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Dual-Coding theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797176/living-with-chronic-headache-a-qualitative-study-exploring-goal-management-in-chronic-headache
#1
Yvette Ciere, Annemieke Visser, Bram Jacobs, Marielle Padberg, John Lebbink, Robbert Sanderman, Joke Fleer
OBJECTIVES: Effective goal management may potentially prevent or reduce disability in chronic pain. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the nature of goal management in the context of chronic headache (CH). METHODS: Interviews with 20 patients were conducted, coded, and analyzed using a combined data-driven and theory-driven approach. The dual process model (DPM) was used as a theoretical framework for this study. RESULTS: Participants used a combination of strategies to regain and maintain a balance between personal goals and resources available for goal pursuit...
August 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726462/allan-urho-paivio-1925-2016
#2
Albert Katz
Presents an obituary for Allan Urho Paivio, who passed away on June 19, 2016. One of his many accomplishments was the development of a dual-coding theory. Dual-coding theory, while very influential, has, unfortunately, been discussed all too often as a theory of mental imagery, and not within its larger context wherein mental imagery and verbal processes are separable but interconnected representational systems, an academic battle in clarification that Paivio waged much of his life. He published prodigiously, even in the decades after retirement...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669507/motivating-factors-for-dual-method-contraceptive-use-among-adolescents-and-young-women-a-qualitative-investigation
#3
Julie Lemoine, Stephanie B Teal, Marissa Peters, Maryam Guiahi
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. STUDY DESIGN: We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors...
June 29, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#4
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531219/pyldm-an-open-source-package-for-lifetime-density-analysis-of-time-resolved-spectroscopic-data
#5
Gabriel F Dorlhiac, Clyde Fare, Jasper J van Thor
Ultrafast spectroscopy offers temporal resolution for probing processes in the femto- and picosecond regimes. This has allowed for investigation of energy and charge transfer in numerous photoactive compounds and complexes. However, analysis of the resultant data can be complicated, particularly in more complex biological systems, such as photosystems. Historically, the dual approach of global analysis and target modelling has been used to elucidate kinetic descriptions of the system, and the identity of transient species respectively...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300787/the-impact-of-satellite-time-group-delay-and-inter-frequency-differential-code-bias-corrections-on-multi-gnss-combined-positioning
#6
Yulong Ge, Feng Zhou, Baoqi Sun, Shengli Wang, Bo Shi
We present quad-constellation (namely, GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo) time group delay (TGD) and differential code bias (DCB) correction models to fully exploit the code observations of all the four global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) for navigation and positioning. The relationship between TGDs and DCBs for multi-GNSS is clearly figured out, and the equivalence of TGD and DCB correction models combining theory with practice is demonstrated. Meanwhile, the TGD/DCB correction models have been extended to various standard point positioning (SPP) and precise point positioning (PPP) scenarios in a multi-GNSS and multi-frequency context...
March 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113743/adaptive-nonlocal-sparse-representation-for-dual-camera-compressive-hyperspectral-imaging
#7
Lizhi Wang, Zhiwei Xiong, Guangming Shi, Feng Wu, Wenjun Zeng
Leveraging the compressive sensing (CS) theory, coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) provides an efficient solution to recover 3D hyperspectral data from a 2D measurement. The dual-camera design of CASSI, by adding an uncoded panchromatic measurement, enhances the reconstruction fidelity while maintaining the snapshot advantage. In this paper, we propose an adaptive nonlocal sparse representation (ANSR) model to boost the performance of dualcamera compressive hyperspectral imaging (DCCHI). Specifically, the CS reconstruction problem is formulated as a 3D cube based sparse representation to make full use of the nonlocal similarity in both the spatial and spectral domains...
October 25, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076261/-how-can-we-talk-about-patient-centered-care-without-patients-at-the-table-lessons-learned-from-patient-advisory-councils
#8
Anjana E Sharma, Rachel Willard-Grace, Andrew Willis, Olivia Zieve, Kate Dubé, Charla Parker, Michael B Potter
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient advisory councils (PACs) are a strategy for primary care clinics to engage patients in practice improvement. However, there is scant research on how PACs function. This study aimed to understand how PACs are organized and identify common challenges and perceived benefits of high-functioning PACs. SETTING AND POPULATION: Key informants identified 8 primary care clinics in California with high-functioning PACs. Leaders from each of the 8 clinics nominated 1 clinic staff member and 1 PAC patient member to be interviewed...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329672/recovering-from-disaster-comparing-the-experiences-of-nurses-and-general-practitioners-after-the-canterbury-new-zealand-earthquake-sequence-2010-2011
#9
Sarbjit Singh Johal, Zoe Rachel Mounsey
This paper summarizes, elaborates upon, and contrasts the findings of two research projects that explored how general practitioners and nurses coped with the dual challenge of personal and work demands following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. Qualitative data from two separate studies - the first with general practitioners and the second with nurses - are compared to identify the challenges faced during and following the earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews took place with eight general practitioners two years after the start of the earthquake sequence and 11 nurses a year later to enable exploration of the longer-term aspects of the recovery process...
March 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549627/paradox-of-pattern-separation-and-adult-neurogenesis-a-dual-role-for-new-neurons-balancing-memory-resolution-and-robustness
#10
REVIEW
Stephen T Johnston, Matthew Shtrahman, Sarah Parylak, J Tiago Gonçalves, Fred H Gage
Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is thought to subserve pattern separation, the process by which similar patterns of neuronal inputs are transformed into distinct neuronal representations, permitting the discrimination of highly similar stimuli in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the mechanism by which immature adult-born dentate granule neurons cells (abDGCs) perform this function remains unknown. Two theories of abDGC function, one by which abDGCs modulate and sparsify activity in the dentate gyrus and one by which abDGCs act as autonomous coding units, are generally suggested to be mutually exclusive...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443599/delay-and-death-thought-accessibility-a-meta-analysis
#11
Christopher T Steinman, John A Updegraff
The dual-process component of Terror Management Theory (TMT) proposes that different types of threats lead to increases in death-thought accessibility (DTA) after different delay intervals. Experimental studies of terror management threats' effect on DTA were collected and coded for their use of explicitly death-related (vs. not explicitly death-related) threats, and for their use of delay and task-switching during the delay. Results reveal that studies using death-related threats achieved larger DTA effect-sizes when they included more task-switching or a longer delay between the threat and the DTA measurement...
December 2015: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26379562/acquisition-of-chinese-characters-the-effects-of-character-properties-and-individual-differences-among-second-language-learners
#12
Li-Jen Kuo, Tae-Jin Kim, Xinyuan Yang, Huiwen Li, Yan Liu, Haixia Wang, Jeong Hyun Park, Ying Li
In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243535/dual-processing-theory-and-experts-reasoning-exploring-thinking-on-national-multiple-choice-questions
#13
Steven J Durning, Ting Dong, Anthony R Artino, Cees van der Vleuten, Eric Holmboe, Lambert Schuwirth
BACKGROUND: An ongoing debate exists in the medical education literature regarding the potential benefits of pattern recognition (non-analytic reasoning), actively comparing and contrasting diagnostic options (analytic reasoning) or using a combination approach. Studies have not, however, explicitly explored faculty's thought processes while tackling clinical problems through the lens of dual process theory to inform this debate. Further, these thought processes have not been studied in relation to the difficulty of the task or other potential mediating influences such as personal factors and fatigue, which could also be influenced by personal factors such as sleep deprivation...
August 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194787/characterizing-the-processes-for-navigating-internet-health-information-using-real-time-observations-a-mixed-methods-approach
#14
Susan L Perez, Debora A Paterniti, Machelle Wilson, Robert A Bell, Man Shan Chan, Chloe C Villareal, Hien Huy Nguyen, Richard L Kravitz
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the processes people use to find health-related information on the Internet or the individual characteristics that shape selection of information-seeking approaches. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the processes by which users navigate the Internet for information about a hypothetical acute illness and to identify individual characteristics predictive of their information-seeking strategies. METHODS: Study participants were recruited from public settings and agencies...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26016818/the-impact-of-reading-intervention-on-brain-responses-underlying-language-in-children-with-autism
#15
Donna L Murdaugh, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Rajesh K Kana
Deficits in language comprehension have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with behavioral and neuroimaging studies finding increased reliance on visuospatial processing to aid in language comprehension. However, no study to date, has taken advantage of this strength in visuospatial processing to improve language comprehension difficulties in ASD. This study used a translational neuroimaging approach to test the role of a visual imagery-based reading intervention in improving the brain circuitry underlying language processing in children with ASD...
January 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25605941/ventral-striatal-dopamine-reflects-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-model-based-control-during-sequential-decision-making
#16
Lorenz Deserno, Quentin J M Huys, Rebecca Boehme, Ralph Buchert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Anthony A Grace, Raymond J Dolan, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control...
February 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25381496/periodic-subsystem-density-functional-theory
#17
Alessandro Genova, Davide Ceresoli, Michele Pavanello
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character...
November 7, 2014: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25150679/phonological-coding-during-reading
#18
REVIEW
Mallorie Leinenger
The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e...
November 2014: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25127273/addressing-dual-agency-getting-specific-about-the-expectations-of-professionalism
#19
Jon C Tilburt
Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail...
2014: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25111701/argument-structure-and-the-representation-of-abstract-semantics
#20
Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Llorenç Andreu, Mònica Sanz-Torrent
According to the dual coding theory, differences in the ease of retrieval between concrete and abstract words are related to the exclusive dependence of abstract semantics on linguistic information. Argument structure can be considered a measure of the complexity of the linguistic contexts that accompany a verb. If the retrieval of abstract verbs relies more on the linguistic codes they are associated to, we could expect a larger effect of argument structure for the processing of abstract verbs. In this study, sets of length- and frequency-matched verbs including 40 intransitive verbs, 40 transitive verbs taking simple complements, and 40 transitive verbs taking sentential complements were presented in separate lexical and grammatical decision tasks...
2014: PloS One
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