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Soil microbiology

Xia Tang, Bingxin Liu, Qiusui Deng, Ruitao Zhang, Xue Li, Heng Xu
To develop an efficient and environmental-friendly approach to detoxicate nickel (Ni) and fluoranthene co-contaminated soil, the combined application of Coprinus comatus (C. comatus) with Serratia sp. FFC5 and/or Enterobacter sp. E2 was investigated. The pot experiment tested the influences of bacterial inoculation on the growth of C. comatus, content of Ni in C. comatus, Ni speciation in soil, fluoranthene dissipation, soil enzymatic activities, bacterial population and community structure. With the inoculation of bacteria, the fresh weights of C...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Behzad Nasri, Florent Brun, Olivier Fouché
One of the most undesired wastes is the human excreta due to the socio-environmental pressure. Otherwise, the nutriments contained in human excreta could be used as fertilizers to enrich the soil. Familial waterless litter composting toilets (FWLCT) are an alternative for locations where a centralized sewerage network cannot be provided or where there is a lack of standard urban infrastructure including roads, electricity, and water supply. The scientific researches on the composting techniques, the methods of control of the composting processors, and the rate of produced leachate are very limited...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alan T Bull, Hamidah Idris, Roy Sanderson, Juan Asenjo, Barbara Andrews, Michael Goodfellow
The data reported in this paper are among the first relating to the microbiology of hyper-arid, very high altitude deserts and they provide base line information on the structure of actinobacterial communities. The high mountain Cerro Chajnantor landscape of the Central Andes in northern Chile is exposed to the world's most intense levels of solar radiation and its impoverished soils are severely desiccated. The purpose of this research was to define the actinobacterial community structures in soils at altitudes ranging from 3000 to 5000 m above sea level...
November 3, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Francisca Moore, María-Eugenia González, Naser Khan, Gustavo Curaqueo, Miguel Sanchez-Monedero, Joaquín Rilling, Esteban Morales, Marcelo Panichini, Ana Mutis, Milko Jorquera, Jaime Mejias, Juan Hirzel, Sebastián Meier
Biochar (BC) is gaining attention as a soil amendment that can remediate metal polluted soils. The simultaneous effects of BC on copper (Cu) mobility, microbial activities in soil using metallophytes have scarcely been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of biochar BCs on Cu immobilization and over soil microbial communities in a Cu-contaminated soil evaluated over a two-year trial. A Cu-contaminated soil (338mgkg(-1)) was incubated with chicken manure biochar (CMB) or oat hull biochar (OHB) at rates of 1 and 5% w/w...
October 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Benjamin Costerousse, Laurie Schönholzer-Mauclaire, Emmanuel Frossard, Cécile Thonar
Soil and plant inoculation with heterotrophic Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria (ZSB) is considered as a promising approach for increasing zinc (Zn) phytoavailability and enhance crop growth and nutritional quality. It is nevertheless necessary to understand the underlying bacterial solubilization processes in order to predict their repeatability in inoculation strategies. Acidification via gluconic acid production remains the most reported process. In this study, wheat rhizosphere soil serial dilutions were plated onto several solid microbiological media supplemented with scarcely soluble Zn oxide (ZnO) and 115 putative Zn solubilizing isolates were directly detected based on the formation of solubilization halo around the colonies...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hourieh Shamshiri Milani, Morteza Abdollahi, Sara Torbati, Taha Asbaghi, Eznollah Azargashb
Background: The hydatidiform mole (HM) is a precancerous placenta considered as a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). It may convert to more invasive forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), endangering women’s health by more severe complications. Most GTN cases originate from HM, which is associated with uterine bleeding, preeclampsia and thyroid problems. Its etiology has not been adequately explored, but some risk factors have been reported. The aim of the present study was to assess any relationships between molar pregnancy and factors including mothers’ and husbands’ occupations...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Craig Anderson, Mike Beare, Hannah L Buckley, Gavin Lear
In arable cropping systems, reduced or conservation tillage practices are linked with improved soil quality, C retention and higher microbial biomass, but most long-term studies rarely focus on depths greater than 15 cm nor allow comparison of microbial community responses to agricultural practices. We investigated microbial community structure in a long-term field trial (12-years, Lincoln, New Zealand) established in a silt-loam soil over four depth ranges down to 30 cm. Our objectives were to investigate the degree of homogenisation of soil biological and chemical properties with depth, and to determine the main drivers of microbial community response to tillage...
2017: PeerJ
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Luisa F Escobar-Alvarado, Mabel Vaca-Mier, Raymundo López-Callejas, Ma Neftalí Rojas-Valencia
Industrial pollutants such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons in soils represent a serious concern due to their persistence and negative effects on the environment, affecting cellular processes in living organisms and even causing mutations and cancer. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficiency of Opuntia ficus in the phytoremediation of a soil polluted with used motor oil. Two other species, one with different and one with similar characteristics, relatively, were used for comparison purposes: Lolium perenne and Aloe barbadensis...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Sunday Etim Bassey, Elijah Ige Ohimain
Cassava is majorly processed into gari by smallholders in Southern Nigeria. During processing, large volume of effluents are produced in the pressing stage of cassava tuber processing. The cassava mill effluents are discharged into the soil directly and it drain into nearby pits, surface water, and canals without treatment. Cassava mill effluents is known to alter the receiving soil and water characteristics and affects the biota in such environments, such as fishes (water), domestic animals, and vegetation (soil)...
October 16, 2017: Toxics
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Agata Borowik, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Karolina Oszust
The widespread use and consumption of crude oil draws the public's attention to the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment, as they can permeate the soil environment in an uncontrollable manner. Contamination of soils with petroleum products, including diesel oil (DO), can cause changes in the microbiological soil properties. The effect of diesel oil on the functional diversity of fungi was tested in a model experiment during 270 days. Fungi were isolated from soil and identified. The functional diversity of fungal communities was also determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alberto Arnedo-Pena, Iraya Vivas-Fornas, Noemi Meseguer-Ferrer, María Dolores Tirado-Balaguer, Alberto Yagüe-Muñoz, Silvia Herrera-León, Susana Sabater-Vidal, María Ángeles Romeu-García, Ana Vizcaino Batllés, Juan Bautista Bellido-Blasco, Rosario Moreno-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Salmonella infections (SI) are common in Spain. The aim of this study was to appraise risk factors and the clinical characteristics of sporadic Salmonella Typhimurium infections compared with other sporadic salmonella serotype infections (OSI). METHODS: From September 2014 to August 2015, a case-case study was carried out by the Epidemiology Division of the Public Health Centre of Castellon. Case 1 consisted of patients with sporadic S. Typhimurium infections, while case 2 comprised OSI patients, assessed according to the stool cultures analyzed by the Microbiology Laboratories of Hospital General de Castellon and Hospital de La Plana in Vila-real...
October 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Cecily A Flemming, Vince Pileggi, Shu Chen, Susan S Lee
Regulatory policies to manage land application of organic materials are risk based, with focus on the quality of these residuals. The Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change (MOECC) determined that limited information was available on pulp and paper biosolids (PPB) with respect to human enteric pathogens. To address this data gap, MOECC conducted an extensive survey (2005-2006) across Ontario to characterize the microbiological quality of PPB. Quantitative testing was performed for fecal indicators (, enterococci, ) and enteric pathogens (, , , and ) using matrix-validated methods...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
C M O Longa, L Nicola, L Antonielli, E Mescalchin, R Zanzotti, E Turco, I Pertot
AIMS: The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of biodynamic management with and without the addition of green manure, in comparison with organic management, on the microbiota in vineyards soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: High throughput sequencing was used to compare the taxonomic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities from vineyards managed with different methods (organic, biodynamic or biodynamic with green manure). Our results showed that microbial communities associated with biodynamic and organic farming systems were very similar, while green manure was the greatest source of soil microbial biodiversity and significantly changed microbial richness and community composition compared with other soils...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yi Zhang, Liangju Wang, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xu, Cong Tu, Connie Fisk, Weijian Zhang, Xin Chen, David Ritchie, Shuijin Hu
Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Tatiana V Kolganova, Tatiana V Khijniak, Brian E Jones, Ilya V Kublanov
Alkaline saline soils, known also as "soda solonchaks", represent a natural soda habitat which differs from soda lake sediments by higher aeration and lower humidity. The microbiology of soda soils, in contrast to the more intensively studied soda lakes, remains poorly explored. In this work we investigate the diversity of culturable aerobic haloalkalitolerant bacteria with various hydrolytic activities from soda soils at different locations in Central Asia, Africa, and North America. In total, 179 pure cultures were obtained by using media with various polymers at pH 10 and 0...
2017: PeerJ
Kurt E Williamson, Jeffry J Fuhrmann, K Eric Wommack, Mark Radosevich
Viral abundance in soils can range from below detection limits in hot deserts to over 1 billion per gram in wetlands. Abundance appears to be strongly influenced by water availability and temperature, but a lack of informational standards creates difficulties for cross-study analysis. Soil viral diversity is severely underestimated and undersampled, although current measures of viral richness are higher for soils than for aquatic ecosystems. Both morphometric and metagenomic analyses have raised questions about the prevalence of nontailed, ssDNA viruses in soils...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Ali Mekki, Fathi Aloui, Sami Sayadi
Organic matter amendments have been proposed as a means to enhance soil carbon stocks on degraded soils particularly under arid climate. Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a critical role in terrestrial carbon cycling and is central to preserving soil quality. The effects of biowastes compost (BWC) on soil carbon storage were investigated. Besides, changes in soil organic matter (SOM) and even soil organic carbon (SOC) in BWC amended soils following different applications were studied. The added BWC quantities were as followed: BWC/Soil (weight/weight (w/w) respectively: 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Lais Roberta Deroldo Sommaggio, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti Mazzeo, Débora de Andrade E Silva Sant' Anna, Carlos Emílio Levy, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
Sewage sludge (SS) obtained after sewage treatment process may contain several toxic substances. Bioremediation can decrease the toxicity of the sludge, mainly when it is associated with stimulant agents, such as sugarcane bagasse (B). Samples of pure SS (SSP); SS+B; SS+Soil; and SS+B+Soil were bioremediated for 1, 3, and 6 months (T1, T2, and T3, respectively). After each period, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potentials of the solid samples and their respective aqueous extracts (aqueous eluate and percolate water) were evaluated by the Allium cepa test...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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