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cognitive overload

Viktor S Kokhan, Marina I Matveeva, Azat Mukhametov, Andrey S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. Gravitational overloads, hypo-magnetic field and ionizing radiation are the main SFF that perturb the normal activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute and chronic CNS risks include alterations in cognitive abilities, reduction of motor functions and behavioural changes. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the SFF effects on integrative functional activity of the brain; however, the model parameters utilized have not always been ideal and consistent...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Melanie C Wright, Sherry Dunbar, Brekk C Macpherson, Eugene W Moretti, Guillherme Del Fiol, Jean Bolte, Jeffrey M Taekman, Noa Segall
OBJECTIVES: Electronic health information overload makes it difficult for providers to quickly find and interpret information to support care decisions. The purpose of this study was to better understand how clinicians use information in critical care to support the design of improved presentation of electronic health information. METHODS: We conducted a contextual analysis and visioning project. We used an eye-tracker to record 20 clinicians' information use activities in critical care settings...
October 5, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Britta Biedermann, Peter de Lissa, Yatin Mahajan, Vince Polito, Nicolas Badcock, Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Linda Larsen, Genevieve McArthur
The findings of a study by Cahn and Polich (2009) suggests that there is an effect of a meditative state on three event-related potential (ERP) brain markers of "low-level" auditory attention (i.e., acoustic representations in sensory memory) in expert meditators: the N1, the P2, and the P3a. The current study built on these findings by examining trait and state effects of meditation on the passive auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, and P2 ERPs. We found that the MMN was significantly larger in meditators than non-meditators regardless of whether they were meditating or not (a trait effect), and that N1 amplitude was significantly attenuated during meditation in non-meditators but not expert meditators (an interaction between trait and state)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Edson Filho, Maurizio Bertollo, Gabriella Tamburro, Lorenzo Schinaia, Jonas Chatel-Goldman, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza, Silvia Comani
BACKGROUND: Research on cooperative behavior and the social brain exists, but little research has focused on real-time motor cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. In this proof of concept study, we explored the conceptual notion of shared and complementary mental models through EEG mapping of two brains performing a real-world interactive motor task of increasing difficulty. We used the recently introduced participative "juggling paradigm," and collected neuro-physiological and psycho-social data...
2016: PeerJ
Faizal A Haji, Jeffrey J H Cheung, Nicole Woods, Glenn Regehr, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Adam Dubrowski
CONTEXT: Fidelity is widely viewed as an important element of simulation instructional design based on its purported relationship with transfer of learning. However, higher levels of fidelity may increase task complexity to a point at which novices' cognitive resources become overloaded. OBJECTIVES: In this experiment, we investigate the effects of variations in task complexity on novices' cognitive load and learning during simulation-based procedural skills training...
September 2016: Medical Education
Shijun Yan, Fang Du, Long Wu, Zhihua Zhang, Changjia Zhong, Qing Yu, Yongfu Wang, Lih-Fen Lue, Douglas G Walker, Justin T Douglas, Shirley Shidu Yan
Mitochondrial abnormalities are well-known to cause cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular basis of mitochondria-associated neuronal and synaptic dysfunction in the diabetic brain remains unclear. Here, using a mitochondrial single channel patch clamp and cyclophilin D (CypD)-deficient mice (Ppif (-/-)) with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we observed an increase in the probability of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in brain mitochondria of diabetic mice, which was further confirmed by mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release induced by Ca(2+) overload...
August 23, 2016: Diabetes
María Calvo-Rodríguez, Mónica García-Durillo, Carlos Villalobos, Lucía Núñez
Aging is associated to cognitive decline and susceptibility to neuron death, two processes related recently to subcellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Memory storage relies on mushroom spines stability that depends on store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). In addition, Ca(2+) transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria sustains energy production but mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload promotes apoptosis. We have addressed whether SOCE and ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer are influenced by culture time in long-term cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, a model of neuronal aging...
August 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Carles Barcons, Oriol Cunillera, Vanesa Miquel, Irene Ardèvol, Mark Beyebach
BACKGROUND: Combining strategies and techniques from different therapeutic approaches is a common procedure in routine mental health practice. It has been claimed that the integration of systemic brief therapies offers useful psychotherapeutic alternatives, especially in our overloaded public mental health services. However, this claim has rarely been put to the test, and comparison with well-established empirically-based treatments has been scarce. METHOD: Of 419 patients referred to an Adult Ambulatory Mental Health Service, 212 were allocated to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and 207 to an integrative Brief Systemic Therapy (BST)...
August 2016: Psicothema
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Iron-overload can cause cognitive impairment due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Although deferiprone (DFP) has been shown to exert neuroprotection, the head-to-head comparison among iron chelators used clinically on brain iron-overload has not been investigated. Moreover, since antioxidant has been shown to be beneficial in iron-overload condition, its combined effect with iron chelator has not been tested. Therefore, the hypothesis is that all chelators provide neuroprotection under iron-overload condition, and that a combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant has greater efficacy than monotherapy...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Petr Houdek
This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Megan MacDougall, Ann Steffen
OBJECTIVES: Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts was examined as a predictor of emotional eating by family caregivers of physically and cognitively impaired older adults. METHODS: Adult women (N = 158) providing healthcare assistance for an older family member completed an online survey about caregiving stressors, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and emotional eating. A stress process framework was used as a conceptual model to guide selection of variables predicting emotional eating scores...
June 20, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Gauri Naik, Sanika S Bhide
Today, we live in a world of 'information overload' which demands high level of knowledge-based work. However, advances in computer hardware and software have opened possibilities to automate 'routine cognitive tasks' for knowledge processing. Engineering intelligent software systems that can process large data sets using unstructured commands and subtle judgments and have the ability to learn 'on the fly' are a significant step towards automation of knowledge work. The applications of this technology for high throughput genomic analysis, database updating, reporting clinically significant variants, and diagnostic imaging purposes are explored using case studies...
September 1, 2014: Applied & Translational Genomics
John Leach
Our cognitive system has adapted to support goal-directed behaviour within a normal environment. An abnormal environment is one to which we are not optimally adapted but can accommodate through the development of coping strategies. These abnormal environments can be 'exceptional', e.g., polar base, space station, submarine, prison, intensive care unit, isolation ward etc.; 'extreme', marked by more intense environmental stimuli and a real or perceived lack of control over the situation, e.g., surviving at sea in a life-raft, harsh prison camp etc...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Camilla S Hanson, Jeremy R Chapman, Jonathan C Craig, David C Harris, Lukas K Kairaitis, Maryann Nicdao, Mary Mikaheal, Allison Tong
AIM: This study aims to describe patients' perspectives on the transition to home haemodialysis. METHODS: Up to three sequential semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 patients during the transition to home haemodialysis at an Australian renal unit. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants completed a satisfaction questionnaire after commencing home haemodialysis. RESULTS: We identified six themes: persevering despite trepidations (diminishing intimidation of machinery, acquiescing to fatal risks, reconciling fears of cannulation, dispelling concerns of neglect, tolerating necessary concessions); optimising the learning pathway (practising problem solving, learning from mistakes, grasping technical complexity, minimising cognitive overload, progressing at own pace); developing confidence (believing in own abilities, adapting to independence, depending on caregiver partnership, faith in crisis support); interrupted transition momentum (lacking individual attention, language barriers, installation delays, interfering illness and complications, acclimatising to new conditions); noticing immediate gains (reclaiming lifestyle normality, satisfying self-sufficiency, personalising treatment regime, thriving in a positive environment); depleting resources and energy (exhaustion with gruelling routine, confronting medicalization of the home, draining financial reserves, imposing family burden)...
June 2, 2016: Nephrology
Edward N Spruit, Luca Kleijweg, Guido P H Band, Jaap F Hamming
Determining the optimal design for surgical skills training is an ongoing research endeavor. In education literature, varied practice is listed as a positive intervention to improve acquisition of knowledge and motor skills. In the current study we tested the effectiveness of a varied practice intervention during laparoscopy training. Twenty-four trainees (control group) without prior experience received a 3 weeks laparoscopic skills training utilizing four basic and one advanced training task. Twenty-eight trainees (experimental group) received the same training with a random training task schedule, more frequent task switching and inverted viewing conditions on the four basic training tasks, but not the advanced task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
David S Im
In examining contributors to violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one factor that has received little attention is a history of psychological trauma. This study's purpose was to explore the possible mechanisms for an association between trauma and violence in persons with ASD. The literature regarding the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of ASD is reviewed and compared with the literature on the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of trauma as a risk factor for violence in individuals without ASD...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Nosratola D Vaziri
Intravenous iron products are essential for the treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease patients maintained on hemodialysis. Although proper use of these compounds is necessary for the prevention of iron deficiency, their indiscriminate use could potentially cause insidious adverse consequences. Iron overload can intensify the chronic kidney disease-associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease; increase the risk of infections; worsen the severity of type 2 diabetes; and exacerbate neurologic and cognitive dysfunction...
March 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
E E Moreno-Medinilla, M D Mora-Ramirez, R Calvo-Medina, J Martinez-Anton
INTRODUCTION: A deficiency of the enzyme guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH 1) causes a reduction in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor that is essential in the synthesis of tyrosine, dopamine and serotonin. It is an infrequent disease that produces psychomotor delay or regression and movement disorders, although treatment can improve or even correct the clinical signs and symptoms. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a girl with autosomal recessive GTPCH deficiency, who was diagnosed at 14 months by means of an analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid with pterin, HVA and 5-HIAA deficiency, and positive phenylalanine overload test and genetic study...
June 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Yalini Senathirajah, David Kaufman, Suzanne Bakken
BACKGROUND: Challenges in the design of electronic health records (EHRs) include designing usable systems that must meet the complex, rapidly changing, and high-stakes information needs of clinicians. The ability to move and assemble elements together on the same page has significant human-computer interaction (HCI) and efficiency advantages, and can mitigate the problems of negotiating multiple fixed screens and the associated cognitive burdens. OBJECTIVE: We compare MedWISE-a novel EHR that supports user-composable displays-with a conventional EHR in terms of the number of repeat views of data elements for patient case appraisal...
2016: EGEMS
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