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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430880/cerebral-abscess-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteremias-hypoxemia-and-iron-loading-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-right-to-left-shunting-through-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#1
E J Boother, S Brownlow, H C Tighe, K B Bamford, J E Jackson, C L Shovlin
Background: Cerebral abscess is a recognised complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with CT-scan confirmed PAVMs (including 403 (90.5%) with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430031/evaluation-of-multidimensional-models-of-wais-iv-subtest-performance
#2
Dennis J McFarland
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the extent to which the covariance structure of the WAIS-IV is best accounted for by models that assume that test performance is the result of group-level factors and multiple independent general factors. METHOD: Structural models with one to four general factors were evaluated with either four or five group-level factors. Simulations based on four general factors were run to clarify the adequacy of the estimates of the allocation of covariance by the models...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429289/the-nature-and-consequences-of-cognitive-deficits-among-tobacco-smokers-with-hiv-a-comparison-to-tobacco-smokers-without-hiv
#3
Joseph D Harrison, Jessica A Dochney, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Anita Hole, Karam Mounzer, Steven Siegel, Robert A Schnoll, Rebecca L Ashare
HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n = 103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n = 70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426702/natalizumab-stabilizes-physical-cognitive-mri-and-oct-markers-of-disease-activity-a-prospective-non-randomized-pilot-study
#4
Garrick D Talmage, Oscar J M Coppes, Adil Javed, Jacqueline Bernard
Natalizumab is an effective therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in several clinical and imaging studies. The objective of this study was to further demonstrate the efficacy of natalizumab using a comprehensive battery of clinical and imaging markers in the same cohort of patients followed longitudinally, hence capturing the multi-faceted nature of the MS disease process. A prospective, open-label, pilot study of 20 MS patients treated with natalizumab was conducted. High resolution MRI, Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) scans were obtained at baseline, 48, and 96 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#6
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420973/no-overt-effects-of-a-6-week-exergame-training-on-sensorimotor-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#7
Madeleine Ordnung, Maike Hoff, Elisabeth Kaminski, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418869/development-of-a-taiwan-cancer-related-fatigue-cognition-questionnaire-reliability-and-validity
#8
Shih-Chiung Lai, Wei-Chun Lin, Chien-Hsin Chen, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: We prospectively designed a Taiwan cancer-related fatigue cognition questionnaire, version 1.0 (TCRFCQ-V1.0), for Taiwanese patients with cancer and investigated the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. RESULTS: The completion rate of the TCRFCQ-V1.0 was high (97% of the patients completed all items), and the rate of missing data was low (0.2%-1.1% for each item). Moreover, the Cronbach alpha value was 0.889. We eliminated 5 items because their respective Cronbach alpha values were higher than the total mean value of Cronbach's alpha...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413999/improving-sensitivity-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-cognitive-load-dual-task-gait-speed-assessment
#9
Rebecca K MacAulay, Mark T Wagner, Dana Szeles, Nicholas J Milano
OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413166/health-literacy-scale-and-causal-model-of-childhood-overweight
#10
Ungsinun Intarakamhang, Patrawut Intarakamhang
BACKGROUND: WHO focuses on developing health literacy (HL) referring to cognitive and social skills. Our objectives were to develop a scale for evaluating the HL level of Thai childhood overweight, and develop a path model of health behavior (HB) for preventing obesity. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This research used a mixed method. Overall, 2,000 school students were aged 9 to 14 yr collected by stratified random sampling from all parts of Thailand in 2014...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412320/glibenclamide-ameliorates-cerebral-edema-and-improves-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-status-epilepticus
#11
Zhenzhou Lin, Hua Huang, Yong Gu, Kaibin Huang, Yafang Hu, Zhong Ji, Yongming Wu, Shengnan Wang, Tingting Yang, Suyue Pan
Glibenclamide (GBC), a sulfonylurea receptor 1 blocker, emerges recently as a promising neuron protectant in various neurological disorders. This study aimed to determine whether GBC improves survival and neurological outcome of status epilepticus (SE). Male Sprague-Dawley rats successfully undergoing SE for 2.5 h (n = 134) were randomly assigned to GBC or vehicle group. Rats in the GBC group received a loading dose of 10 μg/kg of GBC, followed by 1.2 μg/6 h for 3 days, while same dose of vehicle was used as control...
April 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410659/early-onset-alzheimer-disease
#12
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), with onset in individuals younger than 65 years, although overshadowed by the more common late-onset AD (LOAD), differs significantly from LOAD. EOAD comprises approximately 5% of AD and is associated with delays in diagnosis, aggressive course, and age-related psychosocial needs. One source of confusion is that a substantial percentage of EOAD are phenotypic variants that differ from the usual memory-disordered presentation of typical AD. The management of EOAD is similar to that for LOAD, but special emphasis should be placed on targeting the specific cognitive areas involved and more age-appropriate psychosocial support and education...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408292/threat-distractor-and-perceptual-load-modulate-test-retest-reliability-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-response
#13
Nora Bunford, Kerry L Kinney, Jamie Michael, Heide Klumpp
Accumulating data from fMRI studies implicate the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in inhibition of attention to threat distractors that compete with task-relevant goals for processing resources. However, little data is available on the reliability of rACC activation. Our aim in the current study was to examine test-retest reliability of rACC activation over a 12-week period, in the context of a validated emotional interference paradigm that varied in perceptual load. During functional MRI, 23 healthy volunteers completed a task involving a target letter in a string of identical letters (low load) or in a string of mixed letters (high load) superimposed on angry, fearful, and neutral face distractors...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401693/assessing-person-centredness-developing-the-updated-valuing-patients-as-individuals-scale-uvpais-for-use-in-an-adult-acute-hospital-setting-using-exploratory-factor-analysis
#14
Martyn C Jones, Brian Williams, Janice Rattray, Steve MacGillivray, Debbie Baldie, A-R Abubakari, Joanne Coyle, Susan Mackie, Eileen McKenna
BACKGROUND: Healthcare in the United Kingdom and beyond is required to deliver high quality, person-centred care that is clinically effective and safe. However, patient experience is not uniform, and complaints often focus on the way patients have been treated. Legislation in United Kingdom requires health services to gather and use patients' evaluations of care to improve services. OBJECTIVES: To update and re-validate the Valuing Patients as Individuals Scale for use as a patient appraisal of received healthcare...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400716/evaluation-of-the-display-of-cognitive-state-feedback-to-drive-adaptive-task-sharing
#15
Michael C Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen
This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400302/decreased-comfort-food-intake-and-allostatic-load-in-adolescents-carrying-the-a3669g-variant-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene
#16
Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Roberta Dalle Molle, Tania Diniz Machado, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Andressa Bortoluzzi, Rudineia Toazza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Marilyn Agranonik, Luciano Minuzzi, Robert D Levitan, Augusto Buchweitz, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
BACKGROUND: The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes...
April 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399031/the-advance-care-planning-readiness-scale-development-and-validation-of-a-measure-of-willingness-to-discuss-and-acceptance-of-end-of-life-care-in-gynecologic-cancer-patients
#17
Alaina J Brown, Megan Johnson Shen, Diana Urbauer, Jolyn Taylor, Patricia A Parker, Cindy Carmack, Lauren Prescott, Carly Rosemore, Elizabeth Kolawole, Charlotte Sun, Lois Ramondetta, Diane C Bodurka
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to develop and validate a scale that assesses the readiness of gynecologic oncology patients to engage in advance care planning. METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Readiness Scale (ACPRS) was validated across 3 independent samples of gynecologic oncology patients. In step I, patients underwent cognitive interviewing to determine if the scale items were comprehensible and applicable to patients. Based on this, modifications to the scale (addition, removal, and merger of items) were completed...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397076/neural-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-auditory-cortex-during-speech-production
#18
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Recent models of speech production suggest that motor commands generate forward predictions of the auditory consequences of those commands, that these forward predications can be used to monitor and correct speech output, and that this system is hierarchically organized (Hickok, Houde, & Rong, Neuron, 69(3), 407--422, 2011; Pickering & Garrod, Behavior and Brain Sciences, 36(4), 329--347, 2013). Recent psycholinguistic research has shown that internally generated speech (i.e., imagined speech) produces different types of errors than does overt speech (Oppenheim & Dell, Cognition, 106(1), 528--537, 2008; Oppenheim & Dell, Memory & Cognition, 38(8), 1147-1160, 2010)...
April 10, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396254/mildly-deleterious-mitochondrial-dna-variants-are-less-frequent-in-healthy-older-individuals-but-not-more-prevalent-in-alzheimer-s-patients
#19
Ilse S Pienaar, Neil Howell, Joanna L Elson
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) association studies have been conducted for over a decade using the haplogroup (lineage) association method, but this frequently produces conflicting results. Here we analyzed complete mtDNA sequence data of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and aged controls, from the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US), using a new "mutational load" method. We calculated a pathogenicity score for each of the non-synonymous substitutions of the mtDNA sequences to produce a "total mutational load" for each sequence, and compared the mutational loads of cases and controls...
April 7, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#20
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
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