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Dual-Coding theory

Sarbjit Singh Johal, Zoe Rachel Mounsey
This paper summarizes, elaborates upon, and contrasts the findings of two research projects that explored how general practitioners and nurses coped with the dual challenge of personal and work demands following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. Qualitative data from two separate studies - the first with general practitioners and the second with nurses - are compared to identify the challenges faced during and following the earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews took place with eight general practitioners two years after the start of the earthquake sequence and 11 nurses a year later to enable exploration of the longer-term aspects of the recovery process...
June 22, 2016: Nursing & Health Sciences
Stephen T Johnston, Matthew Shtrahman, Sarah Parylak, J Tiago Gonçalves, Fred H Gage
Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is thought to subserve pattern separation, the process by which similar patterns of neuronal inputs are transformed into distinct neuronal representations, permitting the discrimination of highly similar stimuli in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the mechanism by which immature adult-born dentate granule neurons cells (abDGCs) perform this function remains unknown. Two theories of abDGC function, one by which abDGCs modulate and sparsify activity in the dentate gyrus and one by which abDGCs act as autonomous coding units, are generally suggested to be mutually exclusive...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Christopher T Steinman, John A Updegraff
The dual-process component of Terror Management Theory (TMT) proposes that different types of threats lead to increases in death-thought accessibility (DTA) after different delay intervals. Experimental studies of terror management threats' effect on DTA were collected and coded for their use of explicitly death-related (vs. not explicitly death-related) threats, and for their use of delay and task-switching during the delay. Results reveal that studies using death-related threats achieved larger DTA effect-sizes when they included more task-switching or a longer delay between the threat and the DTA measurement...
December 2015: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Li-Jen Kuo, Tae-Jin Kim, Xinyuan Yang, Huiwen Li, Yan Liu, Haixia Wang, Jeong Hyun Park, Ying Li
In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Steven J Durning, Ting Dong, Anthony R Artino, Cees van der Vleuten, Eric Holmboe, Lambert Schuwirth
BACKGROUND: An ongoing debate exists in the medical education literature regarding the potential benefits of pattern recognition (non-analytic reasoning), actively comparing and contrasting diagnostic options (analytic reasoning) or using a combination approach. Studies have not, however, explicitly explored faculty's thought processes while tackling clinical problems through the lens of dual process theory to inform this debate. Further, these thought processes have not been studied in relation to the difficulty of the task or other potential mediating influences such as personal factors and fatigue, which could also be influenced by personal factors such as sleep deprivation...
August 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
Susan L Perez, Debora A Paterniti, Machelle Wilson, Robert A Bell, Man Shan Chan, Chloe C Villareal, Hien Huy Nguyen, Richard L Kravitz
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the processes people use to find health-related information on the Internet or the individual characteristics that shape selection of information-seeking approaches. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the processes by which users navigate the Internet for information about a hypothetical acute illness and to identify individual characteristics predictive of their information-seeking strategies. METHODS: Study participants were recruited from public settings and agencies...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Donna L Murdaugh, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Rajesh K Kana
Deficits in language comprehension have been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with behavioral and neuroimaging studies finding increased reliance on visuospatial processing to aid in language comprehension. However, no study to date, has taken advantage of this strength in visuospatial processing to improve language comprehension difficulties in ASD. This study used a translational neuroimaging approach to test the role of a visual imagery-based reading intervention in improving the brain circuitry underlying language processing in children with ASD...
January 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Lorenz Deserno, Quentin J M Huys, Rebecca Boehme, Ralph Buchert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Anthony A Grace, Raymond J Dolan, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control...
February 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alessandro Genova, Davide Ceresoli, Michele Pavanello
By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character...
November 7, 2014: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mallorie Leinenger
The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e...
November 2014: Psychological Bulletin
Jon C Tilburt
Professionalism requires that physicians uphold the best interests of patients while simultaneously insuring just use of health care resources. Current articulations of these obligations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation's Physician Charter do not reconcile how these obligations fit together when they conflict. This is the problem of dual agency. The most common ways of dealing with dual agency: "bunkering"--physicians act as though societal cost issues are not their problem; "bailing"--physicians assume that they are merely agents of society and deliver care typically based on a strongly consequentialist public health ethic; or "balancing"--a vaguely specified attempt to uphold both patient welfare and societal need for judicious resource use simultaneously--all fail...
2014: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Llorenç Andreu, Mònica Sanz-Torrent
According to the dual coding theory, differences in the ease of retrieval between concrete and abstract words are related to the exclusive dependence of abstract semantics on linguistic information. Argument structure can be considered a measure of the complexity of the linguistic contexts that accompany a verb. If the retrieval of abstract verbs relies more on the linguistic codes they are associated to, we could expect a larger effect of argument structure for the processing of abstract verbs. In this study, sets of length- and frequency-matched verbs including 40 intransitive verbs, 40 transitive verbs taking simple complements, and 40 transitive verbs taking sentential complements were presented in separate lexical and grammatical decision tasks...
2014: PloS One
Lynn Huestegge, Aleksandra Pieczykolan, Iring Koch
The idea that the human mind can be divided into distinct (but interacting) functional modules is an important presupposition in many theories of cognition. While previous research on modularity predominantly studied input domains (e.g., vision) or central processes, the present study focused on cognitive representations of output domains. Specifically, we asked to what extent output domain representations are encapsulated (i.e., immune to influence from other domains, representing a key feature of modularity) by studying determinants of interference between simultaneous action demands (oculomotor and vocal responses)...
September 2014: Cognitive Psychology
Nelson Cowan, J Scott Saults, Christopher L Blume
This study reexamines the issue of how much of working memory storage is central, or shared across sensory modalities and verbal and nonverbal codes, and how much is peripheral, or specific to a modality or code. In addition to the exploration of many parameters in 9 new dual-task experiments and reanalysis of some prior evidence, the innovations of the present work compared to previous studies of memory for 2 stimulus sets include (a) use of a principled set of formulas to estimate the number of items in working memory and (b) a model to dissociate central components, which are allocated to very different stimulus sets depending on the instructions, from peripheral components, which are used for only 1 kind of material...
October 2014: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Khaled Masmoudi, Marc Antonini, Pierre Kornprobst
Our goal is to revisit rank order coding by proposing an original exact decoding procedure for it. Rank order coding was proposed by Thorpe et al. who stated that the order in which the retina cells are activated encodes for the visual stimulus. Based on this idea, the authors proposed in [1] a rank order coder/decoder associated to a retinal model. Though, it appeared that the decoding procedure employed yields reconstruction errors that limit the model bit-cost/quality performances when used as an image codec...
February 2012: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Guillaume Herbet, Gilles Lafargue, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, François Bonnetblanc, Hugues Duffau
According to recently proposed interactive dual-process theories, mentalizing abilities emerge from the coherent interaction between two physically distinct neural systems: (1) the mirror network, coding for the low-level embodied representations involved in pre-reflective sociocognitive processes and (2) the mentalizing network per se, which codes for higher level representations subtending the reflective attribution of psychological states. However, although the latest studies have shown that the core areas forming these two neurocognitive systems do indeed maintain effective connectivity during mentalizing, it is unclear whether an intact mirror system (and, more specifically, its anterior node, namely the posterior inferior frontal cortex) is a prerequisite for accurate mentalistic inferences...
July 2015: Brain Structure & Function
Martin V Pusic, Kevin Ching, Hsiang Shonna Yin, David Kessler
An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved...
March 2014: Paediatrics & Child Health
Lucie Charles, Jean-Rémi King, Stanislas Dehaene
How do we detect our own errors, even before we receive any external feedback? One model hypothesizes that error detection results from the confrontation of two signals: a fast and unconscious motor code, based on a direct sensory-motor pathway; and a slower conscious intention code that computes the required response given the stimulus and task instructions. To test this theory and assess how the chain of cognitive processes leading to error detection is modulated by consciousness, we applied multivariate decoding methods to single-trial magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography data...
January 22, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Donald L Chi, Jacqueline E Pickrell, Christine A Riedy
Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75)...
January 2014: Journal of Dental Education
B F Pennington, D L Lefly, G C Van Orden, M O Bookman, S D Smith
A pervasive assumption in most accounts of normal reading and spelling development is that phonological coding is important early in development but is subsequently superseded by faster, orthographic coding which bypasses phonology. We call this assumption, which derives from dual process theory, the developmental bypass hypothesis. The present study tests four specific predictions of the developmental bypass hypothesis by comparing dyslexics and nondyslexics from the same families in a cross-sectional design...
January 1987: Annals of Dyslexia
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