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cognitive load theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901645/measuring-achievement-goal-motivation-mindsets-and-cognitive-load-validation-of-three-instruments-scores
#1
David A Cook, Richmond M Castillo, Becca Gas, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). METHODS: This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix...
October 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854205/the-more-total-cognitive-load-is-reduced-by-cues-the-better-retention-and-transfer-of-multimedia-learning-a-meta-analysis-and-two-meta-regression-analyses
#2
Heping Xie, Fuxing Wang, Yanbin Hao, Jiaxue Chen, Jing An, Yuxin Wang, Huashan Liu
Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762880/the-structure-of-intelligence-in-childhood-age-and-socio-familiar-impact-on-cognitive-differentiation
#3
Ana Azevedo Martins, Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes, Ana Filipa Alves, Leandro da Silva Almeida
The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory is the principal model at present to define and assess intelligence. However, several authors have suggested that the structure of intelligence is not stable throughout life. For example, children tend to present a general ability, which is invested in the development of specific and differentiated abilities during adolescence, reflecting the effect of schooling, experiences, and interests. In this study, an intelligence nine subtests battery was applied to a sample of 470 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old Portuguese children, from public and private basic schools...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749159/hierarchical-exploratory-factor-analyses-of-the-woodcock-johnson-iv-full-test-battery-implications-for-chc-application-in-school-psychology
#4
Stefan C Dombrowski, Ryan J McGill, Gary L Canivez
The Woodcock-Johnson (fourth edition; WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) was recently redeveloped and retains its linkage to Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory (CHC). Independent reviews (e.g., Canivez, 2017) and investigations (Dombrowski, McGill, & Canivez, 2017) of the structure of the WJ IV full test battery and WJ IV Cognitive have suggested the need for additional factor analytic exploration. Accordingly, the present study used principal axis factoring (PAF) followed by the Schmid and Leiman (SL; Schmid & Leiman, 1957) procedure with the 2 school-aged correlation matrices from the normative sample to determine the degree to which the WJ IV total battery structure could be replicated...
July 27, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739244/the-5-t-s-applying-cognitive-science-to-improve-prehospital-medical-education
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Lauria, Mackenzie R Bronson, Patricia L Lanter, Thomas W Trimarco
Although research on effective teaching methods exists, the application of this information in prehospital medical education is limited. Applying lessons from the realms of cognitive psychology and neuroscience, prehospital educators can enhance their ability to teach. One such concept is the theory of cognitive load. Understanding this theory can reduce the mental strain placed on learners and allow educators to best accomplish long-term learning success, defined as "far transfer" of material to novel contexts...
July 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723975/a-view-not-to-be-missed-salient-scene-content-interferes-with-cognitive-restoration
#7
Alexander P N Van der Jagt, Tony Craig, Mark J Brewer, David G Pearson
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688343/evidence-for-the-triadic-model-of-adolescent-brain-development-cognitive-load-and-task-relevance-of-emotion-differentially-affect-adolescents-and-adults
#8
Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Roma Siugzdaite, C Nicolas Boehler
In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670410/a-multidisciplinary-workplace-intervention-for-chronic-low-back-pain-among-nursing-assistants-in-iran
#9
Sarallah Shojaei, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Joan Wagner
STUDY DESIGN: Interventional research with a 6-month follow-up period. PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary workplace intervention on reduction of work-related low back pain (WRLBP), using ergonomic posture training coupled with an educational program based on social cognitive theory. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: WRLBP is a major occupational problem among healthcare workers, who are often required to lift heavy loads...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639175/valence-and-origin-of-emotional-words-influence-on-subsequent-perception-of-ambiguous-stimuli-in-terms-of-competence-versus-warmth
#10
Kamil K Imbir
The aim of this study was to examine whether the valence and origin of emotional words can alter perception of ambiguous objects in terms of warmth versus competence, fundamental dimensions of social cognition. 60 individuals were invited into the study focusing on the limits of intuition. They were asked to try to guess the meaning of Japanese pictorial signs in terms of their warmth versus competence connotations. Before each trial a subsequent memory load task was applied. Participants were supposed to read and remember words creating a factorial manipulation of valence (three levels) and origins (three levels: automatic, neutral and reflective) of affective connotations presenting to them for 500 ms...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#11
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604027/load-theory-behind-the-wheel-perceptual-cognitive-load-effects
#12
Gillian Murphy, Ciara M Greene
Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585155/latino-sexual-beliefs-scale-an-exploratory-factor-analysis-of-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#13
Robert J Zeglin, Kenneth C Hergenrather, Paul J Poppen, Jaehwa Choi, Carol Reisen, Maria Cecilia Zea
The catalyzing forces behind risky sexual behavior are a rich area of interest for public health researchers concerned with reducing HIV risk. Social cognitive theory would suggest that sexual beliefs are a viable example of one such influential agent. Recognizing that culture plays an important role in forming such sexual beliefs, and seeking to understand the unique HIV risks present for Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), this article presents an exploratory factor analysis of the 13-item Latino Sexual Beliefs Scale (LSBS) created as part of a larger study to investigate predictors of condom use among a sample of 482 MSM born in Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic and living in the U...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561868/improving-critical-thinking-using-a-web-based-tutorial-environment
#14
Stephen M Wiesner, J D Walker, Craig R Creeger
With a broad range of subject matter, students often struggle recognizing relationships between content in different subject areas. A scenario-based learning environment (SaBLE) has been developed to enhancing clinical reasoning and critical thinking among undergraduate students in a medical laboratory science program and help them integrate their new knowledge. SaBLE incorporates aspects of both cognitive theory and instructional design, including reduction of extraneous cognitive load, goal-based learning, feedback timing, and game theory...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546307/right-lateral-cerebellum-represents-linguistic-predictability
#15
Elise Lesage, Peter C Hansen, R Chris Miall
Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#16
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
July 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527318/activating-analytic-thinking-enhances-the-value-given-to-individualizing-moral-foundations
#17
Onurcan Yilmaz, S Adil Saribay
Two central debates within Moral Foundations Theory concern (1) which moral foundations are core and (2) how conflict between ideological camps stemming from valuing different moral foundations can be resolved. Previous studies have attempted to answer the first question by imposing cognitive load on participants to direct them toward intuitive and automatic thought. However, this method has limitations and has produced mixed findings. In the present research, in two experiments, instead of directing participants toward intuitive thought, we tested the effects of activating high-effort, analytic thought on participants' moral foundations...
August 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490247/effects-of-valent-image-based-secondary-tasks-on-verbal-working-memory
#18
Phillip L Morgan, Craig Williams, Fay M Ings, Nia C Hughes
Two experiments examined if exposure to emotionally valent image-based secondary tasks introduced at different points of a free recall working memory (WM) task impair memory performance. Images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS: Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2008) varied in the degree of negative or positive valance (mild, moderate, strong) and were positioned at low, moderate, and high WM load points with participants rating them based upon perceived valence. As predicted, and based on previous research and theory, the higher the degree of negative (Experiment 1) and positive (Experiment 2) valence and the higher the WM load when a secondary task was introduced, the greater the impairment to recall...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472546/an-exploration-of-anatomists-views-toward-the-use-of-body-painting-in-anatomical-and-medical-education-an-international-study
#19
Natalie E Cookson, Justine J Aka, Gabrielle M Finn
Previous research has explored the experiences of medical students using body painting as a learning tool. However, to date, faculty experiences and views have not been explored. This international qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach with data collection through interviews with academics and clinicians who utilized body painting as part of their anatomical teaching. Twenty-six anatomists participated in the study from 14 centers worldwide. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the efficacy of body painting, (2) the promotion of knowledge retention and recall, (3) considerations and practicalities regarding the use of body painting as a teaching tool...
May 4, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446941/use-and-communication-of-probabilistic-forecasts
#20
Adrian E Raftery
Probabilistic forecasts are becoming more and more available. How should they be used and communicated? What are the obstacles to their use in practice? I review experience with five problems where probabilistic forecasting played an important role. This leads me to identify five types of potential users: Low Stakes Users, who don't need probabilistic forecasts; General Assessors, who need an overall idea of the uncertainty in the forecast; Change Assessors, who need to know if a change is out of line with expectatations; Risk Avoiders, who wish to limit the risk of an adverse outcome; and Decision Theorists, who quantify their loss function and perform the decision-theoretic calculations...
December 2016: Statistical Analysis and Data Mining
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