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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#1
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#2
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321887/simplification-of-visual-rendering-in-simulated-prosthetic-vision-facilitates-navigation
#3
Victor Vergnieux, Marc J-M Macé, Christophe Jouffrais
Visual neuroprostheses are still limited and simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is used to evaluate potential and forthcoming functionality of these implants. SPV has been used to evaluate the minimum requirement on visual neuroprosthetic characteristics to restore various functions such as reading, objects and face recognition, object grasping, etc. Some of these studies focused on obstacle avoidance but only a few investigated orientation or navigation abilities with prosthetic vision. The resolution of current arrays of electrodes is not sufficient to allow navigation tasks without additional processing of the visual input...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320441/decreased-cortical-fadd-protein-is-associated-with-clinical-dementia-and-cognitive-decline-in-an-elderly-community-sample
#4
Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Jesús A García-Sevilla, Alasdair M Barr, Thomas A Bayer, Peter Falkai, Sue E Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, William G Honer, M Julia García-Fuster
BACKGROUND: FADD (Fas-associated death domain) adaptor is a crucial protein involved in the induction of cell death but also mediates non-apoptotic actions via a phosphorylated form (p-Ser194-FADD). This study investigated the possible association of FADD forms with age-related neuropathologies, cognitive function, and the odds of dementia in an elderly community sample. METHODS: FADD forms were quantified by western blot analysis in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) samples from a large cohort of participants in a community-based aging study (Memory and Aging Project, MAP), experiencing no-(NCI, n = 51) or mild-(MCI, n = 42) cognitive impairment, or dementia (n = 57)...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320367/the-development-and-validation-of-the-clinicians-awareness-towards-cognitive-errors-catches-in-clinical-decision-making-questionnaire-tool
#5
Keng Sheng Chew, Yee Cheng Kueh, Adlihafizi Abdul Aziz
BACKGROUND: Despite their importance on diagnostic accuracy, there is a paucity of literature on questionnaire tools to assess clinicians' awareness toward cognitive errors. A validation study was conducted to develop a questionnaire tool to evaluate the Clinician's Awareness Towards Cognitive Errors (CATChES) in clinical decision making. METHODS: This questionnaire is divided into two parts. Part A is to evaluate the clinicians' awareness towards cognitive errors in clinical decision making while Part B is to evaluate their perception towards specific cognitive errors...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315460/classification-and-characterization-of-periventricular-and-deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-a-study-in-older-adults
#6
REVIEW
Ludovica Griffanti, Mark Jenkinson, Sana Suri, X X, Abda Mahmood, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Anya Topiwala, Charlotte Allan, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently divided into periventricular (PWMH) and deep (DWMH), and the two classes have been associated with different cognitive, microstructural, and clinical correlates. However, although this distinction is widely used in visual ratings scales, how to best anatomically define the two classes is still disputed. In fact, the methods used to define PWMH and DWMH vary significantly between studies, making results difficult to compare. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to compare four current criteria used to define PWMH and DWMH in a cohort of healthy older adults (mean age: 69...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314160/difference-in-imaging-biomarkers-of-neurodegeneration-between-early-and-late-onset-amnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Anne-Laure Aziz, Bernard Giusiano, Sven Joubert, Lauréline Duprat, Mira Didic, Claude Gueriot, Lejla Koric, José Boucraut, Olivier Felician, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Eric Guedj, Mathieu Ceccaldi
Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory...
February 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303728/how-can-we-overcome-neuropsychological-adverse-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#8
Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
Antiepileptic pharmacotherapy can have a negative or positive impact on cognition and behavior. Besides individual susceptibilities (in terms of idiosyncratic reactions), the risk of adverse drug effects largely depends on treatment decisions. Therefore practical strategies to prevent neuropsychological side effects comprise (1.) selecting antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with superior neuropsychological side effect profiles, (2.) restricting the individual drug load (target doses and number of concurrent AEDs), (3...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302372/experiences-during-newborn-screening-for-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-diagnosis-treatment-genotype-phenotype-and-outcomes
#9
Fang-Chih Tsai, Han-Jui Lee, An-Guor Wang, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Yung-Hsiu Lu, Ming-Che Lee, Ju-Shan Pai, Tzu-Hung Chu, Chia-Feng Yang, Ting-Rong Hsu, Chih-Jou Lai, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Ping-Hsun Ho, Min-Chieh Lin, Ling-Yee Cheng, Ya-Chin Chuang, Dau-Ming Niu
BACKGROUND: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an organic acidemia with potentially severe neurological sequelae. In Taiwan, newborn screening (NBS) for GA-1 began in 2001, but large-scale reporting is lacking. This study describes Taiwan's largest newborn screening population to date. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2015, 1,490,636 newborns were screened for GA-1. Confirmatory examinations included the carnitine loading test. Confirmed patients were treated with a low lysine diet, carnitine, and high-energy intake during illness...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301531/the-myopia-of-crowds-cognitive-load-and-collective-evaluation-of-answers-on-stack-exchange
#10
Keith Burghardt, Emanuel F Alsina, Michelle Girvan, William Rand, Kristina Lerman
Crowds can often make better decisions than individuals or small groups of experts by leveraging their ability to aggregate diverse information. Question answering sites, such as Stack Exchange, rely on the "wisdom of crowds" effect to identify the best answers to questions asked by users. We analyze data from 250 communities on the Stack Exchange network to pinpoint factors affecting which answers are chosen as the best answers. Our results suggest that, rather than evaluate all available answers to a question, users rely on simple cognitive heuristics to choose an answer to vote for or accept...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299954/working-memory-load-affects-repetitive-behaviour-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-adolescent-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Nicole Wolff, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste, Veit Roessner
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with repetitive and stereotyped behaviour, suggesting that cognitive flexibility may be deficient in ASD. A central, yet not examined aspect to understand possible deficits in flexible behaviour in ASD relates (i) to the role of working memory and (ii) to neurophysiological mechanisms underlying behavioural modulations. METHODS: We analysed behavioural and neurophysiological (EEG) correlates of cognitive flexibility using a task-switching paradigm with and without working memory load in adolescents with ASD and typically developing controls (TD)...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298876/does-reading-words-differing-in-arousal-load-influence-interference-control-in-flanker-task
#12
Kamil K Imbir
Arousal involves a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It could be treated also as an energetic property of stimulation. On the basis of previous findings concerning affective state modulation of spatial processing, I predict that arousal impact will follow the Yerkes-Dodson law. To test this hypothesis, 135 words were chosen and divided into three levels of arousal (low, medium and high), whilst controlling for valence, concreteness, frequency of appearance and length...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296650/improving-handoffs-curricula-instructional-techniques-from-cognitive-load-theory
#13
John Q Young, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Victoria Ruddick, David M Irby, Olle Ten Cate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293162/ensemble-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-complex-graph-measures-from-diffusion-tensor-images
#14
Ashkan Ebadi, Josué L Dalboni da Rocha, Dushyanth B Nagaraju, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Ivanei Bramati, Gabriel Coutinho, Ranganatha Sitaram, Parisa Rashidi
The human brain is a complex network of interacting regions. The gray matter regions of brain are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. In this article, we report our investigation about the potential of applying brain connectivity patterns as an aid in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We performed pattern analysis of graph theoretical measures derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data representing structural brain networks of 45 subjects, consisting of 15 patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 patients of MCI, and 15 healthy subjects (CT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293044/amyloid-beta-immunotherapy-the-hope-for-alzheimer-disease
#15
REVIEW
Alvaro Barrera-Ocampo, Francisco Lopera
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia of adult-onset, characterized by progressive impairment in cognition and memory. There is no cure for the disease and the current treatments are only symptomatic. Drug discovery is an expensive and time-consuming process; in the last decade no new drugs have been found for AD despite the efforts of the scientific community and pharmaceutical companies. The Aβ immunotherapy is one of the most promising approaches to modify the course of AD. This therapeutic strategy uses synthetic peptides or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to decrease the Aβ load in the brain and slow the progression of the disease...
December 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292203/simple-screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-routine-hiv-outpatient-care-is-it-deliverable
#16
Sarah Parry, Sarah Zetler, Anna Kentridge, Jenny Petrak, Tristan Barber
Routine screening for psychological and cognitive difficulties is recommended in BHIVA guidelines but screening questions are not specified and studies give varied recommendations. Our aim was to see if simple screening in the routine clinic could help better direct our referrals to psychology and highlight those patients requiring, and likely to benefit from, further assessment. We introduced brief questions to assess neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and mood into routine HIV visits, with an onward referral pathway for further investigation for those screening positive...
March 14, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291859/short-dental-implants-retaining-two-implant-mandibular-overdentures-in-very-old-dependent-patients-radiologic-and-clinical-observation-up-to-5-years
#17
Sabrina Maniewicz, Ramona Buser, Elena Duvernay, Lydia Vazquez, Angelica Loup, Thomas V Perneger, Martin Schimmel, Frauke Müller
PURPOSE: To describe the survival rate and peri-implant bone loss in very old patients dependent for their activities of daily living (ADL), treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IODs) in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients received two interforaminal Straumann implants (Regular Neck, 4.1 mm diameter, 8 mm length) that were subsequently loaded with Locator attachments, transforming their preexisting inferior conventional denture into an IOD...
March 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290127/jumping-the-gun-faster-response-latencies-to-deceptive-questions-in-a-realistic-scenario
#18
Tessa Mapala, Lara Warmelink, Sally A Linkenauger
Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283019/why-sample-selection-matters-in-exploratory-factor-analysis-implications-for-the-12-item-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-2-0
#19
Cadeyrn J Gaskin, Sylvie D Lambert, Steven J Bowe, Liliana Orellana
BACKGROUND: Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society), performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate...
March 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282070/-rational-use-of-psychotropic-medications-and-sedative-load-in-older-adults-with-and-without-dementia
#20
María L Rattagan, Darío Lisei, Galeno J Rojas, Gabriel G Persi, Virginia L Parisi, Martín López Vicchi, Gustavo Da Prat de Magalhaes, María Bres Bullrich, Emilia M Gatto
Sedative drugs use has been associated with more cognitive impairment and increased mortality. Sedative load refers to cumulative exposure to multiple drugs with sedative properties. OBJECTIVE: Describe the use of psychotropic drugs and sedative load in older adults with and without dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2014-2015 (Sanatorio Trinidad Mitre), in hospitalized patients older than 65 years old. Drugs were classified according to the WHO ATC system...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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