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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634458/phone-conversation-while-processing-information-chronometric-analysis-of-load-effects-in-everyday-media-multitasking
#1
Michael B Steinborn, Lynn Huestegge
This is a pilot study that examined the effect of cell-phone conversation on cognition using a continuous multitasking paradigm. Current theorizing argues that phone conversation affects behavior (e.g., driving) by interfering at a level of cognitive processes (not peripheral activity) and by implying an attentional-failure account. Within the framework of an intermittent spare-utilized capacity threading model, we examined the effect of aspects of (secondary-task) phone conversation on (primary-task) continuous arithmetic performance, asking whether phone use makes components of automatic and controlled information-processing (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633613/thermal-effects-on-cognition-a-new-quantitative-synthesis
#2
José Ignacio López-Sánchez, P A Hancock
There is little doubt that increases in thermal load beyond the thermo-neutral state prove progressively stressful to all living organisms. Increasing temperatures across the globe represent in some locales, and especially for outdoors workers, a significant source of such chronic load increase. However, increases in thermal load affect cognition as well as physical work activities. Such human cognition has perennially been viewed as the primary conduit through which to solve many of the iatrogenic challenges we now face...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632394/changes-in-eating-behaviors-of-children-with-obesity-in-response-to-carbohydrate-modified-and-portion-controlled-diets
#3
Shelley Kirk, Jessica G Woo, Bonnie Brehm, Stephen R Daniels, Brian E Saelens
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether two distinct carbohydrate (CHO)-modified diets and a standard portion-controlled (PC) diet differentially impacted children's eating behaviors and whether eating behavior scores predicted lower BMI among children with obesity. METHODS: Children (n = 102) aged 7-12 years with obesity were randomly assigned to a 12-month intervention of a low-carbohydrate (LC), reduced glycemic load (RGL), or standard PC diet...
June 20, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632053/the-effect-of-a-secondary-cognitive-task-on-landing-mechanics-and-jump-performance
#4
Boyi Dai, Ross F Cook, Elizabeth A Meyer, Yvonne Sciascia, Taylour J Hinshaw, Chaoyi Wang, Qin Zhu
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur during jump-landing tasks when individuals' attention is simultaneously allocated to other objects and tasks. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of allocation of attention imposed by a secondary cognitive task on landing mechanics and jump performance. Thirty-eight recreational athletes performed a jump-landing task in three conditions: no counting, counting backward by 1 s from a randomly given number, and counting backward by 7 s from a randomly given number...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631094/post-translational-remodeling-of-ryanodine-receptor-induces-calcium-leak-leading-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits
#5
Alain Lacampagne, Xiaoping Liu, Steven Reiken, Renaud Bussiere, Albano C Meli, Inger Lauritzen, Andrew F Teich, Ran Zalk, Nathalie Saint, Ottavio Arancio, Charlotte Bauer, Fabrice Duprat, Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann, Michael L Shelanski, Frederic Checler, Mounia Chami, Andrew R Marks
The mechanisms underlying ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) are still not well understood. Here, we show that neuronal RyR2 channels undergo post-translational remodeling (PKA phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in brains of AD patients, and in two murine models of AD (3 × Tg-AD, APP (+/-) /PS1 (+/-)). RyR2 is depleted of calstabin2 (KFBP12.6) in the channel complex, resulting in endoplasmic reticular (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) leak. RyR-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak activates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways, contributing to AD pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631005/phonological-working-memory-for-words-and-nonwords-in-cerebral-cortex
#6
Tyler K Perrachione, Satrajit S Ghosh, Irina Ostrovskaya, John D E Gabrieli, Ioulia Kovelman
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the brain bases of phonological working memory (the short-term maintenance of speech sounds) using behavioral tasks analogous to clinically sensitive assessments of nonword repetition. The secondary purpose of the study was to identify how individual differences in brain activation were related to participants' nonword repetition abilities. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neurophysiological response during a nonword discrimination task derived from standard clinical assessments of phonological working memory...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection%C3%AF-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#7
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628395/evaluation-of-a-companion-robot-based-on-field-tests-with-single-older-adults-in-their-homes
#8
Katalin Zsiga, András Tóth, Tamás Pilissy, Orsolya Péter, Zoltán Dénes, Gábor Fazekas
The growing number of older adults places insurmountable load on family members and professional caregivers. Assistive technology with the aid of robots can present a possible solution. The goal of this article was to test a companion robot supporting older adults in their home environments. Eight senior volunteers were involved in the field test. They all lived alone and were self-supporting. The robot was capable of providing cognitive assistance to manage the user's daily routine. Each participant used the robot for 94...
June 19, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626421/divergent-metabolic-regulation-of-autophagy-and-mtorc1-early-events-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Mai A Shafei, Matthew Harris, Myra E Conway
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease associated with the production and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles, which lead to synaptic and neuronal damage. Reduced autophagic flux has been widely associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AV), which has been proposed to contribute to aggregate build-up observed in AD. As such, targeting autophagy regulation has received wide review, where an understanding as to how this mechanism can be controlled will be important to neuronal health...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619180/are-the-insomnia-severity-index-and-pittsburgh-sleep-quality-index-valid-outcome-measures-for-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-inquiry-from-the-perspective-of-response-shifts-and-longitudinal-measurement-invariance-in-their-chinese-versions
#10
Po-Yi Chen, Ya-Wen Jan, Chien-Ming Yang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) are valid outcome measures for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). Specifically, we tested whether the factorial parameters of the ISI and the PSQI could remain invariant against CBT-I, which is a prerequisite to using their change scores as an unbiased measure of the treatment outcome of CBT-I. METHODS: A clinical data set including scores on the Chinese versions of the ISI and the PSQI obtained from 114 insomnia patients prior to and after a 6-week CBT-I program in Taiwan was analyzed...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618192/the-patient-buddy-app-can-potentially-prevent-hepatic-encephalopathy-related-readmissions
#11
Dinesh Ganapathy, Chathur Acharya, Jatinder Lachar, Kavish Patidar, Richard K Sterling, Melanie B White, Catherine Ignudo, Swamy Bommidi, John DeSoto, Leroy R Thacker, Scott Matherly, Jawaid Shaw, Mohammad S Siddiqui, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Velimir Luketic, Hannah Lee, R Todd Stravitz, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Readmissions are a major burden in cirrhosis. A proportion of readmissions in cirrhosis, especially due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) could be avoided through patient and caregiver engagement. We aimed to define the feasibility of using the Patient Buddy App and its impact on 30-day readmissions by engaging and educating cirrhotic inpatients and caregivers in a pilot study. METHODS: Cirrhotic inpatients with caregivers were enrolled and followed for 30 days post-discharge...
June 15, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605264/testing-a-model-of-successful-aging-in-a-cohort-of-masters-swimmers
#12
David Geard, Amanda L Rebar, Peter Reaburn, Rylee A Dionigi
Due to their high physical functioning, masters athletes are regularly proposed to exemplify successful aging. However, successful aging research on masters athletes has never been undertaken using a multidimensional successful aging model. To determine the best model for future successful aging research on masters athletes we had masters swimmers self-report (N = 169, M age = 57.4 years, 61% women) subjective successful aging, and physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning. Using this data we tested one hypothesized and three alternative successful aging models...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604027/load-theory-behind-the-wheel-perceptual-cognitive-load-effects
#13
Gillian Murphy, Ciara M Greene
Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604012/optimizing-the-balance-between-task-automation-and-human-manual-control-in-simulated-submarine-track-management
#14
Stephanie I Chen, Troy A W Visser, Samuel Huf, Shayne Loft
Automation can improve operator performance and reduce workload, but can also degrade operator situation awareness (SA) and the ability to regain manual control. In 3 experiments, we examined the extent to which automation could be designed to benefit performance while ensuring that individuals maintained SA and could regain manual control. Participants completed a simulated submarine track management task under varying task load. The automation was designed to facilitate information acquisition and analysis, but did not make task decisions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603494/yxqn-reduces-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-and-cognitive-decline-in-appsweps1de9-transgenic-mice
#15
Xiaowan Wang, Runmin Song, Wenliang Lu, Ziyu Liu, Lichun Wang, Xiaojuan Zhu, Yanjun Liu, Zijie Sun, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world's most common form of dementia, in which aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is the hallmark. Unfortunately, few medicines have succeeded to completely cure AD. Yangxue Qingnao (YXQN) is a Chinese traditional medicine, and its pharmacological effect is improving cerebral blood flow. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that YXQN reduced AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment in APPswePS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice with 2 months administration. Our data showed that YXQN substantially ameliorated behavioral defects in 10-month old APP/PS1 mice using Morris Water Maze and Y-maze tests, in which the cognitive ability of YXQN high-dose group approaches to wild type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598850/recovery-from-proactive-semantic-interference-and-mri-volume-a%C3%A2-replication-and-extension-study
#16
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Steven DeKosky, Monica Rosselli, Russell Bauer, Maria Grieg-Custo, Ailyn Penate, Chunfei Li, Gabriel Lizagarra, Todd Golde, Malek Adjouadi, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: The rise in incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to efforts to advance early detection of the disease during its preclinical stages. To achieve this, the field needs to develop more sensitive cognitive tests that relate to biological markers of disease pathology. Failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI) is one such cognitive marker that is associated with volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, precuneus, and other AD-prone regions, and to amyloid load in the brain...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598287/association-between-periodontitis-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-elderly-people-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#17
José Antonio Gil-Montoya, Rocío Barrios Rodríguez, Soraya Santana, Inés Sanchez-Lara, Cristobal Carnero Pardo, Francisco Fornieles-Rubio, Juan Montes, Carlos Ramírez, Miguel Angel González-Moles, Javier S Burgos
BACKGROUND: Evidence that periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for cognitive impairment may be explained by the inflammatory hypothesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontitis is related to the amyloid-β (Aβ) load in blood and the role of any such relationship in the association between Aβ and cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed in elderly people diagnosed with cognitive impairment with or without dementia (cases) and cognitively healthy elderly people; data were collected on the medical and dental history of participants, and blood samples were drawn to determine Aβ levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596716/cognitive-reactivity-cultural-adaptation-and-psychometric-testing-of-the-persian-version-of-the-leiden-index-of-depression-sensitivity-revised-leids-r-in-an-iranian-sample
#18
Shahla Ostovar, Mariani Binti Md Nor, Mark D Griffiths, Soghra Akbari Chermahini
Cognitive reactivity (CR) to the experimental induction of sad mood has been found to predict relapse in recovered depressed patients. The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity Revised (LEIDS-R) is a self-report measure of CR. The aim of the present study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the LEIDS-R. The participants were recovered depressed and non-depressed Iranian individuals (n = 833). The analyses included content validation, factor analysis, construct validity, and reliability testing...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594866/revisiting-the-co-existence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-chronic-tic-disorder-in-childhood-the-case-of-colour-discrimination-sustained-attention-and-interference-control
#19
Henrik Uebel-von Sandersleben, Björn Albrecht, Aribert Rothenberger, Anke Fillmer-Heise, Veit Roessner, Joseph Sergeant, Rosemary Tannock, Tobias Banaschewski
OBJECTIVE: Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD) are two common and frequently co-existing disorders, probably following an additive model. But this is not yet clear for the basic sensory function of colour processing sensitive to dopaminergic functioning in the retina and higher cognitive functions like attention and interference control. The latter two reflect important aspects for psychoeducation and behavioural treatment approaches. METHODS: Colour discrimination using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue Test, sustained attention during the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR), and interference liability during Colour- and Counting-Stroop-Tests were assessed to further clarify the cognitive profile of the co-existence of ADHD and CTD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594238/on-the-selection-of-stimulus-for-the-auditory-variant-of-the-detection-response-task-method-for-driving-experiments
#20
Kristina Stojmenova, Franco Policardi, Jaka Sodnik
OBJECTIVES: The Detection Response Task (DRT) is a method for measuring attentional effects of secondary tasks on a driver's cognitive load by measuring response times and hit rates to different types of stimuli as indirect indicators of increased cognitive load. ISO 17488 (2016) standard only provides guidelines for the technical implementation and measurement methods for the visual and tactile versions (use of visual and tactile stimuli) of the DRT method. This paper presents a study with the goal of finding the most appropriate auditory stimulus for the implementation of an auditory version of the DRT method...
June 8, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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