-and-physiological-characterization-of-a-cold-adapted-nitrite-oxidizer-nitrotoga-sp-from-eelgrass-sediments
#13
Kento Ishii, Hirotsugu Fujitani, Kentaro Soh, Tatsunori Nakagawa, Reiji Takahashi, Satoshi Tsuneda
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are responsible for the second step of nitrification in natural and engineered ecosystems. The recently discovered genus Nitrotoga belongs to the Betaproteobacteria and has potentially high environmental importance. Although environmental clones affiliated with Nitrotoga are widely distributed, the limited number of cultivated Nitrotoga results in poor understanding of their ecophysiological features. In this study, we successfully enriched the non-marine cold-adapted Nitrotoga sp...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499227/organic-carbon-pools-and-soil-biological-fertility-are-affected-by-land-use-intensity-in-mediterranean-ecosystems-of-sardinia-italy
#14
Rosa Francaviglia, Gianluca Renzi, Luigi Ledda, Anna Benedetti
Soil quality is mainly studied from the chemical and physical point of view, whereas soil biochemical and microbiological parameters are relatively more scarcely explored to assess the effect of management practices. This study aimed to evaluate soil organic carbon (SOC) and its pools; soil microbial activity parameters; and the Biological Fertility Index (BFI), in six land uses characteristics of the Mediterranean basin in north-eastern Sardinia. These land uses differed in management intensity and consisted of: tilled vineyard (TV), no tilled grassed vineyard (GV), former vineyards (FV), hay crop and pasture (HC and PA), cork oak forest (CO)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494228/enhanced-oxygen-reducing-biocathode-electroactivity-by-using-sediment-extract-as-inoculum
#15
Jiali Wu, Wenshan Chen, Yuqing Yan, Kailin Gao, Chengmei Liao, Qiang Li, Xin Wang
Autotrophic bacteria are able to catalyze cathodic oxygen reduction as a renewable and sustainable inexpensive catalyst. However, the performance of biocathode varied over reactors, and we still not know how inoculums affect this system. Using three different inoculum of wastewater (WW), sediment extract (SE) and soil extract (SO) in parallel reactors, we found that SE achieved the shortest setup time (17-25% shorter) as well as the highest power density compared to those of SO and WW. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) further revealed that the current densities of SE biocathodes (100±1A/m(3)) was 150% and 67% higher than those of WW biocathodes (40±1A/m(3)) and SO biocathodes (65±1A/m(3))...
May 2, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458609/antibiotic-resistance-and-the-biology-of-history
#16
Hannah Landecker
Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts...
December 2016: Body & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438356/rainfall-increases-the-abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-within-a-riverine-microbial-community
#17
Andrea Di Cesare, Ester M Eckert, Michela Rogora, Gianluca Corno
Infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria are among the major threats for human health. Studies elucidating the role of the environment in their spread are still in their infancy, it, however, seems that different environments might function as a long-term reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that reside within their microbial communities. An increasing number of studies target the presence and the persistence of ARGs in waters and soils that are exposed to human activities; they, however, rarely consider the spatial/temporal variability that predominate in these environments...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432990/influence-of-red-mud-on-soil-microbial-communities-application-and-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-biolog-ecoplate-approach-as-a-tool-in-soil-microbiological-studies
#18
Viktória Feigl, Éva Ujaczki, Emese Vaszita, Mónika Molnár
Red mud can be applied as soil ameliorant to acidic, sandy and micronutrient deficient soils. There are still knowledge gaps regarding the effects of red mud on the soil microbial community. The Biolog EcoPlate technique is a promising tool for community level physiological profiling. This study presents a detailed evaluation of Biolog EcoPlate data from two case studies. In experiment "A" red mud from Ajka (Hungary) was mixed into acidic sandy soil in soil microcosms at 5-50 w/w%. In experiement "B" red mud soil mixture was mixed into low quality subsoil in a field experiment at 5-50 w/w%...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412024/prevalence-of-bacterial-contamination-in-platelet-concentrates-at-the-national-center-of-blood-transfusion-mexico
#19
G Ibáñez-Cervantes, J M Bello-López, V Fernández-Sánchez, C A Domínguez-Mendoza, L I Acevedo-Alfaro
OBJECTIVES: Most common bacterial sepsis associated with transfusion is caused by contaminated Platelet Concentrates (PC). The screening of PC to detect bacterial contamination is obligatory in Mexico, and it is carried out in quality control programs. In Mexico, the identification and molecular characterization of bacterial contaminants to detect contamination sources have not been implemented due to high costs; however, it is an actual current need. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred PC were randomly selected and microbiologically analyzed...
June 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400755/comparative-evaluation-of-four-bacteria-specific-primer-pairs-for-16s-rrna-gene-surveys
#20
Sofie Thijs, Michiel Op De Beeck, Bram Beckers, Sascha Truyens, Vincent Stevens, Jonathan D Van Hamme, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld
Bacterial taxonomic community analyses using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and high-throughput sequencing has become a cornerstone in microbiology research. To reliably detect the members, or operational taxonomic units (OTUs), that make up bacterial communities, taxonomic surveys rely on the use of the most informative PCR primers to amplify the broad range of phylotypes present in up-to-date reference databases. However, primers specific for the domain Bacteria were often developed some time ago against database versions that are now out of date...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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