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Soil microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213706/plant-microbial-association-in-petroleum-and-gas-exploration-sites-in-the-state-of-assam-north-east-india-significance-for-bioremediation
#1
Hemen Sarma, N F Islam, M N V Prasad
The state of Assam in north-east India gained popularity in Asia because of discovery of oil. Pollution due to petroleum and gas exploration is a serious problem in Assam. Oil and gas exploration by various agencies in Assam resulted in soil pollution due to hydrocarbons (HCs) and heavy metals (HMs). Bioremediation gained considerable significance in addressing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in various parts of the world. In this investigation, we have observed 15 species of plants belonging to grass growing on the contaminated soils...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207180/assembly-of-the-outermost-spore-layer-pieces-of-the-puzzle-are-coming-together
#2
George C Stewart
Certain endospore-forming soil dwelling bacteria are important human, animal, or insect pathogens. These organisms produce spores containing an outer layer, the exosporium. The exosporium is the site of interactions between the spore and the soil environment and between the spore and the infected host during the initial stages of infection. The composition and assembly process of the exosporium are poorly understood. This is partly due to the extreme stability of the exosporium that has proven to be refractive to existing methods to deconstruct the intact structure into its component parts...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#3
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#4
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162132/wohlfahrtiimonas-chitiniclastica-current-insights-into-an-emerging-human-pathogen
#5
P Schröttner, W W Rudolph, U Damme, C Lotz, E Jacobs, F Gunzer
Since the first description of Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica in 2008, a number of well described case reports demonstrating its pathogenic role in humans have been published. Infections may be closely linked to flies, such as Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya megacephala or Musca domestica. These insects are potent vectors for the distribution of W. chitiniclastica causing local or systemic infections originating from wounds infested with fly larvae. However, other potential sources of transmission of W...
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150819/legacy-of-contaminant-n-sources-to-the-no3-signature-in-rivers-a-combined-isotopic-%C3%AE-15-n-no3-%C3%AE-18-o-no3-%C3%AE-11-b-and-microbiological-investigation
#6
Cyrielle Briand, Mathieu Sebilo, Pascale Louvat, Thierry Chesnot, Véronique Vaury, Maude Schneider, Valérie Plagnes
Nitrate content of surface waters results from complex mixing of multiple sources, whose signatures can be modified through N reactions occurring within the different compartments of the whole catchment. Despite this complexity, the determination of nitrate origin is the first and crucial step for water resource preservation. Here, for the first time, we combined at the catchment scale stable isotopic tracers (δ(15)N and δ(18)O of nitrate and δ(11)B) and fecal indicators to trace nitrate sources and pathways to the stream...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144889/screening-of-filamentous-fungi-for-antimicrobial-silver-nanoparticles-synthesis
#7
Cristiane Angélica Ottoni, Marta Filipa Simões, Sara Fernandes, Jonas Gomes Dos Santos, Elda Sabino da Silva, Rodrigo Fernando Brambilla de Souza, Alfredo Eduardo Maiorano
The present work had the goal of screening a batch of 20 fungal strains, isolated from sugar cane plantation soil, in order to identify those capable of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are known to have a large and effective application in clinical microbiology. Four strains were found to be capable of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EDX, and XRD. They were found to have an average size of 30-100 nm, a regular round shape, and potential antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124968/-accurate-diagnosis-of-pseudomonas-luteola-in-routine-microbiology-laboratory-on-the-occasion-of-two-isolates
#8
Muharrem Çiçek, Gülşen Hasçelik, H Kaan Müştak, K Serdar Diker, Burçin Şener
Pseudomonas luteola which was previously known as Chryseomonas luteola; is a gram-negative, non-fermentative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is frequently found as a saprophyte in soil, water and other damp environments and is an opportunistic pathogen in patients with underlying medical disorders or with indwelling catheters. It has been reported as an uncommon cause of bacteremia, sepsis, septic arthritis, meningitis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Thus, early and accurate identification of this rare species is important for the treatment and also to provide information about the epidemiology of P...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118998/differentiating-current-and-past-pcb-and-pcdd-f-sources-the-role-of-a-large-contaminated-soil-site-in-an-industrialized-city-area
#9
Antonio Di Guardo, Elisa Terzaghi, Giuseppe Raspa, Sara Borin, Francesca Mapelli, Bessem Chouaia, Elisabetta Zanardini, Cristiana Morosini, Andrea Colombo, Elena Fattore, Enrico Davoli, Stefano Armiraglio, Vanna M Sale, Simone Anelli, Paolo Nastasio
Cities and contaminated areas can be primary or secondary sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and other chemicals, into air and soil and can influence the regional level of some of these pollutants. In a contaminated site, the evaluation of such emissions can be crucial in the choice of the remediation technology to be adopted. In the city of Brescia (Northern Italy), more than 100 ha of agricultural areas were contaminated with PCBs, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, originating from the activities of a former PCB factory...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100131/influence-of-activated-sewage-sludge-amendment-on-pahs-removal-efficiency-from-a-naturally-contaminated-soil-application-of-the-landfarming-treatment
#10
Borislava Lukić, David Huguenot, Antonio Panico, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito
The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg(-1) dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. Experimental activities were conducted in four laboratory scale reactors filled with corn cobs as bulking agent to reach bulk density of 640 kg/m(3)...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099457/comparing-and-evaluating-metagenome-assembly-tools-from-a-microbiologist-s-perspective-not-only-size-matters
#11
John Vollmers, Sandra Wiegand, Anne-Kristin Kaster
With the constant improvement in cost-efficiency and quality of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, shotgun-sequencing approaches -such as metagenomics- have nowadays become the methods of choice for studying and classifying microorganisms from various habitats. The production of data has dramatically increased over the past years and processing and analysis steps are becoming more and more of a bottleneck. Limiting factors are partly the availability of computational resources, but mainly the bioinformatics expertise in establishing and applying appropriate processing and analysis pipelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066816/from-genomes-to-phenotypes-traitar-the-microbial-trait-analyzer
#12
Aaron Weimann, Kyra Mooren, Jeremy Frank, Phillip B Pope, Andreas Bremges, Alice C McHardy
The number of sequenced genomes is growing exponentially, profoundly shifting the bottleneck from data generation to genome interpretation. Traits are often used to characterize and distinguish bacteria and are likely a driving factor in microbial community composition, yet little is known about the traits of most microbes. We describe Traitar, the microbial trait analyzer, which is a fully automated software package for deriving phenotypes from a genome sequence. Traitar provides phenotype classifiers to predict 67 traits related to the use of various substrates as carbon and energy sources, oxygen requirement, morphology, antibiotic susceptibility, proteolysis, and enzymatic activities...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063834/statistical-assessment-of-dumpsite-soil-suitability-to-enhance-methane-bio-oxidation-under-interactive-influence-of-substrates-and-temperature
#13
Somvir Bajar, Anita Singh, C P Kaushik, Anubha Kaushik
Biocovers are considered as the most effective and efficient way to treat methane (CH4) emission from dumpsites and landfills. Active methanotrophs in the biocovers play a crucial role in reduction of emissions through microbiological methane oxidation. Several factors affecting methane bio-oxidation (MOX) have been well documented, however, their interactive effect on the oxidation process needs to be explored. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the suitability of a dumpsite soil to be employed as biocover, under the influence of substrate concentrations (CH4 and O2) and temperature at variable incubation periods...
January 4, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030923/microbiological-characterization-of-vegetables-and-their-rhizosphere-soil-in-eastern-poland
#14
Teresa Kłapeć, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Alicja Cholewa, Grażyna Cholewa, Jacek Dutkiewicz
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of 5 kinds of vegetables (lettuce, dill, radish, beetroot, carrot) and their rhizosphere soil, originating from conventional farms located in the Lublin Province of Eastern Poland. A total number of 35 samples of fresh vegetables (FV) taken immediately from soil, 35 samples of soil from rhizosphere of these vegetables (SR) and 35 samples of vegetables sold at retail in the markets in Lublin (VR) were examined. The samples were analysed for the content of: aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) grown at 30°C and 37°C, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family, faecal coliform (FC) bacteria, Salmonella spp...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992819/a-comparative-study-on-the-influence-of-different-organic-amendments-on-trace-element-mobility-and-microbial-functionality-of-a-polluted-mine-soil
#15
P Abad-Valle, E Iglesias-Jiménez, E Álvarez-Ayuso
A mine soil heavily polluted with zinc and cadmium was employed to evaluate the capacity of organic amendments of different origin to simultaneously reduce soil trace element mobility and enhance soil microbial functionality. With this aim, four organic products, namely olive processing solid waste (OPSW), municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), leonardite and peat, were applied individually at different doses (0, 1, 2 and 5%) to mine soil under controlled laboratory conditions. Extraction studies and analysis of soil microbiological parameters (basal soil respiration and dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, arylsulfatase and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities) were performed to assess the effect of such amendments on soil restoration...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975077/microbial-ecology-where-are-we-now
#16
Lisa A Boughner, Pallavi Singh
Conventional microbiological methods have been readily taken over by newer molecular techniques due to the ease of use, reproducibility, sensitivity and speed of working with nucleic acids. These tools allow high throughput analysis of complex and diverse microbial communities, such as those in soil, freshwater, saltwater, or the microbiota living in collaboration with a host organism (plant, mouse, human, etc). For instance, these methods have been robustly used for characterizing the plant (rhizosphere), animal and human microbiome specifically the complex intestinal microbiota...
November 2016: Postdoc Journal: a Journal of Postdoctoral Research and Postdoctoral Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966086/procedures-of-determining-organic-trace-compounds-in-municipal-sewage-sludge-a-review
#17
Petra C Lindholm-Lehto, Heidi S J Ahkola, Juha S Knuutinen
Sewage sludge is the largest by-product generated during the wastewater treatment process. Since large amounts of sludge are being produced, different ways of disposal have been introduced. One tempting option is to use it as fertilizer in agricultural fields due to its high contents of inorganic nutrients. This, however, can be limited by the amount of trace contaminants in the sewage sludge, containing a variety of microbiological pollutants and pathogens but also inorganic and organic contaminants. The bioavailability and the effects of trace contaminants on the microorganisms of soil are still largely unknown as well as their mixture effects...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966037/microbiology-meets-archaeology-soil-microbial-communities-reveal-different-human-activities-at-archaic-monte-iato-sixth-century-bc
#18
Rosa Margesin, José A Siles, Tomas Cajthaml, Birgit Öhlinger, Erich Kistler
Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria)...
December 13, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964987/analysis-of-the-contaminants-released-from-municipal-solid-waste-landfill-site-a-case-study
#19
S R Samadder, R Prabhakar, D Khan, D Kishan, M S Chauhan
Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan...
December 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912981/examining-the-association-between-surface-bioburden-and-frequently-touched-sites-in-intensive-care
#20
C E Adams, J Smith, V Watson, C Robertson, S J Dancer
BACKGROUND: Critical care patients are at increased risk of infection. Near-patient surfaces act as reservoirs of microbial soil, which may contain pathogens. AIM: To correlate soil levels with hand-touch frequency of near-patient sites in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Five sites around each bed in a 10-bed ICU were screened for total microbial soil (cfu/cm(2)) and Staphylococcus aureus every month for 10 months. Selected sites were infusion pump and cardiac monitor, left and right bedrails, and bed table...
January 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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