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Cognitive Load

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331153/is-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-antipsychotic-dose-and-anticholinergic-equivalent-loads-in-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Alejandro Ballesteros, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Jose M López-Ilundain, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana M González-Pinto, Covadonga Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Elena de la Serna, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Gisela Mezquida, Miguel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328915/retrovirus-like-gag-protein-arc1-binds-rna-and-traffics-across-synaptic-boutons
#2
James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Lucia, Lee G Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson
Arc/Arg3.1 is required for synaptic plasticity and cognition, and mutations in this gene are linked to autism and schizophrenia. Arc bears a domain resembling retroviral/retrotransposon Gag-like proteins, which multimerize into a capsid that packages viral RNA. The significance of such a domain in a plasticity molecule is uncertain. Here, we report that the Drosophila Arc1 protein forms capsid-like structures that bind darc1 mRNA in neurons and is loaded into extracellular vesicles that are transferred from motorneurons to muscles...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327599/motor-skills-cognition-and-work-performance-of-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#3
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Dikla Elgerisi, Adam Easterbrook, Navah Z Ratzon
PURPOSE: Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. METHODS: Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling...
January 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324509/investigating-the-relationship-of-the-functional-gait-assessment-to-spatiotemporal-parameters-of-gait-and-quality-of-life-of-individuals-with-stroke
#4
Richard Price, Nancy Low Choy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Walking in the community is an important aspect of independence and quality of life (QOL) that poses challenges for individuals with stroke. This study investigated whether performance on the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) differentiated spatiotemporal gait parameters, QOL, and fall history of community-ambulating individuals with stroke. We hypothesized that those scoring higher on the FGA would present with better gait speed and cadence, stride width and length, and improved load time on the paretic limb, report a higher QOL, and be less likely to have a fall history than those who scored lower on the FGA...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324089/development-and-content-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-assess-moral-distress-among-social-workers-in-long-term-care-facilities
#5
Sagit Lev, Liat Ayalon
OBJECTIVE: Despite the significance of ethical issues faced by social workers, research on moral distress among social workers has been extremely limited. The aim of the current study is to describe the development and content validation of a unique questionnaire to measure moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities for older adults in Israel. METHODS: The construction of the questionnaire was based on a secondary analysis of a qualitative study that addressed the moral dilemma of social workers in nursing homes in Israel...
January 11, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320946/cognitive-demands-influence-lower-extremity-mechanics-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-task-in-female-athletes
#6
Thomas Gus Almonroeder, Thomas Kernozek, Stephen Cobb, Brooke Slavens, Jinsung Wang, Wendy Huddleston
Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The drop vertical jump task is commonly used in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk screening; however, the predictive validity is limited. Part of the limited predictive validity may be because the drop vertical jump task does not impose cognitive demands that reflect sports participation. Objectives To investigate the influence of additional cognitive demands on lower extremity mechanics during execution of the drop vertical jump task. Methods Twenty uninjured females (ages 18-25 years old) were required to perform the standard drop vertical jump task, as well as drop vertical jumps which included additional cognitive demands...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316527/contrasting-effects-of-individual-versus-combined-estrogen-and-progestogen-regimens-as-working-memory-load-increases-in-middle-aged-ovariectomized-rats-one-plus-one-does-not-equal-two
#7
Alesia V Prakapenka, Ryoko Hiroi, Alicia M Quihuis, Catie Carson, Shruti Patel, Claire Berns-Leone, Carly Fox, Rachael W Sirianni, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Most estrogen-based hormone therapies are administered in combination with a progestogen, such as Levonorgestrel (Levo). Individually, the estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) and Levo can improve cognition in preclinical models. However, although these hormones are often given together clinically, the impact of the E2 + Levo combination on cognitive function has yet to be methodically examined. Thus, we investigated E2 + Levo treatment on a cognitive battery in middle-aged, ovariectomized rats. When administered alone, E2 and Levo treatments each enhanced spatial working memory relative to vehicle treatment, whereas the E2 + Levo combination impaired high working memory load performance relative to E2 only and Levo only treatments...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305818/measuring-cognitive-load
#8
EDITORIAL
John Sweller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305817/cognitive-load-predicts-point-of-care-ultrasound-simulator-performance
#9
Sara Aldekhyl, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti, Laura M Naismith
INTRODUCTION: The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. METHODS: Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298649/an-inflammation-related-nutrient-pattern-is-associated-with-both-brain-and-cognitive-measures-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-population
#10
Yian Gu, Jennifer J Manly, Richard P Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and brain and cognitive health. It is unclear whether inflammation explains this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an inflammation-related nutrient pattern (INP) was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive measures of brain health. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study included 330 non-demented elderly (mean age 79 years at MRI scan) participants in a multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study who had information on nutritional intakes (estimated from food frequency questionnaire), circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (measured by ELISA), MRI scans, and cognition...
January 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289801/cognitive-impairment-clinical-severity-and-mri-changes-in-melas-syndrome
#11
Torsten Kraya, Lena Neumann, Yvonne Paelecke-Habermann, Marcus Deschauer, Dietrich Stoevesandt, Stephan Zierz, Stefan Watzke
OBJECTIVE: To examine clinical severity, cognitive impairment, and MRI changes in patients with MELAS syndrome. METHODS: Cognitive-mnestic functions, brain MRI (lesion load, cella media index) and clinical severity of ten patients with MELAS syndrome were examined. All patients carried the m.3243A>G mutation. RESULTS: The detailed neuropsychological assessment revealed cognitive deficits in attention, executive function, visuoperception, and -construction...
December 28, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289335/cognitive-consequences-of-the-left-right-asymmetry-of-atrophy-in-semantic-dementia
#12
Anna M Woollams, Karalyn Patterson
Semantic dementia (SD) is a condition in which atrophy to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) produces a selective deterioration of conceptual knowledge. As this atrophy is always bilateral but usually asymmetrical, differences in performance of the two SD subgroups-with left > right (L > R) versus right > left (R > L) atrophy-constitute a major source of evidence regarding the roles of the left and right sides of this region. We explored this issue using large scale case-series methodology, with a pool of 216 observations of neuropsychological data from 72 patients with SD...
December 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288683/what-is-difficult-for-you-can-be-easy-for-me-effects-of-increasing-individual-task-demand-on-prefrontal-lateralization-a-tdcs-study
#13
A Vergallito, Leonor J Romero Lauro, Rolando Bonandrini, Laura Zapparoli, Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri
Neuroimaging studies suggest that increment of the cognitive load associated with a specific task may induce the recruitment of a more bilateral brain network. In most studies, however, task demand has been manipulated in a static and pre-specified way, regardless of individual cognitive resources. Here we implemented a new paradigm based on a pre-experimental assessment to set up subject-specific levels of task demand and applied tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) to assess each hemisphere involvement in task performance...
December 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283279/virtual-peer-delivered-memory-intervention-a-single-case-experimental-design-in-an-adolescent-with-chronic-memory-impairment
#14
Janine M Cooper, Stephen Lockett, Alissandra McIlroy, Linda Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with chronic memory impairment may develop coping strategies that enable functioning, yet these often remain undetectable using traditional psychometric measures. Personalized intervention studies that promote the use of such strategies designed specifically for use by this young cohort are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a novel virtual reality peer-delivered memory intervention on the everyday functioning and well-being of SE, a 17-year-old female with a history of chronic verbal memory issues, impaired autobiographical event recall and elevated mood symptoms...
December 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282900/barriers-to-effective-case-management-for-disabled-patients-on-hemodialysis
#15
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Yumiko Shimizu, Tamaki Kumagai, Hiroaki Sugisaki, Seiji Ohira, Toshio Shinoda
The present study examined the performance level and its related factors on the process of case management for disabled patients on hemodialysis. Case management performance was evaluated at three stages: patient assessment, making a care plan, and monitoring/evaluation. Candidates for targeting the factors relating to performance included four dimensions: nursing care level, physical malfunction, cognitive malfunction, and barriers to service were used as patient factors; the period of case management for the patient and the knowledge of dialysis emerged as case manager factors; work load was included as an organizational factor; and community resources for these services and communication with surrounding persons were included as system factors...
December 28, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278697/downregulation-of-5-hydroxytryptamine7-receptor-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-ameliorates-impulsive-actions-in-animal-models-of-schizophrenia
#16
Junhui Liu, Wei Zhang, Jinteng Feng, Min Jia, Guangjian Zhang, Xiaopeng Wen
5-hydroxytryptamine7 (5-HT7) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) play a critical role in complex cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. The mouse model of schizophrenia was established through the neonatal administration of phencyclidine (nPCP). Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockdown was used to investigate the role of mPFC 5-HT7 receptor in the schizophrenia-like symptoms in mice. Under baseline conditions in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), nPCP produced a significant attentional impairment that was exacerbated when mice were tested under LITI...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277285/the-effects-of-working-memory-load-and-attention-refocusing-on-delay-discounting-rates-in-alcohol-use-disorder-with-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#17
Rachel L Gunn, Kyle R Gerst, Allison J Lake, Peter R Finn
Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. The current study examined the effects of an attention refocusing manipulation to offset the effects of this WM-load on DD rates in control subjects, those with AUDs without AP, and AUDs with AP (AUD-AP)...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276735/circuit-and-synaptic-mechanisms-of-repeated-stress-perspectives-from-differing-contexts-duration-and-development
#18
REVIEW
Kevin G Bath, Scott J Russo, Kristen E Pleil, Eric S Wohleb, Ronald S Duman, Jason J Radley
The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was "Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods" and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress) on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273382/a%C3%AE-oligomer-eliminating-compounds-interfere-successfully-with-pea%C3%AE-3-42-induced-motor-neurodegenerative-phenotype-in-transgenic-mice
#19
Tina Dunkelmann, Kerstin Teichmann, Tamar Ziehm, Sarah Schemmert, Daniel Frenzel, Markus Tusche, Christina Dammers, Dagmar Jürgens, Karl-Josef Langen, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Nadim Jon Shah, Janine Kutzsche, Antje Willuweit, Dieter Willbold
Currently, there are no causative or disease modifying treatments available for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, it has been shown that D3, a small, fully d-enantiomeric peptide is able to eliminate low molecular weight Aβ oligomers in vitro, enhance cognition and reduce plaque load in AD transgenic mice. To further characterise the therapeutic potential of D3 towards N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ (pEAβ(3-42)) we tested D3 and its head-to-tail tandem derivative D3D3 both in vitro and in vivo in the new mouse model TBA2...
November 27, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261429/baseline-intraocular-pressure-is-associated-with-subjective-sensitivity-to-physical-exertion-in-young-males
#20
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, José Antonio García, José Cesar Perales, David Cárdenas
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate the effect of physical effort (cycling for 60 min at 60 ± 5% of individually computed reserve heart-rate capacity), combined with 2 different levels of cognitive demand (2-back, oddball), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and subjective judgments of perceived exertion (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]), affect (Affective Valence subscale of the Self-Assessment Manikin [SAM]), and mental workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index [NASA-TLX]); and (b) ascertain whether baseline IOP, measured before exercise, is associated with individual differences in subjective assessments of effort and affective response during exercise...
December 20, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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