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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818990/clinical-use-and-utility-of-amyloid-imaging
#1
Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri
Currently, three amyloid PET tracers are approved and commercially available for clinical use. They allow for the accurate in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical use and utility of amyloid imaging. Appropriate use criteria for the clinical application of amyloid imaging are established, and most currently available data point to their validity. Visual amyloid image analysis is highly standardized. Disclosure of amyloid imaging results is desired by many cognitively impaired subjects, and seems to be safe once appropriate education is delivered to the disclosing clinicians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#2
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815130/ground-truth-creation-for-complex-clinical-nlp-tasks-an-iterative-vetting-approach-and-lessons-learned
#3
Jennifer J Liang, Ching-Huei Tsou, Murthy V Devarakonda
Natural language processing (NLP) holds the promise of effectively analyzing patient record data to reduce cognitive load on physicians and clinicians in patient care, clinical research, and hospital operations management. A critical need in developing such methods is the "ground truth" dataset needed for training and testing the algorithms. Beyond localizable, relatively simple tasks, ground truth creation is a significant challenge because medical experts, just as physicians in patient care, have to assimilate vast amounts of data in EHR systems...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814466/interaction-of-induced-anxiety-and-verbal-working-memory-influence-of-trait-anxiety
#4
Nilam Patel, Catherine Stoodley, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may be potentiated by high trait anxiety (HTA), or show a resilient pattern that protects cognitive performance. HTA and low trait anxiety (LTA) were defined by a median split of scores on the trait component of the state-trait anxiety inventory...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813956/semi-autonomous-mobility-assistance-for-power-wheelchair-users-navigating-crowded-environments
#5
Daniel Ashley, Kyle Ashley, Redwan Alqasemi, Rajiv Dubey
Power wheelchair users suffering from cognitive or physical impairment often face difficulties in maneuvering their wheelchairs through crowded environments. Currently, users need to be continuously aware of all traffic around them to actively avoid all collisions. This is an especially difficult task since many wheelchair users are unable to accurately view or perceive their surroundings. Additionally, imprecise joystick control, slowed reaction time, or imperfect interpretation of the environment can lead to unintended collisions with objects in the environment...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813919/adding-navigation-artificial-audition-and-vital-sign-monitoring-capabilities-to-a-telepresence-mobile-robot-for-remote-home-care-applications
#6
Sebastien Laniel, Dominic Letourneau, Mathieu Labbe, Francois Grondin, Janice Polgar, Francois Michaud
A telepresence mobile robot is a remote-controlled, wheeled device with wireless internet connectivity for bidirectional audio, video and data transmission. In health care, a telepresence robot could be used to have a clinician or a caregiver assist seniors in their homes without having to travel to these locations. Many mobile telepresence robotic platforms have recently been introduced on the market, bringing mobility to telecommunication and vital sign monitoring at reasonable costs. What is missing for making them effective remote telepresence systems for home care assistance are capabilities specifically needed to assist the remote operator in controlling the robot and perceiving the environment through the robot's sensors or, in other words, minimizing cognitive load and maximizing situation awareness...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809700/cognitive-cost-of-using-augmented-reality-displays
#7
James Baumeister, Seung Youb Ssin, Neven A M ElSayed, Jillian Dorrian, David P Webb, James A Walsh, Timothy M Simon, Andrew Irlitti, Ross T Smith, Mark Kohler, Bruce H Thomas
This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808136/eplant-visualizing-and-exploring-multiple-levels-of-data-for-hypothesis-generation-in-plant-biology
#8
Jamie Waese, Jim Fan, Asher Pasha, Hans Yu, Geoffrey Fucile, Ruian Shi, Matthew Cumming, Lawrence Kelley, Michael Sternberg, Vivek Krishnakumar, Erik Ferlanti, Jason Miller, Chris Town, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger, Nicholas J Provart
A big challenge in current systems biology research arises when different types of data must be accessed from separate sources and visualized using separate tools. The high cognitive load required to navigate such a workflow is detrimental to hypothesis generation. Accordingly, there is a need for a robust research platform that incorporates all data, and provides integrated search, analysis, and visualization features through a single portal. Here, we present ePlant (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant), a visual analytic tool for exploring multiple levels of Arabidopsis data through a zoomable user interface...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805564/deep-brain-stimulation-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#9
Elliot Hogg, Jeffrey Wertheimer, Sarah Graner, Michele Tagliati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Several brain targets, including the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus internus, have been successfully employed, with excellent motor outcomes. Despite less established knowledge, DBS may be a powerful tool for managing a wide variety of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in PD patients, either directly or indirectly due to motor benefit or reduction of dopaminergic drug load. After an assessment of global nonmotor outcomes of DBS, as measured by currently available clinical scales and questionnaires, this chapter will address DBS effects on four main NMS categories: neurobehavioral, including cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction, sleep disturbances, including insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder, and restless leg syndrome, to conclude with sensory symptoms, mainly focusing on pain...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803374/let-me-be-your-guide-physical-guidance-improves-spatial-learning-for-older-adults-with-simulated-low-vision
#10
Erica M Barhorst-Cates, Kristina M Rand, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
Monitoring one's safety during low vision navigation demands limited attentional resources which may impair spatial learning of the environment. In studies of younger adults, we have shown that these mobility monitoring demands can be alleviated, and spatial learning subsequently improved, via the presence of a physical guide during navigation. The present study extends work with younger adults to an older adult sample with simulated low vision. We test the effect of physical guidance on improving spatial learning as well as general age-related changes in navigation ability...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803119/the-effects-of-low-intensity-cycling-on-cognitive-performance-following-sleep-deprivation
#11
Alexis B Slutsky, Jed A Diekfuss, James A Janssen, Nate T Berry, Chia-Hao Shih, Louisa D Raisbeck, Laurie Wideman, Jennifer L Etnier
This study examined the effect of 24h of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and assessed the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance following sleep deprivation. Young, active, healthy adults (n=24, 14 males) were randomized to control (age=24.7±3.7years, BMI=27.2±7.0) or exercise (age=25.3±3.3years, BMI=25.6±5.1) groups. Cognitive testing included a 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), three memory tasks with increasing cognitive load, and performance of the PVT a second time. On morning one, cognitive testing followed a typical night's sleep...
August 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802460/are-the-warning-icons-more-attentional
#12
Jin Tao, Niu Yafeng, Zhou Lei
The rapid growth of attention to visual warnings is a representation of the adaptive behavior of humans. However, the ways warning icons attract attention in the cognition context has yet to be clarified. This research aims to investigate cognitive mechanism of warning icons under various perceptual loads. The results of Experiment A, whose average attentional capture effect of the warning icons (69 ms) was significantly higher than that of the ordinary icons (35 ms), show that compared with ordinary icons, warning icons are prioritized in processing under both high and low perceptual loads...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802454/a-novel-low-cost-solution-for-driving-assessment-in-individuals-with-and-without-disabilities
#13
Jakob Rodseth, Edward P Washabaugh, Ali Al Haddad, Paula Kartje, Denise G Tate, Chandramouli Krishnan
Brake reaction time is a key component to studying driving performance and evaluating fitness to drive. Although commercial simulators can measure brake reaction time, their cost remains a major barrier to clinical access. Therefore, we developed open-source software written in C-sharp (C#) for measuring driving related reaction times, which includes a subject-controlled vehicle with straight-line dynamics and several testing scenarios. The software measures both simple and cognitive load based reaction times and can use any human interface device compliant steering wheel and pedals...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802436/quantifying-the-cognitive-cost-of-laparo-endoscopic-single-site-surgeries-gaze-based-indices
#14
Leandro L Di Stasi, Carolina Díaz-Piedra, Juan Francisco Ruiz-Rabelo, Héctor Rieiro, Jose M Sanchez Carrion, Andrés Catena
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800717/multidimensional-inventory-of-hypochondriacal-traits-an-examination-of-a-bifactor-model-and-measurement-invariance-between-those-with-and-without-a-self-reported-medical-condition
#15
Joseph R Bardeen, Thomas A Fergus
The Multidimensional Inventory of Hypochondriacal Traits (MIHT) is a self-report measure that assesses four interrelated domains of health anxiety (i.e., Cognitive, Behavioral, Perceptual, Affective). Prior research has supported a correlated four-factor model, as well as a hierarchical model, in which each of the four factors load onto the higher order health anxiety construct. However, a bifactor modeling approach has yet to be used to examine the factor structure of the MIHT. Results supported a bifactor model of the MIHT in three different samples (i...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799509/update-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#16
Edoardo Ferlazzo, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Felix Felix Nitschke, Saija Ahonen, Sara Gasparini, Berge A Minassian
BACKGROUND: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare inherited diseases featuring a combination of myoclonus, seizures and variable degree of cognitive impairment. Despite extensive investigations, a large number of PMEs remain undiagnosed. In this review, we focus on the current pharmacological approach to PMEs. METHODS: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until February 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782592/resveratrol-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-attenuate-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-dementia-by-activating-nrf2-ho1-pathway
#17
Aarti Yadav, Aditya Sunkaria, Nitin Singhal, Rajat Sandhir
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared were 286 nm in size and had 91.25% drug encapsulation efficiency with sustained release...
August 4, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775181/exploring-the-patient-perspective-of-fatigue-in-adults-with-visual-impairment-a-qualitative-study
#18
Wouter Schakel, Christina Bode, Hilde P A van der Aa, Carel T J Hulshof, Judith E Bosmans, Gerardus H M B van Rens, Ruth M A van Nispen
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue is an often mentioned symptom by patients with irreversible visual impairment. This study explored the patient perspective of fatigue in visually impaired adults with a focus on symptoms of fatigue, causes, consequences and coping strategies. SETTING: Two large Dutch low vision multidisciplinary rehabilitation organisations. PARTICIPANTS: 16 visually impaired adults with severe symptoms of fatigue selected by purposive sampling...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771976/hdac3-negatively-regulates-spatial-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Xiaolei Zhu, Sulei Wang, Linjie Yu, Jiali Jin, Xing Ye, Yi Liu, Yun Xu
The accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD, while the specific HDAC isoforms associated with cognitive improvement are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the role of HDAC3 in the pathogenesis of AD. Nuclear HDAC3 is significantly increased in the hippocampus of 6- and 9-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice compared with that in age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
August 3, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#20
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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