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Trial sequential analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340272/reml-blup-and-sequential-path-analysis-in-estimating-genotypic-values-and-interrelationships-among-simple-maize-grain-yield-related-traits
#1
T Olivoto, M Nardino, I R Carvalho, D N Follmann, M Ferrari, V J Szareski, A J de Pelegrin, V Q de Souza
Methodologies using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP) in combination with sequential path analysis in maize are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to use REML/BLUP-based procedures in order to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and genotypic values of simple maize hybrids, and ii) to fit stepwise regressions considering genotypic values to form a path diagram with multi-order predictors and minimum multicollinearity that explains the relationships of cause and effect among grain yield-related traits...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329026/the-effect-of-early-versus-late-initiation-of-renal-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-meta-analysis-with-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Yan-Mei Feng, Yuan Yang, Xiao-Li Han, Fan Zhang, Dong Wan, Rui Guo
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing for initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using PUBMED, Cochrane Library databases, and Web of Science (from January 1, 1985, to August 21, 2016). Adult patients with AKI who received RRT with different timing were included. The primary outcome was mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326681/population-pharmacokinetics-of-selumetinib-and-its-metabolite-n-desmethyl-selumetinib-in-adult-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors-and-children-with-low-grade-gliomas
#3
Y T Patel, V M Daryani, P Patel, D Zhou, J Fangusaro, D J Carlile, P D Martin, L Aarons, C F Stewart
Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886), a mitogen activated protein kinases (MEK1 and 2) inhibitor, has been granted orphan drug designation for differentiated thyroid cancer. The primary aim of this analysis was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of selumetinib and its active metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib in patients with cancer. Concentration-time data from adult and pediatric clinical trials were pooled to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using a sequential approach where selumetinib and N-desmethyl-selumetinib data were modeled separately...
March 22, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323515/a-nested-group-sequential-framework-for-regional-evaluation-in-global-drug-development-program
#4
William Wang, Zhiwei Jiang, Jingjun Qiu, Jielai Xia, Xiang Guo
The primary objective of a multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) is to assess the efficacy of all participating regions and evaluate the probability of applying the overall results to a specific region. The consistency assessment of the target region with the overall results is the most common way of evaluating the efficacy in a specific region. Recently, Huang et al. (2012) proposed an additional trial in the target region to an MRCT to evaluate the efficacy in the target ethnic (TE) population under the framework of simultaneous global drug development program (SGDDP)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321877/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-b-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Apart from chronic HBV infection, the complications related to acute HBV infection are severe acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis characterised by liver failure. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HBV infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HBV infection through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available treatments according to their safety and efficacy...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315586/sucralfate-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-in-adult-critically-ill-patients-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#6
Mustafa Alquraini, Fayez Alshamsi, Morten Hylander Møller, Emilie Belley-Cote, Saleh Almenawer, Roman Jaeschke, Robert MacLaren, Waleed Alhazzani
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of using sucralfate versus H2RAs for SUP on patient important outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACPJC, clinical trials registries, and conference proceedings through June 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sucralfate to H2RAs for SUP in adult critically ill patients. RESULTS: 21 RCTs enrolling 3121 patients met inclusion criteria. There was no significant difference between sucralfate compared to H2RAs in the risk of clinically important GI bleeding (risk ratio [RR] 1...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303625/eradication-rate-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-is-directly-influenced-by-adherence-to-therapy-in-children
#7
Kallirroi Kotilea, Joyce Mekhael, Assaad Salame, Tania Mahler, Veronique Yvette Miendje-Deyi, Samy Cadranel, Patrick Bontems
BACKGROUND: Current commonly accepted strategies to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in children are a 10-day sequential treatment or a triple therapy for 7-14 days. To avoid further expensive and possibly risky investigations as well as induction of secondary antimicrobial resistance, a success rate of elimination strategies over 90% in a per-protocol analysis is the target goal but rates observed in clinical trials are lower. Antimicrobial resistance is a well-recognized risk factor for treatment failure; therefore, only a treatment tailored to susceptibility testing should be recommended...
March 17, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298050/intra-articular-steroid-injection-for-frozen-shoulder
#8
Yaying Sun, Peng Zhang, Shaohua Liu, Hong Li, Jia Jiang, Shiyi Chen, Jiwu Chen
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular steroid injection is a common intervention for frozen shoulder (FS). PURPOSE: This review aimed to illustrate the effects of intra-articular steroid injection for FS. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intra-articular steroid injection with no injection or sham injections for FS...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288837/can-cranberries-contribute-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-urinary-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#9
Ângelo Luís, Fernanda Domingues, Luísa Pereira
PURPOSE: To clarify the association between cranberries intake and the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: It was performed a systematic review, complied with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) statement, followed by a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) of clinical trials. RESULTS: The results clearly show the potential use of cranberries in a clinical condition of UTI...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282371/increasing-efficiency-of-preclinical-research-by-group-sequential-designs
#11
Konrad Neumann, Ulrike Grittner, Sophie K Piper, Andre Rex, Oscar Florez-Vargas, George Karystianis, Alice Schneider, Ian Wellwood, Bob Siegerink, John P A Ioannidis, Jonathan Kimmelman, Ulrich Dirnagl
Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281295/management-of-people-with-intermediate-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Davide Roccarina, Avik Majumdar, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: There is significant uncertainty in the treatment of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma which is defined by the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) as hepatocellular carcinoma stage B with large, multi-nodular, Child-Pugh status A to B, performance status 0 to 2, and without vascular occlusion or extrahepatic disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different interventions used in the treatment of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (BCLC stage B) through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280362/sequential-treatment-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-and-platinum-based-doublet-chemotherapy-on-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Lifen Qiao, Jin Wang, Guoxian Long, Yueqiang Jiang
There is debate surrounding which treatment is superior in overall survival (OS) rates in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) followed by second-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PCT), or the reverse sequence. Cross treatment of first- and second-line TKI and PCT makes it difficult to deduce which sequence (TKI-PCT or PCT-TKI) is better for OS. Using the keywords "lung cancer" and "EGFR" we identified clinical trials within the PubMed database which were published between January 2006 and November 2016...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273330/interventions-for-hereditary-haemochromatosis-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Elena Buzzetti, Maria Kalafateli, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hereditary haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder related to proteins involved in iron transport, resulting in iron load and deposition of iron in various tissues of the body. This iron overload leads to complications including liver cirrhosis (and related complications such as liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma), cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, impotence, diabetes, arthritis, and skin pigmentation. Phlebotomy (venesection or 'blood letting') is the currently recommended treatment for hereditary haemochromatosis...
March 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273133/postoperative-pain-treatment-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review
#15
Anders Peder Højer Karlsen, Mik Wetterslev, Signe Elisa Hansen, Morten Sejer Hansen, Ole Mathiesen, Jørgen B Dahl
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review was to document efficacy, safety and quality of evidence of analgesic interventions after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: This PRISMA-compliant and PROSPERO-registered review includes all-language randomized controlled trials of medication-based analgesic interventions after TKA. Bias was evaluated according to Cochrane methodology. Outcomes were opioid consumption (primary), pain scores at rest and during mobilization, adverse events, and length of stay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269555/feature-domain-specific-movement-intention-detection-for-stroke-rehabilitation-with-brain-computer-interfaces
#16
J T Hadsund, M B Sorensen, A C Royo, I K Niazi, H Rovsing, C Rovsing, M Jochumsen
Brain-computer interface (BCI) driven electrical stimulation has been proposed for neuromodulation for stroke rehabilitation by pairing intentions to move with somatosensory feedback from electrical stimulation. Movement intentions have been detected in several studies using different techniques, with temporal and spectral features being the most common. A few studies have compared temporal and spectral features, but conflicting results have been reported. In this study, the aim was to investigate if complexity measures can be used for movement intention detection and to compare the detection performance based on features extracted from three different domains (time, frequency and complexity) from single-trial EEG...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267205/external-beam-radiotherapy-for-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Zeinab Elsayed
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common liver neoplasm, the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Moreover, its incidence has increased dramatically in the past decade. While surgical resection and liver transplantation are the main curative treatments, only around 20% of people with early hepatocellular carcinoma may benefit from these therapies. Current treatment options for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma include various ablative and transarterial therapies in addition to the drug sorafenib...
March 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264715/the-effects-of-rhythm-control-strategies-versus-rate-control-strategies-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-atrial-flutter-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#18
Naqash J Sethi, Sanam Safi, Emil E Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia of the heart with a prevalence of approximately 2% in the western world. Atrial flutter, another arrhythmia, occurs less often with an incidence of approximately 200,000 new patients per year in the USA. Patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter have an increased risk of death and morbidities. The management of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter is often based on interventions aiming at either a rhythm control strategy or a rate control strategy...
March 6, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264661/trial-sequential-analysis-in-systematic-reviews-with-meta-analysis
#19
Jørn Wetterslev, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors)...
March 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258777/multiple-risk-behavior-interventions-meta-analyses-of-rcts
#20
REVIEW
Nick Meader, Kristelle King, Kath Wright, Hilary M Graham, Mark Petticrew, Chris Power, Martin White, Amanda J Sowden
CONTEXT: Multiple risk behaviors are common and associated with developing chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, or Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of the effectiveness of multiple risk behavior interventions was conducted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Six electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched to August 2016. RCTs of non-pharmacologic interventions in general adult populations were selected...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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