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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677368/in-vivo-characterization-of-spontaneous-retinal-neovascularization-in-the-mouse-eye-by-multifunctional-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Marco Augustin, Matthias Wechdorn, Ulrike Pfeiffenberger, Tanja Himmel, Stanislava Fialová, René M Werkmeister, Christoph K Hitzenberger, Martin Glösmann, Bernhard Baumann
Purpose: To investigate the early development of spontaneous retinal neovascularization in the murine retina by a multifunctional optical coherence tomography approach. To characterize involved tissue changes in vivo and describe structural and functional changes over time. Methods: A multifunctional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system providing 3-fold contrast comprising reflectivity, polarization sensitivity, and OCT angiography (OCTA) was utilized to image very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) knockout mice...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667915/chronic-lithium-treatment-induces-novel-patterns-of-pendrin-localization-and-expression
#2
Nathaniel J Himmel, Yirong Wang, Daniel A Rodriguez, Michael A Sun, Mitsi A Blount
Prolonged lithium treatment is associated with various renal side effects and is known to induce inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) remodeling. In animals treated with lithium, the fraction of intercalated cells (ICs), which are responsible for acid-base homeostasis, increases as compared to renal principal cells (PCs). In order to investigate the intricacies of lithium-induced IMCD remodeling, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a lithium-enriched diet for 0,1, 2, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. Urine osmolality was decreased at 1 week, and from 2-12 weeks, animals were severely polyuric...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629094/the-lewis-superacid-al-n-c-6-f-5-2-3-and-its-higher-homolog-ga-n-c-6-f-5-2-3-structural-features-theoretical-investigation-and-reactions-of-a-metal-amide-with-higher-fluoride-ion-affinity-than-sbf-5
#3
J F Kögel, D A Sorokin, A Khvorost, M Scott, K Harms, D Himmel, I Krossing, J Sundermeyer
Herein we present the synthesis of the two Lewis acids Al[N(C6 F5 )2 ]3 (ALTA) and Ga[N(C6 F5 )2 ]3 (GATA) via salt elimination reactions. The metal complexes were characterized by NMR-spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis revealing the stabilization of the highly Lewis acidic metal centers by secondary metal-fluorine contacts. The Lewis acidic properties of Al[N(C6 F5 )2 ]3 and Ga[N(C6 F5 )2 ]3 are demonstrated by reactions with Lewis bases resulting in the formation of metallates accompanied by crucial structural changes...
January 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567941/engineering-enhanced-cellobiohydrolase-activity
#4
Larry E Taylor, Brandon C Knott, John O Baker, P Markus Alahuhta, Sarah E Hobdey, Jeffrey G Linger, Vladimir V Lunin, Antonella Amore, Venkataramanan Subramanian, Kara Podkaminer, Qi Xu, Todd A VanderWall, Logan A Schuster, Yogesh B Chaudhari, William S Adney, Michael F Crowley, Michael E Himmel, Stephen R Decker, Gregg T Beckham
Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 cellobiohydrolases (GH7 CBHs) catalyze cellulose depolymerization in cellulolytic eukaryotes, making them key discovery and engineering targets. However, there remains a lack of robust structure-activity relationships for these industrially important cellulases. Here, we compare CBHs from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) and Penicillium funiculosum (PfCel7A), which exhibit a multi-modular architecture consisting of catalytic domain (CD), carbohydrate-binding module, and linker. We show that PfCel7A exhibits 60% greater performance on biomass than TrCel7A...
March 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561012/understanding-titanium-catalysed-radical-radical-reactions-a-dft-study-unravels-the-complex-kinetics-of-ketone-nitrile-couplings
#5
Jan Streuff, Daniel Himmel, Sara L Younas
The computational investigation of a titanium-catalysed reductive radical-radical coupling is reported. The results match the conclusions from an earlier experimental study and enable a further interpretation of the previously observed complex reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the interplay between neutral and cationic reaction pathways in titanium(iii)-catalysed reactions is investigated for the first time. The results show that hydrochloride additives and reaction byproducts play an important role in the respective equilibria...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516559/exploring-the-efficacy-of-reintegrative-shaming-for-non-predatory-offending
#6
Chivon H Fitch, Zavin Nazaretian, Devon Himmel
BACKGROUND: Since Braithwaite advanced reintegrative shaming theory about 25 years ago, the theory has almost invariably been retested only in relation to predatory offending. Few studies have tested the relevance of the theory for non-predatory offending. AIM: This study aims to explore the utility of reintegrative shaming theory in explaining non-predatory crimes. Our main research question was: is acknowledgement of shame apportioned by others associated with reduction in non-predatory offending? METHODS: We used zero-inflated negative binomial modelling to analyse data from a national, longitudinal, population-based study of 1,726 adolescents...
March 8, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490518/european-17-countries-consensus-endorses-more-approaches-to-apd-than-reported-in-wilson-2018
#7
Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Martin Ptok, Helen Grech, Ellen Raben Pedersen, André Brechmann, Naïma Deggouj, Christiane Kiese-Himmel, Mariola S Liwin Ska-Kowalska, Andreas Nickisch, Laurent Demanez, Evelyne Veuillet, Hung Thai-Van, Tony Sirimanna, Marina Callimachou, Rosamaria Santarelli, Sandra Kuske, Jose Juan Barajas de Prat, Mladen Hedever, Ozlem Konukseven, Dorothy Veraguth, Tone Stokkereit Mattsson, Jorge Humberto Martins, Doris-Eva Bamiou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478056/choosing-home-hemodialysis-a-critical-review-of-patient-outcomes
#8
Brent W Miller, Rainer Himmele, Dixie-Ann Sawin, Jeeseon Kim, Robert J Kossmann
BACKGROUND/AIM: Home hemodialysis (HHD) has been associated with improved clinical outcomes vs. in-center HD (ICHD). The prevalence of HHD in the United States is still very low at 1.8%. This critical review compares HHD and ICHD outcomes for survival, hospitalization, cardiovascular (CV), nutrition, and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Of 545 publications identified, 44 were not selected after applying exclusion criteria. A systematic review of the identified publications was conducted to compare HHD to ICHD outcomes for survival, hospitalization, CV outcomes, nutrition, and QoL...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457854/metal-cluster-models-for-heterogeneous-catalysts-a-matrix-isolation-perspective
#9
Hans-Jörg Himmel, Olaf Hübner
Metal cluster models are of high relevance for establishing new mechanistic concepts for heterogeneous catalysis. The high reactivity and particular selectivity of metal clusters is caused by the wealth of low-lying electronically excited states that are often thermally populated. Thereby the metal clusters are flexible with regard to its electronic structure and can adjust their states to be appropriate for the reaction with a particular substrate. The matrix isolation technique is ideally suited for studying excited state reactivity...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448288/-apd-in-first-graders-which-tests-discriminate-between-normal-and-impaired-children
#10
Andreas Nickisch, Franziska Werner, Christiane Kiese-Himmel
OBJECTIVE: In a controlled group comparison it was shown for 2nd, 3th and 4th graders that children with auditory processing disorders (APD) could be distinguished from those without (Non-APD) by three to four diagnostic tools. The hit rate was 93.6 % resp. 97.5 % 1, 2. The current study investigated whether such a separation is also possible in first graders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Performance of 77 first graders in two clinically and diagnostically confirmed groups (n = 40 with APD, mean age: 6...
February 15, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442341/the-influence-of-hospitalisation-on-the-initiation-continuation-and-discontinuation-of-benzodiazepines-and-z-drugs-an-observational-study
#11
Thomas Grimmsmann, Markus Harden, Thomas Fiß, Wolfgang Himmel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospitalisation influences drug therapy in ambulatory care and this influence is generally negatively perceived. The few studies that have explored changes in benzodiazepine or sleep medication use as a function of hospitalisation failed to precisely determine the hospital's role in initiating, continuing and discontinuing these drugs on a valid basis. The aim of the study was to ascertain the overall influence of hospitalisation on the prescription of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in outpatient care with a special focus on the role of different hospital departments and drug classes...
February 14, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434665/high-activity-cazyme-cassette-for-improving-biomass-degradation-in-thermophiles
#12
Roman Brunecky, Daehwan Chung, Nicholas S Sarai, Neal Hengge, Jordan F Russell, Jenna Young, Ashutosh Mittal, Patthra Pason, Todd Vander Wall, William Michener, Todd Shollenberger, Janet Westpheling, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble
Background: Thermophilic microorganisms and their enzymes offer several advantages for industrial application over their mesophilic counterparts. For example, a hyperthermophilic anaerobe, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, was recently isolated from hot springs in Kamchatka, Siberia, and shown to have very high cellulolytic activity. Additionally, it is one of a few microorganisms being considered as viable candidates for consolidated bioprocessing applications. Moreover, C. bescii is capable of deconstructing plant biomass without enzymatic or chemical pretreatment...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345706/tuning-the-nucleophilicity-of-electron-rich-diborane-4-compounds-with-bridging-guanidinate-substituents-by-substitution
#13
Julian Horn, Anna Widera, Sebastian Litters, Elisabeth Kaifer, Hans-Jörg Himmel
Diborane(4) compounds are versatile reagents in synthetic chemistry. Generally, diboranes(4) with sp2-hybridized boron atoms react as electrophiles. By contrast, the chemistry of nucleophilic diborane(4) compounds with two sp3-hybridized boron atoms is very much underdeveloped. In this work, we systematically vary the substituents of electron-rich diborane(4) compounds with bridging guanidinate substituents. In this way, five new diboranes are synthesized and fully characterized. Using quantum chemical computations, we show that the electronic properties and reactivity of these compounds can be rationally varied by the choice of substituents...
January 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344086/correlation-of-structure-function-and-protein-dynamics-in-gh7-cellobiohydrolases-from-trichoderma-atroviride-t-reesei-and-t-harzianum
#14
Anna S Borisova, Elena V Eneyskaya, Suvamay Jana, Silke F Badino, Jeppe Kari, Antonella Amore, Magnus Karlsson, Henrik Hansson, Mats Sandgren, Michael E Himmel, Peter Westh, Christina M Payne, Anna A Kulminskaya, Jerry Ståhlberg
Background: The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) TreCel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride (TatCel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum (ThaCel7A) show high sequence identity with TreCel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235721/the-ideal-ionic-liquid-salt-bridge-for-direct-determination-of-gibbs-energies-of-transfer-of-single-ions-part-ii-evaluation-of-the-role-of-ion-solvation-and-ion-mobilities
#15
Andreas Ermantraut, Valentin Radtke, Niklas Gebel, Daniel Himmel, Thorsten Koslowski, Ivo Leito, Ingo Krossing
An important intermediate goal to evaluate our concept for the assumption-free determination of single-ion Gibbs transfer energies Δtr G°(i, S1 →S2 ) is presented. We executed the crucial steps a) and b) of the methodology, described in Part I of this treatise, exemplarily for Ag+ and Cl- with S1 being water and S2 being acetonitrile. The experiments showed that virtually all parts of the liquid junction potentials (LJPs) at both ends of a salt bridge cancel, if the bridge electrolyte is an "ideal" ionic liquid, that is, one with nearly identical diffusion of anion and cation...
February 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235713/the-ideal-ionic-liquid-salt-bridge-for-the-direct-determination-of-gibbs-energies-of-transfer-of-single-ions-part-i-the-concept
#16
Valentin Radtke, Andreas Ermantraut, Daniel Himmel, Thorsten Koslowski, Ivo Leito, Ingo Krossing
Described is a procedure for the thermodynamically rigorous, experimental determination of the Gibbs energy of transfer of single ions between solvents. The method is based on potential difference measurements between two electrochemical half cells with different solvents connected by an ideal ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). Discussed are the specific requirements for the IL with regard to the procedure, thus ensuring that the liquid junction potentials (LJP) at both ends of the ILSB are mostly canceled. The remaining parts of the LJPs can be determined by separate electromotive force measurements...
February 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229855/distinct-roles-of-n-and-o-glycans-in-cellulase-activity-and-stability
#17
Antonella Amore, Brandon C Knott, Nitin T Supekar, Asif Shajahan, Parastoo Azadi, Peng Zhao, Lance Wells, Jeffrey G Linger, Sarah E Hobdey, Todd A Vander Wall, Todd Shollenberger, John M Yarbrough, Zhongping Tan, Michael F Crowley, Michael E Himmel, Stephen R Decker, Gregg T Beckham, Larry E Taylor
In nature, many microbes secrete mixtures of glycoside hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and accessory enzymes to deconstruct polysaccharides and lignin in plants. These enzymes are often decorated with N- and O-glycosylation, the roles of which have been broadly attributed to protection from proteolysis, as the extracellular milieu is an aggressive environment. Glycosylation has been shown to sometimes affect activity, but these effects are not fully understood. Here, we examine N- and O-glycosylation on a model, multimodular glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A), which exhibits an O-glycosylated carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and an O-glycosylated linker connected to an N- and O-glycosylated catalytic domain (CD)-a domain architecture common to many biomass-degrading enzymes...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213319/natural-diversity-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-48-exoglucanases-insights-from-structure
#18
Roman Brunecky, Markus Alahuhta, Deanne W Sammond, Qi Xu, Mo Chen, David B Wilson, John W Brady, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble, Vladimir V Lunin
Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213316/visualizing-chemical-functionality-in-plant-cell-walls
#19
REVIEW
Yining Zeng, Michael E Himmel, Shi-You Ding
Understanding plant cell wall cross-linking chemistry and polymeric architecture is key to the efficient utilization of biomass in all prospects from rational genetic modification to downstream chemical and biological conversion to produce fuels and value chemicals. In fact, the bulk properties of cell wall recalcitrance are collectively determined by its chemical features over a wide range of length scales from tissue, cellular to polymeric architectures. Microscopic visualization of cell walls from the nanometer to the micrometer scale offers an in situ approach to study their chemical functionality considering its spatial and chemical complexity, particularly the capabilities of characterizing biomass non-destructively and in real-time during conversion processes...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213309/structure-of-a-thermobifida-fusca-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-and-mutagenesis-of-key-residues
#20
Nathan Kruer-Zerhusen, Markus Alahuhta, Vladimir V Lunin, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble, David B Wilson
Background: Auxiliary activity (AA) enzymes are produced by numerous bacterial and fungal species to assist in the degradation of biomass. These enzymes are abundant but have yet to be fully characterized. Here, we report the X-ray structure of Thermobifida fusca AA10A (TfAA10A), investigate mutational characterization of key surface residues near its active site, and explore the importance of the various domains of Thermobifida fusca AA10B (TfAA10B). The structure of TfAA10A is similar to other bacterial LPMOs (lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases), including signs of photo-reduction and a distorted active site, with mixed features showing both type I and II copper coordination...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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