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Soil microbiology

Vania Elisabete Schneider, Roger Vasques Marques, Taison Anderson Bortolin, Gisele Cemin, Geise Macedo Dos Santos
Pig farming is one of the human activities carried out to meet the increasing food demand by the increasing population. South Brazil is the region with most intensive pig farming in the country, exerting pressure on the water and soil environments by the relevant pollutant emissions. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to assess pig farming pollution by monitoring superficial water qualities of the Taquari-Antas Watershed in South Brazil. The study area is about 8062 km(2) (south latitude 292,614, 282,624 and west longitude 520,802, 504,554)...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
R M Hernández-Hernández, A Roldán, F Caravaca, G Rodriguez-Caballero, M P Torres, F T Maestre, M M Alguacil
Knowledge of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblages in the Trachypogon savanna ecosystems is very important to a better understanding of the ecological processes mediated by this soil microbial group that affects multiple ecosystem functions. Considering the hypothesis that the biocrusts can be linked to vegetation through the arbuscular fungi mycelial network, the objectives proposed in this study were to determine (i) whether there are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biocrusts (ii) whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblages are linked to the Trachypogon patches, and (iii) whether the composition of the assemblages is related to soil properties affected by microbiological activity...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Tommaso Bardelli, María Gómez-Brandón, Judith Ascher-Jenull, Flavio Fornasier, Paola Arfaioli, Davide Francioli, Markus Egli, Giacomo Sartori, Heribert Insam, Giacomo Pietramellara
Due to their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions sub- and alpine soils are often monitored in the context of climate change, usually, however, neglecting slope exposure. Therefore, we set up a climosequence-approach to study the effect of exposure and, in general, climate, on the microbial biomass and microbial diversity and activity, comprising five pairs of north (N)- and south (S)-facing sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 to 2400m a.s.l. in the Italian Alps (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy)...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Valeria Ancona, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Paola Grenni, Martina Di Lenola, Claudia Campanale, Angelantonio Calabrese, Vito Felice Uricchio, Giuseppe Mascolo, Angelo Massacci
A plant-assisted bioremediation strategy was applied in an area located in Southern Italy, close to the city of Taranto, historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals. A specific poplar clone (Monviso) was selected for its ability to promote organic pollutant degradation in the rhizosphere, as demonstrated elsewhere. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed at the time of poplar planting in selected plots at different distances from the trunk (0.25-1m) and at different soil depths (0-20 and 20-40cm), at day 420...
September 26, 2016: New Biotechnology
Aditi Sengupta, Yadi Wang, Antonio A Meira Neto, Katarena A Matos, Katerina Dontsova, Rob Root, Julie W Neilson, Raina M Maier, Jon Chorover, Peter A Troch
Studying co-evolution of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the subsurface of natural landscapes can enhance the understanding of coupled Earth-system processes. Such knowledge is imperative in improving predictions of hydro-biogeochemical cycles, especially under climate change scenarios. We present an experimental method, designed to capture sub-surface heterogeneity of an initially homogeneous soil system. This method is based on destructive sampling of a soil lysimeter designed to simulate a small-scale hillslope...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A S Gregory, K Ritz, S P McGrath, J N Quinton, K W T Goulding, R J A Jones, J A Harris, R Bol, P Wallace, E S Pilgrim, A P Whitmore
National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity...
October 2015: Soil Use Manag
Vikram Bhatia, Anu Gupta, Shweta Sharma, Rajeev Shandil, Manav Wadhawan, Nitesh Agrawal, Ajay Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic- ultrasound (EUS) aspiration needles are single-use devices. However, because of cost-constraints, these devices are reused multiple times in many centers. We studied microbiological contamination and bioburden on reprocessed needles, to evaluate if these devices can be sterilized. METHODS: We studied 10 EUS needles each, of 19G, 22G, and 25G size, and five 22G ProCore needles. Each needle was reprocessed by a standardized protocol, after the initial use...
September 16, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Cláudia Marques-Dos-Santos Cordovil, Tiago Filipe Alves, Pedro Mendes, Amarilis de Varennes, Sílvio César Sampaio, Renata Machado Dos Santos Pinto
BACKGROUND: biofuel crops are gaining importance due to the need to replace non renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through OM increase and microbiological changes in the ryzosphere. So, we studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant-grass, giant-cane, sugarcane, blue-gum, black-cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Simone Gwosdz, Julia M West, David Jones, Jana Rakoczy, Kay Green, Tom Barlow, Marco Blöthe, Karon Smith, Michael Steven, Martin Krüger
Impacts of long-term CO2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO2 injection. CO2 concentrations within CO2-injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period...
December 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yaoning Chen, Shuang Ma, Yuanping Li, Ming Yan, Guangming Zeng, Jiachao Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xuebin Tan
This paper studied the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contaminated soil under composting and natural conditions, respectively. BDE-47 residue in agricultural waste-composting pile was determined during 45-day composting. The microbial communities were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the relationships between the DGGE results and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA) and heatmap-clustering analysis...
August 30, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ya-nan Wang, Li-juan Cheng, Qi-xing Zhou
In this study, we performed a greenhouse pot-culture experiment to investigate the potential of a wild ornamental plant Iris pseudacorus L. in remediating petroleum contaminated soils from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results suggested that Iris pseudacorus L. had great resistance to ≤ 40,000 mg · kg(⁻¹ of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The removal rate of TPHs with concentrations of 10,000 mg · kg⁻¹, 20,000 mg · kg⁻¹ and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹ in soils by Iris pseudacorus L...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Erin E Silvestri, David Feldhake, Dale Griffin, John Lisle, Tonya L Nichols, Sanjiv R Shah, Adin Pemberton, Frank W Schaefer
Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Da-Zhi Wang, Ling-Fen Kong, Yuan-Yuan Li, Zhang-Xian Xie
Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial community proteomics has shown its powerful potential in exploring microbial diversity, metabolic potential, ecological function and microbe-environment interactions. In this paper, we review recent advances achieved in microbial community proteomics conducted in diverse environments, such as marine and freshwater, sediment and soil, activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms and symbiotic communities...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Janja Vrzel, Branka Vuković-Gačić, Stoimir Kolarević, Zoran Gačić, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Mustafa Aborgiba, Andreas Farnleitner, Georg Reischer, Rita Linke, Momir Paunović, Nives Ogrinc
Coupled measurements of nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) isotopic composition (δ(15)NNO3 and δ(18)ONO3) were used to investigate the sources and processes of N cycling, while the microbial source tracking (MST) method was used to identify microbiological pollution in the surface water of the Sava River Basin (SRB) in autumn in 2014 and 2015 during high and low water discharge. Atmospheric nitrate deposition or nitrate-containing fertilizers were found not to be significant sources of riverine nitrate in the SRB...
August 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
W C C de Bruin, E M E van de Ven, C R Hooijmans
PURPOSE: This systematic review was conducted to gain insight into the efficacy of transmission of infectious agents to colony sentinels by soiled bedding transfer based on publications studying this subject in mice and rats. This information is essential to establish recommendations for the design of health monitoring programs which use sentinels to determine the microbiological status of laboratory animal colonies. RESULTS: Fifteen original articles retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and CAB abstracts met the inclusion criteria...
2016: PloS One
Hui Lin, Jian-mei Wang, Wan-chun Sun, Jian-rong Fu, Hong-jin Chen, Jun-wei Ma
Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Ning-guo Zheng, Nan Huang, Wei-wei Wang, Man Yu, Xiao-yang Chen, Yan-lai Yao, Wei-ping Wang, Chun-lai Hong
To investigate the effects of thermophilic composting process on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of swine manure source at a field scale, the abundance of four erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and ermF), three β-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaCTX and blaSHV) and two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS) were quantified by quantitative PCR ( qPCR) during the composting process. The results suggested that the erm genes' copy numbers were significantly higher than those of the bla and qnr genes in the early stage of composting (P < 0...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Ya-nan Wang, Li-juan Cheng, Qi-xing Zhou
The effects of a special ornamental plant Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. on remediating petroleum-contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China, was studied by a greenhouse pot-culture experiment and the gradients of TPHs were 0, 10,000 and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹. The results suggested that H. middendorfii had a high tolerance to TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹). And H. middendorfii significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the removal rate of TPHs (53.7% and 33.4%) compared with corresponding controls (31...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Yong-wei Song, He-rul Wang, Yan-xiao Cao, Fei Li, Chun-hong Cui, Li Zhou
Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
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