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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782313/kainic-acid-impairs-the-memory-behavior-of-app23-mice-by-increasing-brain-amyloid-load-through-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism
#1
Yang Ruan, Shi-Jie Guo, Xu Wang, Dong Dong, Dong-Hui Shen, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Yu Zheng
Kainic acid (KA) was recently identified as an epileptogenic and neuroexcitotoxic agent that is responsible for inducing learning and memory deficits in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which KA acts upon AD remains unclear. To this end, we presently investigated the roles of KA in processing amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) loads during the course of AD development and progression. Specifically, KA treatment clearly caused the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) via activation of the PI3-K/AKT, ERK1/2, and p65 pathways in glial cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780314/effects-of-age-and-working-memory-load-on-syntactic-processing-an-event-related-potential-study
#2
Graciela C Alatorre-Cruz, Juan Silva-Pereyra, Thalía Fernández, Mario A Rodríguez-Camacho, Susana A Castro-Chavira, Javier Sanchez-Lopez
Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM) decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun), in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774001/cognitive-motor-interference-in-an-ecologically-valid-street-crossing-scenario
#3
Christin Janouch, Uwe Drescher, Konstantin Wechsler, Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Laboratory-based research revealed that gait involves higher cognitive processes, leading to performance impairments when executed with a concurrent loading task. Deficits are especially pronounced in older adults. Theoretical approaches like the multiple resource model highlight the role of task similarity and associated attention distribution problems. It has been shown that in cases where these distribution problems are perceived relevant to participant's risk of falls, older adults prioritize gait and posture over the concurrent loading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770467/anticholinergic-load-negatively-correlates-with-recovery-of-cognitive-activities-of-daily-living-for-geriatric-patients-after-stroke-in-the-convalescent-stage
#4
E Kose, T Hirai, T Seki, S Hidaka, T Hamamoto
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. METHOD: Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768278/lower-plasma-klotho-concentrations-are-associated-with-vascular-dementia-but-not-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Gloria Brombo, Francesco Bonetti, Beatrice Ortolani, Mario Luca Morieri, Cristina Bosi, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni B Vigna, Caterina Borgna, Maria Vittoria Arcidicono, Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: The protein Klotho is involved in biological processes related to longevity, cardiovascular health, and cognition. Serum Klotho levels have been associated with better cognition in animal models; moreover, lower Klotho concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from subjects with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been reported. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to examine the possible relationship between Klotho plasma concentrations and cognitive status in the elderly...
May 16, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767302/amyloid-causes-intermittent-network-disruptions-in-cognitively-intact-older-subjects
#6
Susanne G Mueller
Recent findings in AD models but also human patients suggest that amyloid can cause intermittent neuronal hyperactivity. The overall goal of this study was to use dynamic fMRI analysis combined with graph analysis to a) characterize the graph analytical signature of two types of intermittent hyperactivity (spike-like (spike) and hypersynchronus-like (synchron)) in simulated data and b) to attempt to identify one of these signatures in task-free fMRIs of cognitively intact subjects (CN) with or without increased brain amyloid...
May 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764872/development-and-testing-of-the-youth-alcohol-norms-survey-yans-instrument-to-measure-youth-alcohol-norms-and-psychosocial-influences
#7
Sharyn K Burns, Bruce Maycock, Janina Hildebrand, Yun Zhao, Steve Allsop, Roanna Lobo, Peter Howat
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. SETTING: The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761974/-the-analysis-of-event-related-potentials-in-normal-brain-aging-based-on-n-back-cognitive-tasks
#8
Cong Liu, Xiaodong Xu, Haoyun Dai, Fengzhen Hou
The purpose of this study is to investigate the change of the whole brain event-related potentials(P300) in normal brain aging based on N-back cognitive tasks. The P300 of 15 normal young people and 10 normal old people were evaluated based on N-back cognitive tasks and analyzed. The results showed that the P300 latency of old people was longer in whole brain than young people, and amplitude was increased in the frontal-central region, while significantly increased in the pre-frontal region in the same load cognitive tasks...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752516/dual-tracer-tau-pet-imaging-reveals-different-molecular-targets-for-11-c-thk5351-and-11-c-pbb3-in-the-alzheimer-brain
#9
Konstantinos Chiotis, Per Stenkrona, Ove Almkvist, Vladimir Stepanov, Daniel Ferreira, Ryosuke Arakawa, Akihiro Takano, Eric Westman, Andrea Varrone, Nobuyuki Okamura, Hitoshi Shimada, Makoto Higuchi, Christer Halldin, Agneta Nordberg
PURPOSE: Several tau PET tracers have been developed, but it remains unclear whether they bind to the same molecular target on the heterogeneous tau pathology. In this study we evaluated the binding of two chemically different tau-specific PET tracers (11 C-THK5351 and 11 C-PBB3) in a head-to-head, in vivo, multimodal design. METHODS: Nine patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or probable Alzheimer's disease and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence supportive of the presence of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology were recruited after thorough clinical assessment...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752306/-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B52%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-incident-ad-and-mci-cognitive-decline-and-ad-pathology-in-older-adults
#10
Shahram Oveisgharan, Aron S Buchman, Lei Yu, Jose Farfel, Vladimir Hachinski, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of the APOE ε2ε4 genotype with incident Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), cognitive decline, and AD pathology in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2,151 older adults of European ancestry who were free of dementia at baseline and underwent structured annual clinical evaluation in a longitudinal study for incident AD and MCI, and cognitive decline. Postmortem examination in decedents documented pathologic AD and quantified β-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles...
May 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750195/utilizing-sensory-prediction-errors-for-movement-intention-decoding-a-new-methodology
#11
Gowrishankar Ganesh, Keigo Nakamura, Supat Saetia, Alejandra Mejia Tobar, Eiichi Yoshida, Hideyuki Ando, Natsue Yoshimura, Yasuharu Koike
We propose a new methodology for decoding movement intentions of humans. This methodology is motivated by the well-documented ability of the brain to predict sensory outcomes of self-generated and imagined actions using so-called forward models. We propose to subliminally stimulate the sensory modality corresponding to a user's intended movement, and decode a user's movement intention from his electroencephalography (EEG), by decoding for prediction errors-whether the sensory prediction corresponding to a user's intended movement matches the subliminal sensory stimulation we induce...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748770/a-systematic-review-of-associations-between-functional-mri-activity-and-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Zalina Dezhina, Siri Ranlund, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Steve C R Williams, Danai Dima
Genetic factors account for up to 80% of the liability for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several genes associated with increased risk for both disorders. This has allowed researchers to model the aggregate effect of genes associated with disease status and create a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each individual. The interest in imaging genetics using PGRS has grown in recent years, with several studies now published. We have conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of PGRS of SCZ, BD and cross psychiatric disorders on brain function and connectivity using fMRI data...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747571/axonal-chronic-injury-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-adults-with-asymptomatic-neurocognitive-impairment-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-variables-and-cognitive-status
#13
Rui-Li Li, Jun Sun, Zhen-Chao Tang, Jing-Ji Zhang, Hong-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neurotropic virus, and it can bring about neurodegeneration and may even result in cognitive impairments. The precise mechanism of HIV-associated white matter (WM) injury is unknown. The effects of multiple clinical contributors on WM impairments and the relationship between the WM alterations and cognitive performance merit further investigation. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 20 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) adults and 20 healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745713/the-language-of-lies-behavioral-and-autonomic-costs-of-lying-in-a-native-compared-to-a-foreign-language
#14
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
Research on trustworthiness indicates that non-native speakers are perceived as less trustworthy than native speakers. Research investigating whether people do indeed lie less well in a non-native language is, however, scarce and yielded inconsistent results. Two opposing predictions are possible. Based on the idea that lying is more demanding than truth telling, the cognitive load account predicts that speaking a foreign language imposes additional cognitive load and thereby hampers lying. Based on the idea that lying is emotionally arousing and that communication in a non-native language is perceived as less emotional, the emotional distance account predicts that speaking a foreign language facilitates lying...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744894/an-examination-of-refreshing-in-between-category-sequences
#15
Naomi Langerock, David Wisniewski, Marcel Brass, Evie Vergauwe
The present study focused on refreshing within a working memory (WM) context. Refreshing refers to the mechanism that brings back information into the focus of attention in order to counteract forgetting of memory traces. Despite some research on this topic, the exact nature of refreshing remains unclear. The present study investigated refreshing by means of the cognitive load (CL) effect. This effect is typically observed in complex span tasks, which combine processing and storage demands. It refers to the observation that WM performance depends on the CL of concurrent processing, defined as the proportion of time between list items that is occupied by concurrent processing and therefore not available to refresh memory items...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744891/what-makes-working-memory-traces-stable-over-time
#16
Gabriel Jarjat, Violette Hoareau, Gaën Plancher, Pascal Hot, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
Understanding the factors that make working memory (WM) traces stable over time is important because WM is the keystone of general cognitive achievement. Two views of attentional WM maintenance have been suggested to account for the long-term retention of WM information. First, the distractors in a WM task are thought to foster the creation of episodic memory cues through covert retrieval. Second, the cognitive load (CL) of the distractors is thought to vary long-term memory instantiation. In this study, we propose an additional parsimonious perspective: the total time during which each trace is under the control of attention in WM is the key to long-term retention...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744706/altered-working-memory-processing-of-emotion-in-adolescents-with-dysphoric-symptomatology-an-eye-tracking-study
#17
Laura Wante, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
It has been suggested that altered processing of emotion during cognitive control plays an important role in the etiology of depressive symptoms. The current study investigates the influence of emotional stimuli on working memory (WM) in adolescents with dysphoric symptomatology (DS). Twenty-five adolescents with DS and 40 adolescents with no dysphoric symptomatology (NDS) completed a memory-guided eye movement task. This task assessed the influence of irrelevant affective information on WM processes during high and low cognitive load...
May 9, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740569/kinetic-analysis-of-downward-step-posture-according-to-the-foothold-heights-and-visual-information-blockage-in-cargo-truck
#18
Seung-Hyun Hyun, Che-Cheong Ryew
The study was undertaken to compare and analyze kinetic variables during downward foot-on according to the foothold heights under interrupted-visual information on 25-t cargo truck. Skilled adult male drivers (n=10) engaged in cargo truck driving over 1 year participated in the experiment. The results obtained from cinematographic and ground reaction force data during downward foot-on as follows; First, leg stiffness, peak vertical force (PVF) and loading rate showed significant difference as an increase of foothold heights, that is, interrupted-visual information showed greater impulse force than as was not...
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740371/asymmetric-spatial-processing-under-cognitive-load
#19
Lien Naert, Mario Bonato, Wim Fias
Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740350/psychometric-properties-of-the-bermond-vorst-alexithymia-questionnaire-bvaq-in-the-general-population-and-a-clinical-population
#20
Lars de Vroege, Wilco H M Emons, Klaas Sijtsma, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
Introduction: The Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) has been validated in student samples and small clinical samples, but not in the general population; thus, representative general-population norms are lacking. Aim: We examined the factor structure of the BVAQ in Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel data from the Dutch general population ( N  = 974). Results: Factor analyses revealed a first-order five-factor model and a second-order two-factor model...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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