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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350556/rehabilitation-of-a-young-athlete-with-extension-based-low-back-pain-addressing-motor-control-impairments-and-central-sensitization
#1
John J Winslow, Mark Jackson, Andrew Getzin, Michael Costello
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the conservative management of a young athlete with extension-based (EB) low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND:   We present the case of a 15-year-old female high school gymnast with a 4-year history of EB LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a healed spondylolysis and significant lumbar multifidi muscle (LMM) atrophy with fatty infiltrate. She had several courses of outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation that focused on core muscle strengthening (improving activation and strength of the LMM and transversus abdominus muscle in a neutral pelvic position) without long-lasting improvement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290330/affective-science-and-avoidant-end-of-life-communication-can-the-science-of-emotion-help-physicians-talk-with-their-patients-about-the-end-of-life
#2
Jesse A Soodalter, Greg J Siegle, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Robert Arnold, Yael Schenker
Despite believing end-of-life (EOL) discussions with patients are important, doctors often do not have them. Multiple factors contribute to this shortfall, which interventions including reimbursement changes and communication skills training have not significantly improved to date. One commonly cited but under-researched reason for physician avoidance of EOL discussion is emotional difficulty. High occupational demand for frequent difficult discussions may overload physicians' normal emotional functioning, leading to avoidance or failure...
December 11, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283047/is-it-all-said-for-nsaids-in-alzheimer-s-disease-role-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake
#3
Sara Sanz-Blasco, Maria Calvo-Rodríguez, Erica Caballero, Monica Garcia-Durillo, Lucía Nunez, Carlos Villalobos
Epidemiological data suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Unfortunately, recent trials have failed in providing compelling evidence of neuroprotection. Discussion as to why NSAIDs effectivity is uncertain is ongoing. Possible explanations include the view that NSAIDs and other possible disease-modifying drugs should be provided before the patients develop symptoms of AD or cognitive decline. In addition, NSAID targets for neuroprotection are unclear...
December 27, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282900/barriers-to-effective-case-management-for-disabled-patients-on-hemodialysis
#4
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yumiko Shimizu, Tamaki Kumagai, Hiroaki Sugisaki, Seiji Ohira, Toshio Shinoda
The present study examined the performance level and its related factors on the process of case management for disabled patients on hemodialysis. Case management performance was evaluated at three stages: patient assessment, making a care plan, and monitoring/evaluation. Candidates for targeting the factors relating to performance included four dimensions: nursing care level, physical malfunction, cognitive malfunction, and barriers to service were used as patient factors; the period of case management for the patient and the knowledge of dialysis emerged as case manager factors; work load was included as an organizational factor; and community resources for these services and communication with surrounding persons were included as system factors...
December 28, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195602/reduction-of-body-iron-in-hfe-related-haemochromatosis-and-moderate-iron-overload-mi-iron-a-multicentre-participant-blinded-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Sim Y Ong, Lyle C Gurrin, Lara Dolling, Jeanette Dixon, Amanda J Nicoll, Michelle Wolthuizen, Erica M Wood, Gregory J Anderson, Grant A Ramm, Katrina J Allen, John K Olynyk, Darrell Crawford, Louise E Ramm, Paul Gow, Simon Durrant, Lawrie W Powell, Martin B Delatycki
BACKGROUND: The iron overload disorder hereditary haemochromatosis is most commonly caused by HFE p.Cys282Tyr homozygosity. In the absence of results from any randomised trials, current evidence is insufficient to determine whether individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis and moderately elevated serum ferritin, should undergo iron reduction treatment. This trial aimed to establish whether serum ferritin normalisation in this population improved symptoms and surrogate biomarkers. METHODS: This study was a multicentre, participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial done at three centres in Australia...
December 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182643/how-do-adults-and-teens-with-self-declared-autism-spectrum-disorder-experience-eye-contact-a-qualitative-analysis-of-first-hand-accounts
#6
Dominic A Trevisan, Nicole Roberts, Cathy Lin, Elina Birmingham
A tendency to avoid eye contact is an early indicator of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and difficulties with eye contact often persist throughout the lifespan. Eye contact difficulties may underlie social cognitive deficits in ASD, and can create significant social and occupational barriers. Thus, this topic has received substantial research and clinical attention. In this study, we used qualitative methods to analyze self-reported experiences with eye contact as described by teens and adults with self-declared ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126071/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-improves-abnormal-behavior-by-mitigation-of-oxidative-stress-inflammation-ferroptosis-and-tauopathy-in-p301s-tau-transgenic-mice
#7
Yan-Hui Zhang, Da-Wei Wang, Shuang-Feng Xu, Shuai Zhang, Yong-Gang Fan, Ying-Ying Yang, Shi-Qi Guo, Shan Wang, Tian Guo, Zhan-You Wang, Chuang Guo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of Tau protein. α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been found to stabilize the cognitive function of AD patients, and animal study findings have confirmed its anti-amyloidogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, especially with respect to the ability of LA to control Tau pathology and neuronal damage. Here, we found that LA supplementation effectively inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of Tau at several AD-related sites, accompanied by reduced cognitive decline in P301S Tau transgenic mice...
April 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089345/loss-of-female-sex-hormones-exacerbates-cerebrovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aortic-banded-miniswine-through-a-neuropeptide-y-ca2-activated-potassium-channel-nitric-oxide-mediated-mechanism
#8
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Todd R Schachtman, Cheryl M Heesch, Paul J Fadel, M Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women represent the largest cohort of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and vascular dementia represents the most common form of dementia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that the combination of cardiac pressure overload (aortic banding [AB]) and the loss of female sex hormones (ovariectomy [OVX]) impairs cerebrovascular control and spatial memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Yucatan miniswine were separated into 4 groups (n=7 per group): (1) control, (2) AB, (3) OVX, and (4) AB-OVX...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078915/effects-of-a-novel-mental-skills-curriculum-on-surgical-novices-attention
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nicholas E Anton, Neelam Mulji, Lisa D Howley, Ashley M Yurco, Daniel Tobben, Eric Bean, Dimitrios Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: Surgery is very cognitively demanding, particularly for novices. Novices are required to direct full attention on the procedure at hand, and additional demands can lead to cognitive overload. Through extensive practice, experts develop spare attentional capacity (SAC) for simultaneous tasks. However, little effort has been made to enhance novices' SAC. Mental skills may enhance attention management and increase SAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel mental skills curriculum (MSC) to enhance novices' attention management...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060764/how-the-workload-impacts-on-cognitive-cooperation-a-pilot-study
#10
Nicolina Sciaraffa, Gianluca Borghini, Pietro Arico, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jlenia Toppi, Alfredo Colosimo, Anastatios Bezerianos, Nitish V Thakor, Fabio Babiloni
Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057453/5-ht1f-receptor-mediated-mitochondrial-biogenesis-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Natalie E Scholpa, Mary K Lynn, Daniel Corum, Heather A Boger, Rick G Schnellmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive decline in motor function due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, as well as other deficits including cognitive impairment and behavioral abnormalities. Mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Using the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864, a known inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of stimulating MB on dopaminergic neuron loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
October 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038245/mitochondrial-calcium-dysregulation-contributes-to-dendrite-degeneration-mediated-by-pd-lbd-associated-lrrk2-mutants
#12
Manish Verma, Jason Callio, P Anthony Otero, Israel Sekler, Zachary P Wills, Charleen T Chu
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to development of late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD), with clinical features of motor and cognitive dysfunction indistinguishable from sporadic PD. Calcium dysregulation plays an important role in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. Recent reports indicate enhanced excitatory neurotransmission in cortical neurons expressing mutant LRRK2, which occurs prior to the well-characterized phenotype of dendritic shortening...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016693/driving-simulator-scenarios-and-measures-to-faithfully-evaluate-risky-driving-behavior-a-comparative-study-of-different-driver-age-groups
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jesse Michaels, Romain Chaumillon, David Nguyen-Tri, Donald Watanabe, Pierro Hirsch, Francois Bellavance, Guillaume Giraudet, Delphine Bernardin, Jocelyn Faubert
To investigate the links between mental workload, age and risky driving, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a driving simulator using several established and some novel measures of driving ability and scenarios of varying complexity. A sample of 115 drivers was divided into three age and experience groups: young inexperienced (18-21 years old), adult experienced (25-55 years old) and older adult (70-86 years old). Participants were tested on three different scenarios varying in mental workload from low to high...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960145/intergenerational-ambivalence-and-dyadic-strain-understanding-stress-in-family-care-partners-of-older-adults
#14
Jillian Pine, Ann M Steffen
OBJECTIVES: The present study used Pearlin, Mullan, Semple & Skaff's (1990) caregiving stress process model as a framework to examine the comparative influence of two stressors: (a) intergenerational ambivalence as a unified construct and (b) dyadic strain, which is one isolated component of intergenerational ambivalence. METHODS: Participants were 120 women providing healthcare and medication assistance to an earlier generation family member with physical and/or cognitive impairments...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915871/virtual-patients-in-the-acquisition-of-clinical-reasoning-skills-does-presentation-mode-matter-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Fabian Schubach, Matthias Goos, Götz Fabry, Werner Vach, Martin Boeker
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare two different instructional methods in the curricular use of computerized virtual patients in undergraduate medical education. We aim to investigate whether using many short and focused cases - the key feature principle - is more effective for the learning of clinical reasoning skills than using few long and systematic cases. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-randomized, non-blinded, controlled parallel-group intervention trial in a large medical school in Southwestern Germany...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#16
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
November 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882750/grey-areas-new-zealand-ambulance-personnel-s-experiences-of-challenging-resuscitation-decision-making
#17
Natalie Elizabeth Anderson, Merryn Gott, Julia Slark
INTRODUCTION: When faced with a patient in cardiac arrest, ambulance personnel must rapidly make complex decisions with limited information. Much of the research examining decisions to commence, continue, withhold or terminate resuscitation has used retrospective audits of registry data and clinical documentation. This study offers a provider-perspective which characterises uncertainty and highlights clinical, cognitive, emotional and physical demands associated with decision-making in the cardiac arrest context...
September 4, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862266/genomic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Following the discovery of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, research has focused on understanding the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain and their role in regulating emotion and cognition. Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors (allostasis) and in maladaptation resulting from allostatic load and overload. Allostatic overload, which can occur during chronic stress, can reshape the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through epigenetic modification of genes in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and other stress-responsive brain regions...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856337/neurobiological-and-systemic-effects-of-chronic-stress
#19
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, which promote adaptation ("allostasis") but also contribute to pathophysiology ("allostatic load/overload") when overused and dysregulated. The adult as well as developing brain possesses a remarkable ability to show structural and functional plasticity in response to stressful and other experiences, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling and synapse turnover...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854205/the-more-total-cognitive-load-is-reduced-by-cues-the-better-retention-and-transfer-of-multimedia-learning-a-meta-analysis-and-two-meta-regression-analyses
#20
Heping Xie, Fuxing Wang, Yanbin Hao, Jiaxue Chen, Jing An, Yuxin Wang, Huashan Liu
Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues...
2017: PloS One
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