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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547878/mesiotemporal-atrophy-and-hippocampal-diffusivity-distinguish-amnestic-from-non-amnestic-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#1
A A Hosseini, D Meng, R J Simpson, D P Auer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of clinical factors, cerebral infarcts and hippocampal damage in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes remains unclear. METHODS: Non-demented patients with carotid stenosis and recent transient ischemic attack/stroke had cognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Amnestic VCI was defined as memory impairment; non-amnestic VCI was any other subdomain impairment. Associations of MRI metrics [log-transformed total ischemic lesion load (log TILL), mesiotemporal atrophy (MTA) score, hippocampal mean diffusivity (hipMD)] with cognitive performance were assessed...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546307/the-right-lateral-cerebellum-represents-linguistic-predictability
#2
Elise Lesage, Peter C Hansen, R Chris Miall
Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content.We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544426/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genotype-modulates-working-memory-related-dorsolateral-prefrontal-response-and-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
K W Miskowiak, H L Kjaerstad, M M Støttrup, A M Svendsen, K M Demant, L K Hoeffding, T M Werge, K E Burdick, K Domschke, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, M Vinberg, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD...
May 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540926/entorhinal-cortical-deep-brain-stimulation-rescues-memory-deficits-in-both-young-and-old-mice-genetically-engineered-to-model-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Frances Xia, Adelaide Yiu, Scellig Sd Stone, Soojin Oh, Andres M Lozano, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat a variety of brain disorders and shows promise in alleviating cognitive symptoms in some AD patients (Laxton et al., 2010). We previously showed that DBS of the entorhinal cortex (EC) enhances spatial memory formation in normal (wild-type) mice (Stone et al., 2011). Here we tested the effects of EC-DBS on the progressive cognitive deficits in a genetically-based mouse model of AD...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537009/modeling-cognitive-load-effects-of-conversation-between-a-passenger-and-driver
#5
Gabriel Tillman, David Strayer, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
Cognitive load from secondary tasks is a source of distraction causing injuries and fatalities on the roadway. The Detection Response Task (DRT) is an international standard for assessing cognitive load on drivers' attention that can be performed as a secondary task with little to no measurable effect on the primary driving task. We investigated whether decrements in DRT performance were related to the rate of information processing, levels of response caution, or the non-decision processing of drivers. We had pairs of participants take part in the DRT while performing a simulated driving task, manipulated cognitive load via the conversation between driver and passenger, and observed associated slowing in DRT response time...
May 23, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537005/active-listening-delays-attentional-disengagement-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#6
Benjamin D Lester, Shaun P Vecera
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533945/the-role-of-speed-in-adhd-related-working-memory-deficits-a-time-based-resource-sharing-and-diffusion-model-account
#7
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Several recent commentaries suggest that, for psychological science to move beyond "homuncular" explanations for cognitive control, it is critically important to examine the role of basic and computationally well-defined processes (e.g. cognitive processing speed). Correlational evidence has previously linked slow speed to working memory (WM) deficits in ADHD, but the directionality of this relationship has not been investigated experimentally and the mechanisms through which speed may influence WM are unclear...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#8
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
May 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530416/assessment-centers-versus-cognitive-ability-tests-challenging-the-conventional-wisdom-on-criterion-related-validity
#9
Paul R Sackett, Oren R Shewach, Heidi N Keiser
Separate meta-analyses of the cognitive ability and assessment center (AC) literatures report higher criterion-related validity for cognitive ability tests in predicting job performance. We instead focus on 17 samples in which both AC and ability scores are obtained for the same examinees and used to predict the same criterion. Thus, we control for differences in job type and in criteria that may have affected prior conclusions. In contrast to Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) meta-analysis, reporting mean validity of ...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528773/apoe-moderates-compensatory-recruitment-of-neuronal-resources-during-working-memory-processing-in-healthy-older-adults
#10
Elisa Scheller, Jessica Peter, Lena V Schumacher, Jacob Lahr, Irina Mader, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel
The APOE ε4 allele increases the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease and modifies brain activation patterns of numerous cognitive domains. We assessed cognitively intact older adults with a letter n-back task to determine if previously observed increases in ε4 carriers' working-memory-related brain activation are compensatory such that they serve to maintain working memory function. Using multiple regression models, we identified interactions of APOE variant and age in bilateral hippocampus independently from task performance: ε4 carriers only showed a decrease in activation with increasing age, suggesting high sensitivity of fMRI data for detecting changes in Alzheimer's disease-relevant brain areas before cognitive decline...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528704/from-neuro-pigments-to-neural-efficiency-the-relationship-between-retinal-carotenoids-and-behavioral-and-neuroelectric-indices-of-cognitive-control-in-childhood
#11
Anne M Walk, Naiman A Khan, Sasha M Barnett, Lauren B Raine, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Christopher J Moulton, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, Charles H Hillman
Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528005/attentional-load-of-walking-in-children-aged-7-12-and-in-adults
#12
Guillaume Chauvel, Estelle Palluel, Arthur Brandao, Guillaume Barbieri, Vincent Nougier, Isabelle Olivier
The amount of attentional resources necessary to walk in children, and how they evolve during childhood remains unclear. This study examined children's gait parameters in different dual-task conditions. 53 children, divided into two age groups (7-9 and 10-12 years old), and 18 adults walked on a mat in three different cognitive conditions: watching a video (video condition), listening its soundtrack (audio condition), and without any additional task (control condition). Questions were asked at the end of the video and audio conditions to make sure that participants were paying attention to the stimuli...
May 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527318/activating-analytic-thinking-enhances-the-value-given-to-individualizing-moral-foundations
#13
Onurcan Yilmaz, S Adil Saribay
Two central debates within Moral Foundations Theory concern (1) which moral foundations are core and (2) how conflict between ideological camps stemming from valuing different moral foundations can be resolved. Previous studies have attempted to answer the first question by imposing cognitive load on participants to direct them toward intuitive and automatic thought. However, this method has limitations and has produced mixed findings. In the present research, in two experiments, instead of directing participants toward intuitive thought, we tested the effects of activating high-effort, analytic thought on participants' moral foundations...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527231/nordic-walking-improves-trunk-stability-and%C3%A2-gait-spatial-temporal-characteristics-in%C3%A2-people-with-parkinson-disease
#14
Marie-Anne Gougeon, Lei Zhou, Julie Nantel
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the effect of walking with Nordic walking (NW) poles on postural stability and gait spatial-temporal characteristics in individuals with PD and to determine the cognitive load associated operating the poles. METHODS: Twelve individuals with PD (age: 61.6±11.7) were asked to perform four 90 s walking trials; with/without poles and with/without verbal fluency task (category fluency) after a 6-week independent NW training. We assessed gait spatial-temporal characteristics, and trunk postural stability using the APDM accelerometry system...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#15
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523481/mild-depression-in-low-back-pain-the-interaction-of-thought-suppression-and-stress-plays-a-role-especially-in-female-patients
#16
Konietzny Kerstin, Chehadi Omar, Streitlein-Böhme Irmgard, Rusche Herbert, Willburger Roland, Hasenbring Monika Ilona
PURPOSE: Mild depression has been shown as a precursor and as a consequence of low back pain, even in early phases of acute or subacute pain. Chronic daily life stress as well as dysfunctional pain-related cognitions such as thought suppression (TS) seem to play a role in the pain-depression cycle; however, the mechanisms of these associations are less understood. Experimentally induced TS, conceived as the attempt to directly suppress sensations such as pain, has been shown to paradoxically cause a delayed and non-volitional return of the suppressed thoughts and sensations and to increase affective distress...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522640/results-of-the-2015-national-certified-pharmacy-technician-workforce-survey
#17
Shane P Desselle, Erin R Holmes
PURPOSE: The results of the 2015 National Certified Pharmacy Technician Workforce Survey are described. METHODS: A survey was e-mailed to a randomized sample of 5,000 certified pharmacy technicians (CPhTs) throughout the United States, with response reminders employed. Survey items eliciting demographic and work characteristics and work life attitudes were generated from the literature and qualitative interviews. This study aimed to describe job satisfaction, sources of stress, profession and employer commitment, education and training, and reasons for entry into the profession among CPhTs and determine relationships between those variables and CPhTs' level of involvement in various work activities, with particular attention paid to differences in practice setting...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522331/internal-mechanisms-underlying-anticipatory-language-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#18
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Jinyan Xia, Tamara Y Swaab
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts...
May 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515541/automaticity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-high-and-low-worriers
#19
Huw Goodwin, Claire Eagleson, Andrew Mathews, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch
Individuals with high levels of worry are more likely than others to attend to possible threats, although the extent of top-down attentional control processes on this bias is unknown. We compared the performance of high (n = 26) and low worriers (n = 26) on a probe discrimination task designed to assess attention to threat cues, under cognitive load or no-load conditions. The expected difference between groups was confirmed, with high worriers being more likely to attend to threat cues than low worriers...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514778/validation-of-the-five-factor-model-of-the-arabic-version-of-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-in-schizophrenia
#20
Arij Yehya, Suhaila Ghuloum, Ziyad Mahfoud, Mark Opler, Anzalee Khan, Samer Hammoudeh, Yahya Hani, Hassen Al-Amin
BACKGROUND: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a widely used assessment for patients with schizophrenia across clinical and research settings. This scale allows the classification of the psychotic symptoms to better understand the psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. There are no available data on the different components of psychopathology in Arab patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the factor structure of the validated Arabic version of the PANSS in a sample of Arab patients with schizophrenia...
May 18, 2017: Psychopathology
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