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cognitive overload

Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Yang Yang, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu, Yu-Ling Wu, Zhi-Yang Zhang, Shao-Chen Qu
Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. The overproduction of soluble amyloid β protein (Aβ) oligomers in the hippocampus is closely involved in impairments in cognitive function at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Growing evidences show that RIN possesses neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, whether RIN can prevent soluble Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in spatial cognitive function and synaptic plasticity is still unclear...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
A Maurya, H N Shivakumar, S Honnavar, M Salwa, S N Murthy
The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is predominant in women and children especially in developing countries. The disorder affects cognitive functions and physical activity. While oral iron supplementation and parenteral therapy remains the preferred choice of treatment, gastric side effects and risk of iron overload decreases adherence to therapy. Transdermal route is an established approach which circumvents the side-effects associated with conventional therapy. In this project, an attempt was made to investigate the use of rapidly dissolving microneedles loaded with Ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) as a potential therapeutic approach for management of IDA...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fernando Bartolome, Macarena de la Cueva, Consuelo Pascual, Desiree Antequera, Tamara Fernandez, Carmen Gil, Ana Martinez, Eva Carro
BACKGROUND: The phosphodiesterase (PDE) 7 inhibitor S14 is a cell-permeable small heterocyclic molecule that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously found that intraperitoneal treatment with S14 exerted neuroprotection in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model (in APP/PS1 mice). The objective of this study was to investigate the neurogenic and cellular effects of oral administration of S14 on amyloid β (Aβ) overload. METHODS: We orally administered the PDE7 inhibitor S14 (15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice...
February 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Guillaume J Pagnier, Ksenia V Kastanenka, Miwon Sohn, Sangzin Choi, Song-Hyen Choi, HyeYeon Soh, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid plaques and disruption of neural circuitry, leading to cognitive decline. Animal models of AD deposit senile plaques and exhibit structural and functional deficits in neurons and neural networks. An effective treatment would prevent or restore these deficits, including calcium dyshomeostasis observed with in-vivo imaging. METHODS: We examined the effects of DA-9803, a multimodal botanical drug, in 5XFAD and APP/PS1 transgenic mice which underwent daily oral treatment with 30 or 100 mg/kg DA-9803 or vehicle alone...
January 29, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
M Girabent-Farres, L Monne-Guasch, C Bagur-Calafat, J Fagoaga
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric neuromuscular disorders, which negatively impact on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are a frequent cause of parental consultation with a physiotherapist. Parents' stress overload triggers a poor perception of their children's HRQoL. For this reason, it is essential to have psychometrically sound instrument to measure parent's perceptions such as the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Neuromuscular Module. AIM: To assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of PedsQL Neuromuscular Module for parent perceived quality of life of children aged 2-4 with neuromuscular disorders...
February 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
John J Winslow, Mark Jackson, Andrew Getzin, Michael Costello
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the conservative management of a young athlete with extension-based (EB) low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND:   We present the case of a 15-year-old female high school gymnast with a 4-year history of EB LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a healed spondylolysis and significant lumbar multifidi muscle (LMM) atrophy with fatty infiltrate. She had several courses of outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation that focused on core muscle strengthening (improving activation and strength of the LMM and transversus abdominus muscle in a neutral pelvic position) without long-lasting improvement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Jesse A Soodalter, Greg J Siegle, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Robert Arnold, Yael Schenker
Despite believing end-of-life (EOL) discussions with patients are important, doctors often do not have them. Multiple factors contribute to this shortfall, which interventions including reimbursement changes and communication skills training have not significantly improved to date. One commonly cited but under-researched reason for physician avoidance of EOL discussion is emotional difficulty. High occupational demand for frequent difficult discussions may overload physicians' normal emotional functioning, leading to avoidance or failure...
December 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Sara Sanz-Blasco, Maria Calvo-Rodríguez, Erica Caballero, Monica Garcia-Durillo, Lucía Nunez, Carlos Villalobos
Epidemiological data suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Unfortunately, recent trials have failed in providing compelling evidence of neuroprotection. Discussion as to why NSAIDs effectivity is uncertain is ongoing. Possible explanations include the view that NSAIDs and other possible disease-modifying drugs should be provided before the patients develop symptoms of AD or cognitive decline. In addition, NSAID targets for neuroprotection are unclear...
December 27, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yumiko Shimizu, Tamaki Kumagai, Hiroaki Sugisaki, Seiji Ohira, Toshio Shinoda
The present study examined the performance level and its related factors on the process of case management for disabled patients on hemodialysis. Case management performance was evaluated at three stages: patient assessment, making a care plan, and monitoring/evaluation. Candidates for targeting the factors relating to performance included four dimensions: nursing care level, physical malfunction, cognitive malfunction, and barriers to service were used as patient factors; the period of case management for the patient and the knowledge of dialysis emerged as case manager factors; work load was included as an organizational factor; and community resources for these services and communication with surrounding persons were included as system factors...
December 28, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Sim Y Ong, Lyle C Gurrin, Lara Dolling, Jeanette Dixon, Amanda J Nicoll, Michelle Wolthuizen, Erica M Wood, Gregory J Anderson, Grant A Ramm, Katrina J Allen, John K Olynyk, Darrell Crawford, Louise E Ramm, Paul Gow, Simon Durrant, Lawrie W Powell, Martin B Delatycki
BACKGROUND: The iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis is most commonly caused by HFE p.Cys282Tyr homozygosity. In the absence of results from any randomised trials, current evidence is insufficient to determine whether individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis and moderately elevated serum ferritin, should undergo iron reduction treatment. This trial aimed to establish whether serum ferritin normalisation in this population improved symptoms and surrogate biomarkers. METHODS: This study was a multicentre, participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial done at three centres in Australia...
December 2017: Lancet Haematology
Dominic A Trevisan, Nicole Roberts, Cathy Lin, Elina Birmingham
A tendency to avoid eye contact is an early indicator of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and difficulties with eye contact often persist throughout the lifespan. Eye contact difficulties may underlie social cognitive deficits in ASD, and can create significant social and occupational barriers. Thus, this topic has received substantial research and clinical attention. In this study, we used qualitative methods to analyze self-reported experiences with eye contact as described by teens and adults with self-declared ASD...
2017: PloS One
Yan-Hui Zhang, Da-Wei Wang, Shuang-Feng Xu, Shuai Zhang, Yong-Gang Fan, Ying-Ying Yang, Shi-Qi Guo, Shan Wang, Tian Guo, Zhan-You Wang, Chuang Guo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of Tau protein. α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been found to stabilize the cognitive function of AD patients, and animal study findings have confirmed its anti-amyloidogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, especially with respect to the ability of LA to control Tau pathology and neuronal damage. Here, we found that LA supplementation effectively inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of Tau at several AD-related sites, accompanied by reduced cognitive decline in P301S Tau transgenic mice...
April 2018: Redox Biology
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Todd R Schachtman, Cheryl M Heesch, Paul J Fadel, M Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women represent the largest cohort of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and vascular dementia represents the most common form of dementia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that the combination of cardiac pressure overload (aortic banding [AB]) and the loss of female sex hormones (ovariectomy [OVX]) impairs cerebrovascular control and spatial memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Yucatan miniswine were separated into 4 groups (n=7 per group): (1) control, (2) AB, (3) OVX, and (4) AB-OVX...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Nicholas E Anton, Neelam Mulji, Lisa D Howley, Ashley M Yurco, Daniel Tobben, Eric Bean, Dimitrios Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: Surgery is very cognitively demanding, particularly for novices. Novices are required to direct full attention on the procedure at hand, and additional demands can lead to cognitive overload. Through extensive practice, experts develop spare attentional capacity (SAC) for simultaneous tasks. However, little effort has been made to enhance novices' SAC. Mental skills may enhance attention management and increase SAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel mental skills curriculum (MSC) to enhance novices' attention management...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Nicolina Sciaraffa, Gianluca Borghini, Pietro Arico, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jlenia Toppi, Alfredo Colosimo, Anastatios Bezerianos, Nitish V Thakor, Fabio Babiloni
Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Natalie E Scholpa, Mary K Lynn, Daniel Corum, Heather A Boger, Rick G Schnellmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive decline in motor function due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, as well as other deficits including cognitive impairment and behavioral abnormalities. Mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Using the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864, a known inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of stimulating MB on dopaminergic neuron loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
October 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Manish Verma, Jason Callio, P Anthony Otero, Israel Sekler, Zachary P Wills, Charleen T Chu
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs before the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jesse Michaels, Romain Chaumillon, David Nguyen-Tri, Donald Watanabe, Pierro Hirsch, Francois Bellavance, Guillaume Giraudet, Delphine Bernardin, Jocelyn Faubert
To investigate the links between mental workload, age and risky driving, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a driving simulator using several established and some novel measures of driving ability and scenarios of varying complexity. A sample of 115 drivers was divided into three age and experience groups: young inexperienced (18-21 years old), adult experienced (25-55 years old) and older adult (70-86 years old). Participants were tested on three different scenarios varying in mental workload from low to high...
2017: PloS One
Jillian Pine, Ann M Steffen
OBJECTIVES: The present study used Pearlin, Mullan, Semple & Skaff's (1990) caregiving stress process model as a framework to examine the comparative influence of two stressors: (a) intergenerational ambivalence as a unified construct and (b) dyadic strain, which is one isolated component of intergenerational ambivalence. METHODS: Participants were 120 women providing healthcare and medication assistance to an earlier generation family member with physical and/or cognitive impairments...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
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